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 Volume 5, Issue 4, December 2017 

SALE: $199

Negotiating Investment Protection in the EU-Mercosur Interregional Association Project: A Challenge of Global Governance
RANDRIANANTOANDRO Manantsoa Heritiana, Ph.D. Scholar
Jilin University, China
As States want to expand their scope of investigation and integration, they reinforce their powers in order to obtain a leading position in the international stage. They go through negotiation on investment protection within interregional association. This paper assumes that the interregionalism, particularly EU-Mercosur, limits the global governance. Actually, instead of creating a supranational regulation binding all actors in international scale – known as global governance – interregionalism forms multipolar world by institutionalizing the relation between regional communities and goes towards a creation of balancing power.
Shifts in Meaning Making: Impact of Context, Task and Individual Differences
Mohammed Alhuthali,  Ph.D.
Taif University, Saudi Arabia
Contemporary multimodal theory stresses how different semiotic resources can be used in meaning making. The combination of these resources (verbal and non-verbal) is described as intersemiosis. However, while context is seen as important, in practice little attention is paid to context in the presentation of research. As a result the process of resemiosis is often left implicit. This paper discusses the findings of a research design specifically focused on both intersemiosis and resemiosis in meaning making.
The Role of Woman Education in Preventing Intellectual Extremism in Society: Lecturers at University of Hail in Saudi Arabia Attitudes and Expectations

Tasneem Elkhateeb, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
Hail University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

This study aimed at investigating the role of woman education in preventing intellectual extremism in society. This study was quantitative in nature and was conducted using survey methodology. The survey will be cross-sectional because the data will be collected at one point in time. Means, Standard deviations, and one way analysis of variances (ANOVA) were utilized in this study. Means and standard deviations were used to measure the attitudes and expectations of the lecturers at university of hail in Saudi Arabia. One-way analysis were used to determine whether, at a selected probability level (α < 0.05), there are significant differences among lecturers at university of hail in Saudi Arabia attitudes and expectations. Results of this study revealed that the faculty members’ attitudes and expectations of the role of woman education in preventing intellectual extremism were in moderate levels. When attitudes of faculty members were categorized by gender, academic rank and academic discipline, the data significantly revealed that faculty members in the humanities discipline have higher attitudes than those in scientific discipline. No significant differences in attitudes of faculty members related to their gender, and academic rank. When expectations of faculty members were categorized by gender, academic rank and academic discipline, the data significantly revealed that no significant differences in expectations of faculty members toward the role of woman education in preventing intellectual extremism related to their gender, academic rank and academic discipline.  
Investigating  Translatability of Qur'anic Euphemisms into English: A Comparative Socio-Cultural  Approach

Ali Albashir Mohammed Alhaj, Ph.D. & Associate Professor
King Khalid University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Mohamoud Ali Ahmed Omer, Ph.D. & Associate Professor
Sudan University of Science and Technology, Sudan


The current study aims at comparing and assessing  three selected translations of the meanings of  Qur'anic euphemisms through analysis and comparison, in the work of Mohammed .A.S Abdel Haleem, Mohammed. M. Pickthall and Mohammed Khan and Mohammed Taj Al-Din Al-Hilali . Also, the study aims at exploring and describing how the three translators deal with the linguistic and stylistic difficulties  in their rendition of euphemisms in the Holy Quran. This has its crucial significance in achieving a better understanding on the part of the Holy Quran translators and subsequently of English readers in general  and for non- Arabic Muslims in particular,  where the Qur'anic euphemisms are concerned. The main trust of the current study is identifying and accounting for differences in the three intended translations of Qur'anic euphemisms and the reasons  behind these differences  how far the three translators are accurate in rendering them . In addition, the study is concerned with assessing the criteria and strategies adopted by the three translators in rendering Qur'anic euphemisms. The study has revealed that different translation strategies could lead to different translated versions of the same Qur'anic euphemisms. Also, cultural and stylistic differences between Arabic and English languages seem to give rise to mistranslations as far as the religious text of Qur'anic euphemisms.  It is hoped that the study will cast light on two important ideas; firstly, the translator should consult the main exegetical  when he/she tries to render the Qur'anic euphemism. Secondly, translators of the Holy Quran have to translate Qur'anic euphemisms  more accurately, therefore, gives priority to the faithfulness of the ST message.
Academic Text Formation: Perceptual Dichotomy Between Pedagogic and Learning Experiences
Zulfiqar Ahmad, Ph.D. Scholar & EFL Instructor
De Montfort University, UK


Teaching and learning how to write for academic purposes is challenging for both the teachers and the students. A number of linguistic and extra-linguistic variables are involved in the creation of texts that conform to the expectations of academic discourse community. The study used structured questionnaires on a five-point Likert Scale to gauge teachers and students' perceptions about their experiences with text formation. The results revealed a high level of perceptual dichotomy between the subjects. The study recommends a review of the academic teaching practices in the research context to fill out gaps that impede effective teaching and learning of academic writing.

The Manifestation of Creativity in Advertisement Translation: A Case Study of Coca Cola and Samsara Perfume
Ahmed Hakami, Ph. D. Scholar
State University of New York at Binghamton, USA

This study discusses the relevance of creativity during the translation process involved in translating advertisement texts. It emphasizes the importance of creativity in translating persuasion to target groups of different cultures. The study will focus on creative advertisement translations of the Coca-Cola Company, the Samsara and So Pretty French perfumes by Cartier. The study will elaborate the essential strategies used by the translators towards translating several persuasive slogans across diverse cultures. This study also ponders translation as an art of creativity based the translator’s ability to handle different cultures regarding both the target text and the source text. It is evident that culture is a major factor that can bequeath creativity to advertisement translation. The importance of ideology, sociology, and culture has been illustrated in this paper, together with how they relate to a translator’s creativity. Through translations of chosen advertisements, the study shows how creativity is a primary variable in translating persuasions to different French eras. The paper discusses various illustrations through a critical analysis of the role of symbolism and semiotics towards instilling creativity in the process of advertisement translation.

Thermodynamics Pattern of Lysozyme and α-Lactoalbumin in Water-Cosolvent Systems
Yathrib Ajaj, Ph.D. & Senior Lecturer
German University of Technology in Oman, Oman
Hermann Weingärtner, Ph.D. & Professor
Ruhr University Bochum, Germany

Handling and storing of proteins in biocompatible ionic liquids, ILs, bring forward obvious advantages over that in the conventional aqueous buffer solutions. Several ionic liquids have been shown to act as suppressors of protein aggregation and to effectively promote the in vitro refolding of denatured proteins. These effects might result from the alteration of hydration level and structural compaction of protein molecules in ionic liquids. In this paper the influence of ILs on their performance as refolding enhancers was tested. Given the potential for productive interaction between ILs and biological macromolecules, differential scanning calorimetry, and circular dicroism for studying the thermostability in ILs.

Strategy Management: Strategic Leadership in Business Organizations:
A Systematic Literature Review
Kenneth Chukwuba, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
Southwest Minnesota State University, USA
Melissa Doherty, MBA Scholar
Southwest Minnesota State University, USA




This research paper queried what is required of strategic leaders what work strategic leaders do in their organizations, and how strategic leaders are developed to be strategic leaders in their organizations. A systematic review of literature published over the past 15 years in the context of the current global competitive environment, this paper describes how strategic leaders ensure the success of organizations and summarizes common themes found in studies and other research exploring what it means to be a strategic leader. Method: We conducted a systematic literature review to identify articles pertaining to strategic leadership and business organizations. Results: Findings revealed that for organizations to be successful, strategic leaders must innovate and exhibit many traditional competencies and newer capabilities.

Does Business Competency Affect Information System (IS) Knowledge Workers’ Life Satisfaction? A Comparative Multicultural Study
Jolanta Kowal, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
University of Wrocław, Poland
Juho Mäkiö, Ph.D. & Professor
Hochschule Emden/Leer, Germany
Saikat Gochhait, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
Symbiosis Institute of Telecom Management (SIU), India

 The purpose of current study is to explore if business competency (BC) affects Life Satisfaction (LS) of knowledge workers employed in information systems (IS) in relation to different types of economies: in transition (Poland), developed (Germany), and emerging  (India). For the aim of the research the authors conducted survey using adaptations of two questionnaires: BC and LS. We investigated two dimensions of the BC and eight aspects of the LS. The necessary data were collected by random interpersonal network and sequence sampling in the frame of passive experiment design. The study was conducted among IS knowledge workers, in Poland, Germany and India. The most important findings confirmed the effects of a country and correlation between BC and LS among knowledge workers, in Germany, Poland, and India. The innovation of the research is the cross cultural approach, experimental passive design and recognition of the correlation between BC and LS.

Effects of Employee’s Commitment on Job Performance: A Case Study of Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority Islamabad (Pakistan)
Muhammad Waqas, Ph.D. Scholar
Gomal University, Pakistan
Muhammad Naeem Anjum, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
University of Sargodha, Sub-Campus Bhakkar, Pakistan
Javeria Arshad  
University of Sargodha, Sub-Campus Bhakkar, Pakistan
Aasma Irshad
Virtual University of Pakistan, Pakistan
Abdul Sattar Khan, Ph.D. & Professor
Gomal University, Pakistan



In this study, the researcher studied the effects of employee’s commitment on employee’s job performance of PNRA (Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority) employees in Islamabad, Pakistan. The interest of researcher was to analyze the employee’s commitment among PNRA employees and to form behavioral magnitudes to be hypothesized. The descriptive and inferential research methodologies were implemented in this study. A questionnaire consisted of five point Likert scale was erected and distributed among employees of PNRA Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority for collection of basic and primary data. The research hypotheses were examined using ANOVA test, T-test, Pearson Correlation and Regression Analysis. The result of this research studies shows that there is highly association between employee commitment and job performance of PNRA employees.

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