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 Volume 6, Issue 4, December 2018

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SALE: $199

The Mediating Impact of Policy Successful Development of the Handicraft Villages In Hochiminh City Vietnam
Huynh Van Hong, DBA, & Ph.D. Scholar
Malaysia University of Science and Technology (Ph.D. Candidate)
Institute of Research and Training Management Informatics (RIMIT Institute)
Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Handicrafts village (HV) is one of the most popular business models in many countries such as China, Indian, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodian, Japan, etc. Therefore, these countries have good policies to develop this business model. Besides that, it also contributes significantly to development of the economy and society for these countries. Naturally, handicrafts village is also a popular business, especially, in the rural areas, and it supports for the development of society and economy in Vietnam. In addition, many handicrafts villages should be established with high–skill and good qualifications for their employees and manufacturing sectors. The renovation has an extensive influence on craft villages by its essence of economic commodity such as application of good technology in production process. This solution is to improve the performance of craft products such as changes of living standards for workforce and protection of the environment.

Particularly, this process affects not only on social life but also cultural issues such as changes of psychological sense of village’s community, organizational structure and culture of traditional handicraft villages. Furthermore, this change has a huge impact on the contemporary social life for the nation. In that situation, the restoration and development of handicraft villages will develop in a sustainable manner, such as taidiversity of production, combining job creation and income solutions for rural workers as well as solving problems for the local environment. In the scope of this article, the author wants to study and clarify the current situations for the development of traditional crafts and trade villages in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) in the new era.

Effectiveness of Cervical and Lumbosacral Epidural Steroid Injections (ESI) in Motor Vehicle Accident (MVA) Patients
Guo Qian
University of Florida, USA

Few studies directly compare Epidural Steroid Injection (ESI) versus Conservative Physical Therapy (CT). This retrospective study aims to compare the efficacy of ESI and CT in motor vehicle accident patients, measured by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The 61 ESI+CT and 109 CT-alone procedures were selected and categorized by cervical or lumbosacral injection region. As hypothesized, VAS reduced significantly for both CT-alone group and ESI+CT group (p< 0.0001). On average, as measured by Cohen’s d, the VAS reduction was over two standard deviations in ESI+CT group but only over one standard deviation in CT-alone. Therefore, while CT is significantly effective in reducing pain, adding ESI may have increased the effect size. The mean change for Lumbosacral ESI+CT (4.242) is higher than that for Lumbosacral CT-alone (3.490) with a marginal p-value of 0.080 but not significantly different for Cervical ESI+CT (3.800) versus Cervical CT-alone (3.479).

Cardiovascular Disease Risks of Young Adults: A Health Guide for Future Professionals in Job Application and Employment
Ofelia Samar Sy, MD, MSHSM, MMHoA, PhD, FPCP,FACP, Professor

Background: Cardiovascular diseases comprise the leading cause of death worldwide. Young adults are exposed to cardiovascular risks leading to cardiovascular diseases. Upon application for job, having cardiovascular disease can lead to employment disqualification.

Objectives: the study assessed the lifestyle and exposure to cardiovascular risks of young adults as a basis for preventive programs.

Patients and Methods: This is a prospective  cross-sectional correlational study involving 673 college students, aged 18-25 years old,  who were enrolled in two Philippine schools.

Results: Respondents were mostly males, single and were from low-middle income families; 1/3 of them were already hypertensives, a few were Class 1 obese,  10% were pre-obese, and majority were of Type A personality. Favorable and unfavorable dietary habits, favorable exercise habits, adequate leisure habits, vices such as smoking, alcohol intake, hanging out in bars and pornography were identified. School A and B were comparable, except for vices. Males were more involved with physical activities, leisure and vices and single ones had more leisure and vices; Hypertensive respondents were significantly different from their normal counterparts as to age, civil status, sex, family income, diet, leisure, vices, stress and parents’ educational attainment but did not differ in parents’ employment status and physical exercise.

Conclusion: Age, civil status, sex, family income, diet, leisure, vices, stress and parents’ educational attainment are significant variables which may be cardiovascular risk factors associated with hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. A third of these young adults who are immediate job applicants are already hypertensives and at risk for cardiovascular diseases. Information-dissemination, hypertension-identification, cardiovascular risks screening  in schools and workplace and long-term multi-center follow-up cohort studies must be immediately done.


Are Arabic Curriculum and Textbooks adequate? A Critical Analysis of Arabic Teaching in Five Islamic Primary Schools in Sydney
Said Saad Al akloby, Ph.D. & Associate Professor of Education Technology
Faculty of Education, Shaqra University, Saudi Arabia
Salih Yucel, Associate Professor
Charles Sturt University and Australian Catholic University, Australia

Arabic is not just the language of the sacred texts of Islam but also the language of a civilization. To Muslims, the importance of Arabic is second only to that of religion. Historically, Muslims who emigrated established institutions for teaching Arabic as a second language. Muslims in Australia have been no exception.

This study examined 30 textbooks and curricula of Arabic language education in five Islamic primary schools in Sydney. The findings show that most of the textbooks were designed for native Arabic students and were not relevant to non-native students in Australia. Some textbooks gave no objectives, and those that did so were not clear or achievable. The format and presentation of the textbooks were generally of an acceptable standard, but the content did not address the context or proficiency levels of Muslim Australian students. More than half of the textbooks lacked Islamic vocabulary. Also, four of the schools have no clear curriculums. Only one of them has curriculum which is designed according to local students. The findings indicate that such textbooks should be designed locally by Arabic language experts in Australia.     

Disease Management Compliance Among Diabetic and Hypertensive Patients in Selected Health Facilities in the Philippines: Basis for Development of Compliance Guidelines
Ofelia Samar Sy, MD, MSHSM, MMHoA, PhD, FPCP,FACP, Professor

Background: Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are two of the most common chronic conditions that have troubled the different communities, both internationally and locally. Despite the advancement in medicine and the availability of an arsenal of treatment modalities, disease management compliance remains a problem, particularly among the Filipino community, which led to patient mortality and various complications.

Objectives: The study determined the different predictors of disease management compliance among diabetic and hypertensive Filipino patients. The results of this study will be instrumental in the development and/or refinement of existing standards in promoting patient compliance towards their treatment regimen.

Patients & Methodology: The study utilized a descriptive-correlational design among 98 purposively-selected diabetic and hypertensive patients from different health facilities in Legazpi City, Philippines. A four-part questionnaire measured the subject’s demographic and medical resource profiles, disease condition and treatment knowledge, treatment attitude, and disease management compliance.

Results: Study showed that the mean age of the Filipino diabetic and hypertensive patients was 61.7, majority were female, married, attained secondary high school, and living with a companion; the mean monthly income was PHP 16,000;  average duration of diabetes was 8 years while hypertension was 9.07 years. Regarding respondents’ medical resources, there were average of  2 medical facilities, travelled for 34 minutes and  two drugstores, travelled for 20 minutes. There was moderate compliance for disease management. The respondents have above average knowledge and satisfactory knowledge of their disease and treatment regimen. Educational attainment is slightly positively related to compliance and therefore can influence the latter.

Conclusion: Compliance of patients to their respective disease management can be attributed to their educational attainment. It can be predicted that the higher the person’s educational attainment, the more compliance will be to treatment. Moreover, the knowledge of patients regarding their disease condition and the corresponding treatment is positively correlated with treatment compliance. Patients’ treatment regimen attitude is highly correlated with compliance but not significant to conclude that it can influence compliance. Healthcare providers must implement individualized interventions and/or community-based strategies to improve compliance, through empowerment of patients from comprehensive health education guidelines.

Palliative Nursing Care as Applied to Geriatric: An Integrative Literature Review
Jefferson Garcia Guerrero, Ph.D NS, DNS, RN; Assistant Professor
Fakeeh College for Medical Sciences, Saudi Arabia

The objective of the integrative literature review is to describe and explore the current status of research evidences about palliative care as applied to geriatric population and in the nursing context.

Methods: Integrative review was conducted to determine current knowledge of the chosen topic. MEDLINE, PubMed and CINAHL online databases or systematic engine search were utilized to obtain the research articles relevant to this integrative review. The data consisted of 31 research articles about palliative care nursing.

Results: This integrative literature review revealed at least four general themes emerged in this study. Such major theme includes basic concepts of palliative care nursing, palliative care assessment, fundamental palliative care skills, and the palliative care team.

Conclusion and recommendation: The study concluded that there are only limited research findings is currently available about palliative care nursing. Therefore, future research is needed to gather information, further validity and research evidences about this emerging discipline in nursing.

Philhealth Packages Use by Filipino Senior Citizens
Ofelia Samar Sy, MD, MSHSM, MMHoA, PhD, FPCP,FACP, Professor

Background: The evolving laws on universal health coverage among the Filipino community make the program challenging. Senior citizens, in particular, are not excluded from such phenomenon and have conflicting views and attitudes towards the different PhilHealth benefits and services. Additionally, their use of these health services may greatly  vary  as  a  result of various factors.  

Objectives: The study aims to identify the different factors that influence the PhilHealth Packages utilization of Filipino senior citizens.

Patients & Methodology: A predictive-correlational study was conducted  among  78  randomly-selected senior citizens recruited from selected private and public hospitals and clinics in the Philippines. Power analysis revealed a power of 99% at a significance of 0.05. The variables were measured using a 3-part questionnaire: subject’s socio-demographics, PhilHealth Amenities Knowledge Questionnaire, and PhilHealth Amenities Attitudes Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression.

Results: Study revealed that five healthcare packages were utilized: in-patient hospital medical, in-patient hospital surgical, Z-benefits, TB-DOTS, and voluntary contraceptive surgery packages. Philhealth Amenities, Knowledge score of the Senior Citizens about Philhealth benefits was satisfactory. PhilHealth amenities knowledge score of the senior citizens was satisfactory, at 63.4%, which indicates that they have am average level of knowledge of the PhilHealth medical benefits. Nevertheless, the respondents perceived the benefits of PhilHealth amenities negatively and its disadvantages positively.

Conclusion: The utilization of senior citizens of their Philhealth medical packages was not significantly influenced by the demographic variables employed in this study such as age, gender, living arrangements, and civil status. The income of the senior citizens positively influenced the utilization of the respondents of the PhilHealth amenities. Elderly patients have a negative attitude towards the advantages of the insurance program and a positive attitude towards its disadvantages. To overcome the negative attitude towards the benefits of Philhealth amenities, an educational program was formulated for the three health facilities in this study which includes activities in different barangays and hospitals to promote utilization.

A Commentary on the Need for Fundamental Change in Recruitment and Selection Policies in the Maldives Civil Service
Mohamed Asim, Ph.D.
Management Consultant, Maldives

This commentary proposes a conceptual change of the current recruitment and selection policy of the Maldives civil service. It recommends the introduction of a policy of 'perfect fit', that ensures hiring of the most qualified and 'suitable' person, based on skills and competencies required for the job. Implementation of such a policy will ensure that the selection process is sound, with the candidate meeting all or most of the requirements specified in the person specifications of the job.

Reviewed Work: Saudi Decree Allowing Women to Drive Cars is About Politics, not Religion by Dr Haifaa Jawad
Farhan Aldhafeeri, Ph. D. Researcher
University of Birmingham, UK

The article talked about Saudi women driving cars, which has been banned for many years by Saudi scholars and the government as well, but is to be made permissible within only a relatively short time of King Salman becoming ruler. Many Saudi scholars have agreed with the decision, in line with the desire of King Salman. Thus, the issue is not a case of religion based on the issues of ijtihad, which the ruling is going on with his reason to existence or nothing, as determined by religious scholars of jurisprudence as will be explained further later on. Then the author raised the question: Why has the issue of Saudi women driving cars become acceptable when it has been rejected in the past? I think the author raises a valid point, but she has forgotten that there are other things to be considered with regard to such judgements within Islam, for example: consensus (ijma’), measurement (qiyas) and interests sent. Therefore, the statement that the prohibition was not legitimate is incorrect. I am not in a position to give evidence for each of the two groups or to explain their arguments, but I want to raise the main principles of Ijtihad cases and how such cases should be dealt with by scholars (ulama) whether in the present or in the past.

Assistive Technology for Students with Disabilities
Ali Saad Jabaar Alqahtani, Ph.D. Scholar & Lecturer
Al Baha University, Saudi Arabia

Assistive Technology (AT) plays important roles for people with disabilities. The use of AT in the schools is associated with the ability to employ suitable AT devices for all students with disabilities. In this regard, AT becomes connected with many factors that might promote or obstruct the use of AT. Teachers’ awareness of the importance of AT for students with disabilities is one of the factors that promotes the understanding of AT in the schools. there is a basic need for educators who work with IEP teams to choose suitable AT devices for students with disabilities. Teachers and students reap the benefits of AT concepts. The SETT framework is an important tool for teachers to identify the real needs of students with disabilities so as to develop appropriate systems of AT devices and services that suit the needs of each student. The WATI Quality Indicators are also important for AT users because they give detailed information about best practices.

The Impact of Social and Psychological Factors on Committing of the Crime Among Palestinian Women Inmates of the Rehabilitation and Reform Centers
Kifah Manasra, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
Al-Istiqlal University, Palestine

The study aimed to know the impact of social and psychological factors on committing of the crime among Palestinian women inmates of the rehabilitation and reform centers from their point of view. In order to achieve the aims of the study, the social survey by the sample methodology was adopted and using the questionnaire as a main tool for gathering the field data. The final sample of the study consisted of 38 women inmates. The results of the study revealed that the effect of social and psychological factors in committing crimes by the Palestinian women collectively was at a large level in the social factors, and at an average effect level in the psychological factors. The results also revealed a strong relationship between the social factors and the psychological factors. The explanatory value of the effect of the psychological factors was 56.70% in the social factors which lead to committing crimes by the Palestinian women inmates of the reform and rehabilitation centers.

Political Advertisements in Newspapers in Nigeria and Regulatory Role of APCON
Otun Olalekan, Ph.D. Scholar
Babcock University,  Nigeria
Sam Smith, Ph.D. & Faculty
National Open University (NOUN) Lagos, Nigeria

Political advertising became noticeable in Nigeria during the electioneering campaign in 1963 with skywriting, dropping of handbills and leaflets. Prior to this period, all political strategies had been limited to debates, interviews and rallies. These were supported with film shows at local schools ground and open fields and town spaces. This paper examined political advertisements in newspapers during 1964 election, first, second and third republics. It was discovered that negative advertisements in newspapers and new media became more pronounced during Nigeria’s 2015 general election between APC’s, President Muhammadu Buhari (PMB), the eventual winner and the then incumbent President, Goodluck Ebele Jonathan (GEJ) of PDP. The study concluded that political advertisements tracking is important and negative advertising promoted by political gladiators like Mr Ayodele Fayose, former Governor of Ekiti State, PDP Spokesperson, Mr Femi-Fani-Kayode (FFK) and APC Spokesman, Chief Lai Mohammed should be totally discouraged and controlled by APCON, the advertising industry regulatory body.

Web 2.0: Use of Social Media by Young Female Adults in Lagos, Nigeria
Olugbenga Popoola, Ph.D. & Research Scholar
American Trinity University, Benin Republic
Olusola Ayandele, Psychologist & Researcher
University of Ibadan , Nigeria
Funke Adeniyi, Lecturer
The Polytechnic Ibadan, Nigeria
Asiwaju Busari, Ph.D.
American Trinity University, Benin Republic

This paper investigated the patterns of activities on Web 2.0 by female young adults in Nigeria by ascertaining the proportion of young ladies who use social media and identifying the most commonly used social media platforms, the purpose of usage and frequency of daily usage. A cross sectional survey design was used to collect data from 630 conveniently sampled young ladies met at three popular shopping malls and two beaches in Lagos state with the aid of a 12-item self-administered questionnaire. The study took place in the month of June, 2018.  Demographic data and social media usage were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Findings showed 53.8% of our respondents are between 21-25 years old, 76.5% are dating and 56.6% reported a subjective ‘manageable’ financial situation. Majority (95.6%) of the 630 respondents use the social media and almost all of the 602 social media users are on WhatsApp and Facebook (98.1% and 96.6% respectively), and 60% on Instagram. The finding revealed that Half of the young ladies (49.9%) picked WhatsApp as their primary social media platform followed by Facebook (35.2%) and Instagram (30.9%). Most ladies (46%) reported using 3 or more social media applications daily. The study equally discovered that majority of the ladies (47.3%) use social media to make new friends and socialize with family and friends, while getting information about current trends and news (30%) is the second most common reason for using social media. Furthermore, 40% of the respondents spend between 2 to 5 hours daily on social media. On the other hand, WhatsApp is used by 23.9% of the ladies for 6 hours or more every day. The paper advocated for moderated and appropriate use of social media sites for greater opportunities present on the platforms beyond mere staying in touch with family and friends.

Innovation Wireless Meter Reader Technology Management
Rustom Mamlook, Ph.D. &  Professor
Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain
Omer Fraz Khan,  BS., Engineering, Lab Technician
Dhofar University, Sultanate of Oman
Leena Musallam Al-kathiri, BS., Computer Engineering
Dhofar University, Sultanate of Oman
Amani Suhail Al-kathiri, BS., Computer Engineering
Dhofar University, Sultanate of Oman
Arwa Salim Al-amr, BS., Computer Engineering
Dhofar University, Sultanate of Oman

Utility meter reading is a labor-intensive task and million hours of time is wasted in going door to door for performing simple task such as reading a utility bill. The old analog meters for water and electricity consumption do not have the ability to render the information over digital channels.  In this paper, we implemented a way in which an analog meter can be converted to rendering digital information over GSM technology to the central database and from there this data information is made available to the consumer through web portal or an android mobile connected to the internet. The central database was created using MySQL database and php script coding to get the reading from GSM along with the meter number.  

The Successful Approach to Interactive Discourse in the Classroom
Mohammed AlFuadi, MA & Associate Lecturer
Open Educational College, Ministry of Education, Iraq

The language of interaction in the classroom is portrayed in ways that teachers and students together create meaning through the conversations they produce and discuss in the process of learning and interaction in the classroom. The prime responsibility for establishing and shaping the interaction lies with the teacher. Experimental results from classroom research should be able to demonstrate contextual contexts and interactive situations that average learning, allowing the teacher to be effective or not. However, there is the avenue for extensive research and experimentation of learner data. These recommendations and educational innovations are successful if there is justice in the nature of classroom interactions characterized by sensitive and dynamic contexts in their respective ecologies. This phenomenon builds an interactive series that contributes to the organization of participation and learning in the framework of multiple roles in order to shed light on what is happening in the internal competitions for speaking. The roles of the speakers may be sometimes included or intrusive on each other along a series of positions, both formal and informal. Our proposal for modeling the complexity of the discourse generated by these interactions, where minor changes in recording, physical movements, a tone of voice, rhythm, and steps, are an integral part of what constitutes interactive discourse. The educational objectives and use of language are inseparably related.

Theoretical Analysis on the Foundations of Sensory-Based Tourism for the Blind
Kim Nino Gabrillo Cantero, MBA, DPA-Candidate
Research Scholar, Philippines

Sensory experiences are intensively professed in the tourism and hospitality industry because tourists visit the destinations to placate their experiences and provisions, influenced by their out-of-the-familiar setting. Currently, there is no sufficient foundation study on the sensory-based tourism for the blind travelers and travelers in the Philippines. Thus, the primary objectives of the author are the following: (1) contribute to the body of knowledge in sensory-based tourism, (2) comprehend an inclusive method of sensory tourism with an end view of emphasizing its significance to the travel experiences of the global tourists, especially the blind, (3) educate the tourism authorities as well to give full attention and equal credit to the touristic needs of this market which then will evoke a positive multi-sensory experience in the place, and (4) identify perceived experiences of the blind travelers. This research is primarily anchored within the limitations of the multi-sensory theory, supported by the travel motivation theory and Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory. This is phenomenological research and snowball technique and referrals were utilized in data collection/gathering and analysis. As a result in sensory profiling, it is prevalent that majority of the informants are more influenced with (a) tactile sensory and (b) less with sound sensory. After thorough analysis of the stimuli, only (a) intrinsic, (b) tactile, and (c) sound appeared to be principally evident.

Factors Effecting Teaching and Learning Communication Skills in a Non English Language Speaking Environment
Abbas Hussein Abdelrady, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
Qassim University, Saudi Arabia 
Abeer Taha Abdul Hafeez Mohammed, Ph.D. Scholar & Assistant Professor
King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia

The study investigated factors affecting the teaching and learning skills of communication in a non-English speaking environment. The study was proposed to raise the learners’ level of communication in English language. The study is important because it highlights the reasons that hinder the use of communicative approach in teaching and learning skills of communication, which may lead to a high level of communication in English. The researchers used a descriptive method. The study pointed out that EFL learners are in need to be well-trained by EFL instructors to communicate successfully in English. Some EFL instructors might help learners to correct their pronunciation errors. Most learners are afraid of speaking being corrected by their EFL instructors in front of their classmates. The study found that some of EFL instructors concentrate in their lessons and not given enough time to learners to speak. Most of EFL instructors focus on structural aspects of language rather than on functional aspects. Some EFL instructors are not interested to use communicative approach.

The Role of ASEI - PDSI in Attaining Academic Excellence Through Proper Attitudinal Change in Mathematics Teachers
Onwuka Philomina Ifeanyi, Ph.D. & Associate Professor
Head of Mathematics Department
College of Education, Agbor, Nigeria
Menkiti Chika Cordelia, Ph.D. Scholar & Lecturer
Department of Mathematics Nwafor Orizu
College of Education, Nsugbe, Nigeria
Areelu Fisayo, Ph.D.
Department of Mathematics Michael Otedola
College of Education, Nigeria

This paper, the role of ASEI - PDSI in attaining academic excellence through proper attitudinal change in mathematics teachers is necessitated because of the observed poor performance of students in mathematics due to the teacher centered methodology prevalent among primary and secondary school teachers in Nigeria. ASEI- PDSI teaching approach which is both students and activity- based is proposed as a solution to this problem. Its principles and practices were examined and the gains in countries where it has been successfully applied outlined. These include teacher attitudinal change, students-centered lesson plan, logical presentation of contents, concretizing mathematics teaching, among others. It is recommended that all stake holders in education industry in Nigeria should embrace ASEI- PDSI to ensure improvement in mathematics teaching and learning in order to reap the benefits of its teaching.

Jane Austen's Depiction  of Female Halfwits  in Pride and Prejudice
Ali Albashir Mohammed Alhaj, Ph.D. & Associate Professor
King Khalid University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Hussein Mohammed Ahmed Kilayil, Ph.D. Scholar & Assistant Professor
King Khalid University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Abdarahman Abulgasim Salih Noorain, Ph.D. Scholar & Assistant Professor
King Khalid University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Sabah Mohamed Abbas Hamza, Ph.D. Scholar & Assistant Professor
King Khalid University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

The current paper aims at studying critically the two female halfwit  in Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice. Jane Austen who has been called '' the pure novelist'' occupies a high  place in English novel. She imparted realism to English novel in an age of Romanticism. She pioneered the comedy of manners successfully and introduced dramatic element. Her comedy is the comedy of manners in which commonsense shatters the absurdities and pretensions, shams and affectations of the comic personages. The writer uses the two female halfwits – Mrs. Bennet and Lydia- as a medium for chastising, rebuking and   criticizing  her own society. The two female fools  are not meant for mere laugher and entertainment but through  them the writer treats various themes in the novel: pride, human folly ,prejudice, love and marriage. Furthermore, Jane Austen is seldom satirical  but her satire is always gentle, seldom, severe  and never savage. She brilliantly uses irony in social comedies. Her gentle strokes of irony are charming. To conclude, these two female halfwits begin and end as doomed fools and caricatures of folly. The writer grafts on them various ideas to serve her purpose in portraying family and social relations.

A Hyper Heuristic Algorithm for the Frequency Assignment Problem
Khaled Alrajhi, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
King Khalid Military Academy, Saudi Arabia 

This paper studies a hyper heuristic (HH) algorithm for the minimum-order frequency assignment problem (MO-FAP). The goal of the MO-FAP is to assign a frequency to each request while satisfying a set of constraints and minimizing the number of used frequencies. HH can be thought of as an algorithm that combines multiple heuristics to solve hard combinatorial optimization problems. Such heuristics are called low level heuristics (LLHs) and are managed by HH. Different mechanisms for selecting the LLHs are investigated. Several techniques are also used to make the HH algorithm in this study more efficient. One of these is using a lower bound on the number of frequencies that are required for a feasible solution to exist. Moreover, each LLH is associated with an independent tabu list. Overall, the HH algorithm showed competitive performance compared with other algorithms in the literature.

Graft Copolymerization of Acrylic Acid onto Gum Arabic Using Cerium 1V Ammonium Nitrate
Mohamed Gusm Alla  Muhgoub Sulaiman 
Ph.D. & Associate Professor
University of Jeddah, Kindom of Saudi Arabia 
Faisal Mohammed Aqlan, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
University of Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
IBB  University , IBB,​ Yemen

This study conducted research on synthesis of graft copolymerization of Gum Arabic-g- acrylic acid by using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) as initiator. The reaction conditions were carrying out on the terms of percentage of graft efficiency and percentage of graft yield. Parameters such as acrylic acid concentration, ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) concentration, GA concentration, reaction time and temperature were deduced. The percentage of graft efficiency and percentage of graft yield firstly increased and then decreased for all the parameters. The optimum percentage of graft efficiency and percentage of graft yield were (26%) and (75.5%) respectively. Proof of graft copolymer Gum Arabic-g- acrylic acid was determined by comparison of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectrum of GA, acrylic acid and graft copolymer, by appearance of new peaks, and disappearances of others on Gum Arabic confirm grafting.

Impact of Time Management on Employees’ Performance in Private Secondary Schools in Nigeria: A Study Case of Distinct-Jubilee International College, Ibadan, Nigeria
Adeoye Abraham Olu, Research Scholar & Fellow, IPMA-UK
Director, D-JIC College, Nigeria
Bakke Graduate University, Dallas, Texas
Awujoola Olalekan Abiola
University of Ibadan, Nigeria

Workers in some organisations do not understand time management so they perform below expectations. Poor workers performance has been a serious challenge for managements of organisations and thus, a need to investigate time management on job performance of teachers in Distinct-Jubilee International College (D-JIC), Ibadan, Nigeria. The study adopted the descriptive survey design. It was carried out on teachers in D-JIC in Akinyele Local Government Area, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. The questionnaire was used to collect data and the population consisted 64 teachers in D-JIC, Ibadan, Nigeria. Total enumeration sampling technique was adopted in the study. The study revealed that time management practices of teachers in D-JIC included planning of work (mean=3.73), prioritizing (mean=3.61). Personal time management strategies of teachers in D-JIC included doing things in order priority (mean=3.58). Majority 60(93.7%) of the teachers agreed that effective time management helped them to cover all syllabus within the term with (Mean=3.39), followed by 51(79.7%) teachers that indicated that, extra time is needed to finish some topics with (Mean=3.11). The performance level of teachers in Distinct-Jubilee College Ibadan was high as the teachers unanimously agreed that they had understanding of the organisation of their jobs (Mean=2.94). Factors that influenced teachers performance included assigning of responsibilities (Mean=3.16), appreciation (Mean=3.38), recognition of services and giving awards (Mean=2.77). Findings revealed that there was a significant influence of time management on job performance of teachers in Distinct-Jubilee International College, Ibadan, (F (1, 63) = 22.280, P<0.05). Teachers in secondary schools must manage time in order to perform well in their jobs. The study recommended that teachers should dedicate more time to organising their work in relation to their time as well as setting deadlines for work. Teachers should also organise their schedule in a way that would give time out for leisure. Managements of secondary schools should minimise the workload of teachers to give room for initiatives and motivation among teachers.

Capacity Building and Work Experience: An Implication for Job Performance Among Public Secondary School Teachers in Ibadan, Oyo State
Adeoye Abraham Olu, Research Scholar & Fellow, IPMA-UK
Director, D-JIC College, Nigeria
Bakke Graduate University, Dallas, Texas
Awujoola Olalekan Abiola, Lecturer
University of Ibadan, Nigeria

The study concentrates on the job performance of teachers in secondary schools. Job performance of teachers which can be measured in terms of effective student teaching, students mentoring, improve academic performance of students, as well as using current teaching aids and styles, timely completion of subject syllabus etc., is heavily a function of capacity building practices and work experiences of teachers in secondary schools. Performance among public secondary school teachers has been found to be low, this could be as a result of lack of capacity building programmes for teachers as well as the absorption of teachers without proper work experiences both in the area of teachers education and prior teaching training. The study concluded that the implication of teachers’ professional development and rich work experience is that they equip teachers with the knowledge, ideas, skills, abilities, experiences to improve their job performance. The study therefore recommended that school managements should put up regular and adequate development programmes for teachers in order to improve their job performance. Also, school management should decide on the standard of experience teachers must possess before recruitment and mentoring of young teachers by experienced teachers must be encouraged.

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