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 Volume 4, Issue 2, February 2016

SALE: $199

How to Produce an Academic Scientific Paper/Research
Abdullah Y. Samarah, Ph.D.


Abstract: Since sometimes ago I have realized the need and necessity to introduce the following topic. Due for the lack of interest, information, awareness etc. for many academic and non-academic institutions and centers, at many places in the world, we have decided to shed the light onto this important subject that many students nowadays need to learn i.e., how to produce, introduce and submit (any) academic and scientific paper/article/research in the proper way to make it recognized word wide. I also will try to give some ideas of the contents of various chapters. In addition the present paper will be useful to describe the typical structure for those who aim to go on with their postgraduate researches e.g., doctoral and master theses. Therefore, we’ve selected case study (in communication area) based on an empirical data, as example, for better clarifications and support.

Pun and (Un)Intentional Humor
Sura Dhiaa Ibraheem, Iraq
Nawal Fadhil Abbas, Ph.D. 


Abstract: Several contributions, in this century, revolve around the role which pragmatic plays in the perception and understanding of a humorous language. Pragmatically, linguists are interested in the way humor is communicated in conversations of our daily life and in the function of humorous communication like; irony, pun, teasing and joking. Only, recently, humor has gained its importance pragmatically when some authors and linguists took a few preliminary steps back in the eighties, by looking respectively at the unsaid concerning humor, the construction of comic witticism from a Grecian perspective, and the sociopragmatics of language use in jokes. The present study is intended to show how a selected literary extract can be subjected to a linguistic and a pragmatic analysis by applying the implicature theory of Grice (1975) and the incongruity theory of Kant (1790) by depending on pun as a basic mechanism to create humorous situations consciously and unconsciously. The researchers of the present study aim to investigate how pun can sometimes create intentional and unintentional humor and to differentiate between the creation of intentional humor, produced by smart characters, and unintentional humor, produced by naïve characters. Despite the fact that this study is a qualitative in nature, some tables are provided for ease of reference and to reach into a deeper, better and more comprehensible analysis.

Experimental Investigation on Drag Reduction Performance of Micro-texture on Aero Engine Blade
Saurav Bijay Koirala , China
Chen Zhang, China


Abstract: The drag reduction performance is very important for aerodynamics of aero engine blade. In order to improve the performance of the aircraft blade, the blade surface with micro-texturing can play a vital role. Hence, the following works were carried out for the investigation of drag reduction, (1)Theoretical analysis of drag reduction for micro-texturingIt was tried to be understood how the texturing could be used in order to reduce the drag. Different types of drags have different properties and different origin to them. Hence, the suitable utilization of the texturing to reduce drag was studied. (2)Geometric modeling of micro-texturing and simulation of drag reduction performanceDifferent geometric shapes and sizes of micro-texturing were considered for drag reduction on aerodynamic performance. The different shapes and sizes of textures were simulated based on the aerodynamic analyzing software FLUENT. (3)Optimization of micro-texturing and modeling of drag reduction performanceThe best performing texture design was selected for further optimization and modeling for drag reduction based on the gradient method.

The Use of Pedagogic Questions in Understanding Culture in ESL/EFL Classrooms 
Inayat Shah, Lecturer, Oman

Abstract: The present review paper aims to discuss the use and efficacy of pedagogic questions in understanding culture in English as a Second Language (ESL) and English as Foreign Language (EFL) classrooms. The ESL and EFL classrooms for adults are often culturally diverse and multifarious where students bring their individual cultural identities to the classroom. Offering a comprehensive definition of culture that encompasses various linguistic attitudes to these students can be a challenging task for any teacher. Even more challenging is the idea of raising awareness of cultural intersections in the students’ minds. In this context, drawing mainly upon Ilieva, R. (2000), this article presents a set of questions for developing learners’ intercultural understanding in the ESL and EFL contexts. An analytical set of questions relating to ESL instruction may help in dealing with culture in the context of ESL programs for adults. This article offers communicative activities formed to develop the cross-cultural understanding of students whose language levels range from beginner to intermediate. In a multi-cultural environment cross-cultural awareness of foreign language students who have never lived in another culture or even visited one, can be achieved through the set of questions posed in communicative activities that take place in a classroom. Through culture understanding the abstract knowledge of a target culture is jointly constructed in the classroom and becomes a tool not only in finding one's voice, but also in using that knowledge to act on the world. The set of questions presented in this article may be of interest to instructors, curriculum writers, students, and researchers who want to consider the ways culture is addressed in ESL/ EFL programs.

Physical Significance of Relativistic Energy and Momentum and Wave Nature of Matter 
Syed Nasir Khusro, Postdoc

Abstract: Relativist changes we observe experimentally can be predicted and calculated using mathematical equations but the actual mechanism behind these changes is not known. In this paper, I present a model which explains the physical process behind the relativistic changes in Kinetic energy, momentum and wave nature of mater. In this model, only relativistic kinetic energy and momentum are discussed other relativistic effects are not discussed.

Comprehensive Effects of LTT Conditional Treatment and Questionable Investigation on Pre-observed LPD Implementation
David Lee, Ph.D. & Associate Professor

Abstract: The particular research was completed with intention of further investigating the effects of LTT conditional treatment and questionable aspects on pre-observed LPD implementation. The research was designed and conducted in LTT and LPD advanced equipment lab and the research results showed consistency with researcher’s preliminary hypothesis and assumption with P<.01, showing a statistically significant result. The reflection, analysis and conclusion of the research was also discussed in the last part of the article for future probe into this research field for researchers all over the world.

Inspiring Activity-centered Teaching Approach in the Instruction of Teaching Task-oriented Foreign Language Learners in Remote Developing Countries
Jeannie Capparell, Ph.D. & Professor of English

Abstract: Teaching listening, speaking, reading, writing is known to be essential in foreign language instruction as these four skills play focal role in foreign language learner’s professional development. Besides, improving these four skills will enable learners’ in a few developing countries to pass national entrance exam and thus receive higher education. As a result, many English as Foreign Language (EFL) instructors all over the world started to focus on how to find effective ways to improve foreign language learner’s four skills. In this research, the researcher investigated how to inspire activity-centered teaching approach in the instruction of teaching task-oriented foreign language learners in remote developing countries. Through learning by practices, the learners gradually achieved self-study, group-operation and linguistic competence. The research results showed that by focusing task-based teaching method, the learners made great progress and thus the instruction method could be replicated in teaching foreign language learners in high schools as well as colleges worldwide.

The Constructive Cultivation of Exploring Innovative Equipment Design in Wild Field Environment 
Cooper Stynes. Ph. D. 
Kreage Sapana, Ph. D.

Abstract: Recent years, people in the field of environmental protection have gained more social and environmental awareness and more of them have paid special attention to the urgent situation of wild life preservation in the wild field environment. On one hand, with the advance of technological development, experts in this specific field started to employ innovative equipment designed particularly for wild life protection. On the other hand, intellectuals in the filed of wild life protection began to realize the importance of constructive cultivation of innovative thinking for achieving the same goal of environmental protection. Though the environmental equipment for assessment has not been fully developed, people of this filed tried to use alternative measurement method to meet the requirements of environmental protection and evaluation as an expedient.

Combination of Auto-control Model and Human-operated Machine to Achieve the Systematic 
Effects of Structural Synchronization
Cohen Gurtofson, Ph.D. 
Leach Dougles, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor

Abstract: As the process of analyzing human-operated machine is very efforts-causing and time-consuming and the result is not always satisfying compared with auto-control machine system, the researcher conducted painstaking experiment on finding a new innovative method to achieve the equivalent effects by combining of auto-control model and human-operated machine to obtain the systematic effects of structural synchronization. The research result is consistent and stable after a few trial experiments and machine monitoring. The combination results are coherent with the researcher’s theoretical predictions, analysis and conclusion and the research process could be replicated to similar field of industry for further discussion and contribution.

Effects of the Aftermath of Social Networking Sites (SSN) On Global Relationships and Future Technological 
Brown Wellman, Ph.D., Hong Kong

Abstract: Social Networking Sites (SSN) as a transparent platform for people of various nationalities to communicate and express their views has gradually become an indispensable element in our daily life of social capital building system. As a result, traditional face-t--face communication was deserted by youngsters and working class. It is believed that SSN exerted great effects on global relationship though after years of development and declining. This article aims at finding a way out for probing into future technological orientation by analyzing the positive and negative effects of the aftermath of social networking sites (SSN) on global communication, association and relationship. Finally, the researcher also raised thought-provoking questions for readers to reflect on and find methods to address.

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