Volume 10, Issue 4, December 2022

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Genesis According to the Zoroastrian Book of Primal Creation, Bundahishn
Published at American Journal of Religious Studies(AJRS)
Mitra Ara, Ph.D., Professor of Persian and Iranian Studies
San Francisco State University, USA
Abstract

This article explores the genesis according to the Zoroastrian Avestan book of Bundahishn, a major text tracing the cosmogony and evolution of creation from early expressions in Zoroastrianism. One of the world’s oldest living religions, Zoroastrianism is known as the first ‘millenarian’ tradition, antedating Christianity, Judaism, and Islam. The historical and literary examination views the original spiritual existence; the presence of two primal spiritual forces, good and evil; and the birth of opposition and dualism. Bundahishn recounts the deliberate formation of a stage whereupon the two forces could engage in concerted combat for sole kingship over creation, up to the cataclysmic end of finite time followed by renovation and absolute perfection of existence. This scholarly analysis fills a gap in religious literature by illuminating recognizable similarities of Zoroastrianism and later developed religious traditions, and lays the groundwork for constructing possible connection with Judeo-Christian traditions.  

 
 
Study of the Construction of Moral Education Resource Bank for College English under Blended Teaching
 
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)

Jiying Fan, M.A. & Associate Professor
Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, China
Cen Wang, Researcher 
Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, China
Xingyu Liu, Researcher 
Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, China

Abstract

As a compulsory course of liberal study in higher education, College English has both instrumental and humanistic nature. It has far-reaching significance to integrate moral education into English language teaching and learning. Curriculum resources are the foundation of teaching content, and under the present blended teaching mode, it has become a necessity to construct a systematic resource bank for College English learning which includes ideology, Chinese culture, code of ethics and personal development. This study analyzes the principles for establishing a moral education resource bank for College English, and puts forward some ways to construct the resource bank from teaching content, teaching resources and use of software applications.

 
 
 
 
 
 
Board of Directors Determinants and Impacts
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Christian Tabi Amponsah, Ph.D. & Professor 
Yorkville University, Canada
Samuel Adams, Ph.D. & Professor
Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration, Ghana
Seth Ken Appiah-Kubi, Ph.D. & Professor
Pentecost University, Ghana 

 Abstract

In recent times, corporate governance has become a key issue for organizations in both the developing and developed countries especially after the global financial crisis in 2008. The need for effective corporate governance has therefore become a requirement for improving the performance and consequently the sustainability of corporations. This paper provides a review of the corporate governance literature with a particular focus on the Board of Directors in the context of developing countries, and particularly Sub-Saharan Africa. The main finding of the review is that no one theory can be used to explain the impact of corporate governance satisfactorily. The various theoretical perspectives suggest that a contingency approach better helps to appreciate how corporate governance affects organizational performance. Corporate governance has both benefits and costs, and its impact is determined by the country specific conditions including but not limited to ownership structure, Board structure, BOD Gender diversity, audit quality, firm and board size, culture, and board independence. These factors serve as barriers or constraints on corporate governance that must be overcome to ensure corporate performance. The findings of the review suggest that corporate governance is necessary but not a sufficient condition for organizational performance or sustainability. Additionally, an integrated approach based on both rule-based and principle–based corporate governance mechanisms is recommended, which is supportive of the need to avoid one size fits all approach to corporate governance.

 
 
 
 
Training the French Language Teacher Using ICT: the Role of the Trainer
Published at American Journal of Applied Linguistics (AJAL)
Carol C. Ohen, Ph.D. & VC's Representative, Owa Alero Campus
University of Delta, Nigeria

Abstract

The teacher's role in the study of any language is very vital. Taking the example of Nigeria, this paper focuses on the role of the teacher in training future French language teachers using Information and Communication Technology. French being a foreign language in Nigeria, its studies are dependent on adequate training by competent trainers who, in this regard, refer to the College of Education teachers whose duty is to train teachers for Primary and Secondary schools where French is taught to beginners. To do this successfully, the teacher must possess the basic technical know-how to enable him cope with the challenges of teaching beginners. The paper therefore discusses the role of the trainer using ICT in preparing the French teacher for the continuity of French studies in Nigeria. Based on library information, the study examines various aspects like classroom environment, program content and the methodology. The study finds out that when the trainer creates an enabling environment, teaches the required competences with the appropriate teaching methods, the College of Education French students will be thoroughly furbished to cope with the task of laying a good foundation. While pointing out some challenges, we recommend that College students should be assisted in different ways to improve the study of the language. We conclude that when the trainer does his job well, the trained teacher comes out better equipped for teaching.

 
 
 
 
 
Presence of Authentic Leadership and Bullying in the Nursing Workplace: A Correlational Study
Published at American Journal in Health Sciences (AJHS)

Elizabeth Sloan Davidson, Ph.D. & Director
University of Arkansas at Little Rock, United States
Anita Mitchell, PhD, RN, APRN, FNP-BC; Retired Associate Professor
University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
Claudia Beverly, PhD, RN, FAAN; Retired Associate Professor
University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
Lana M. Brown, PhD, RN, NEA-BC, VHA-CM, Associate Nurse Executive for Research
Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System
Mallikarjuna Rettiganti, PhD & Assistant Professor
University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
Marlene Walden, PhD, APRN, NNP-BC, CCNS
University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
Patricia Wright, PhD, MPH, RN, Assistant Professor
University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
 
Abstract

Aim: This study aimed to determine whether higher levels of authentic leadership (AL) behaviors among Nurse Managers are associated with lower levels of workplace bullying (WB) on nursing units.  
Background: WB is one type of toxic component of the nursing work environment that is particularly disturbing because the perpetrators are often other nurses. 
Method: This study was a cross-sectional, prospective design that explored the relationship between Registered Nurses’ (RN) perceptions of AL qualities in Nurse Managers and the experience of WB in a random sample of RNs working in an acute care setting in a southern U.S. state.
Results: A Spearman's rank-order correlation analyzed the relationship between AL and the level of WB. There was a strong negative correlation between AL and WB rs(83)= -0.717 (p < 0.01). An analysis of covariance indicated a significant association with the level of WB experienced by staff RNs, (p<0.01) after adjusting for demographic variables. 
Conclusions: Increased qualities of AL in Nurse Managers correlate with lower experiences of WB in nursing units.
Implications for nursing management: It is important to provide education and preparation in leadership for nurses who serve as managers. AL skills in Nurse Managers may help to alleviate WB.

 
 
 
The Impact of AI and International Business Innovation in Modern Manufacturing Industries: Progress and Challenges 
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
MD ALAMIN SARKAR, Researcher
Shanghai University of Finance & Economics, China
Xie Jiaping,  Professor
Shanghai University of Finance & Economics, China
Liang Ling, Associate Professor 
Shanghai University of Finance & Economics, China
Habibur Rahman, Researcher
East China Normal University,Shanghai, China
Abstract


Purpose  – The main purpose of this study is to test the impact of artificial intelligence (AI) on the innovation performance of companies affected by the actual situation in modern manufacturing industry (industry 4.0 plan). This paper puts forward the proposition of "Intelligent manufacturing: a shared and win-win future for manufacturing industry and artificial intelligence". We believe that the combination of manufacturing and artificial intelligence is an important means to solve the problems of world’s aging population, the lack of innovation platform, the low end of the value chain, and low labor productivity faced by the manufacturing industry due to the dependence of equipment and software and hardware platforms on imports. In addition, this paper also discusses the artificial intelligence (AI) role of advanced modern manufacturing technology in innovation to improve financial performance in real and non real production situations.

Research motivation – AI is natural processing innovation technology and potential to transform each system, including machine, manufacture and production, language, speech recognition and so on. Manufacturing recognition is the core of artificial intelligence and most popular natural processing technology in modern industries .

Research findings – Our results reveal the retain relationship between AI and manufacturing performance in industry. We also find that modern manufacturing technology in innovation plays a positive role in regulating the relationship between reverse AI, indicating that the high level of manufacturing technology and innovation alleviates the inefficiency of AI in dealing with supply chain and manufacturing.

Research method/content - Based on the recent estimation of manufacturing  demand of artificial intelligence for sustainable development in the World. This paper analyzes the sustainable manufacturing development of AI, improving manufacture productivity of AI, industrial structure of manufacturing, opportunities and challenge of AI in modern manufacturing companies and estimates the external impacts of AI. It also quantitatively assessed the welfare impact of companies sustainable manufacturing development on the overall manufacturing world.

 
 
Instructional Design of College English Viewing, Listening and Speaking ─Autonomous Learning Oriented
Published at American Journal of Higher Education (AJHE)
Haifeng Cao, Lecturer
Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, China
Shuling Sun
MA & Professor, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, China
Abstract

With the rapid development of network and information technology, the focus of education has changed from “imparting knowledge” to “cultivating students’ learning ability”. And cultivating students’ autonomous learning ability will inevitably become the focus of education. In order to achieve the target of education, the instructional design, as a key part in the teaching process, should deserve more attention and consideration. Based on the concept of autonomous learning, this paper reexplores the real connotation of autonomous learning and put forward five applicable strategies for teachers to improve students’ autonomous learning ability in their teaching practice in general colleges. Taking as an example the instructional design of moral education in one unit in the course of College English Viewing, Listening and Speaking, the paper demonstrates the instructional design with the orientation of students’ autonomous learning ability.  

 
Application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Among Healthcare Workers: A Transformative and Fundamental Technology in the Medical Field **
Published at American Journal of Computer Sciences (AJCS)
Takashi Suzuki, Ph.D. & Researcher
Kansai University, Japan
Abstract

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the similarity of human intelligence that is processed by some systems. In Schönberger (2019), AI was perceived as the most transformative and fundamental technology in the 21st century. Even in the medical field, AI gradually gained momentum and started to lead the trend of gradually changing the infrastructure of medical practices. With the practical nature of Artificial Intelligence (AI) as well as Machine learning, deep learning, and image processing work in the field of medical imaging, AI will totally change our perspective in healthcare work and it will definitely benefit the real life of healthcare. As we can also witness from the current society in the modern era that in every aspect of medical fields, medical practitioners are employing advanced AI technology to take care of patients, make medical decisions for patients and family members.  With the fast development of AI technology in the medical field, healthcare work will embrace a prosperous and fruitful future.  *

Effects of Biochemically Triggered Heat Stress (BTHS) on Crop Plants: A Futuristic Perspective **
Published at American Academic Journal of Agriculture (AAJA)
 
Amal Ali, Ph.D. Scholar
University of Karachi, Pakistan
Abstract

Extensive Heat Stress (EHS) is defined as an important environmental stress which confines plant growth, development, metabolism, fruition, and productivity on the worldwide scale (Hasanuzzaman & Nahar, 2013). Plant growth development and productivity actually concerns countless biochemical interaction and reactions that are sensitive to temperature. Gradually rising environmental temperature is the key component for environmental control, which is in advance of most perilous abiotic stress. Nanotechnology, viewing the agricultural sectors, have captured intensive research efforts because of their distinctive properties and numerous applications. A field trial was performed to evaluate the effect of HHS levels on growth, yield and quality of crop under heat stress. The plant measurements were made for heat induced changes on osmolytes accumulation, lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress and antioxidative response, seed nutrient and yield attributes at flowering stage. Among all sowing dates, the crop which was sown on March 7, 2018 (First sowing date), statistically performed better than other sowing dates although foliar application of 20 ppm zinc oxide nanoparticles ameliorate mungbean performance under both, no heat and heat induced environments.  *

Constructive Analysis of Ideology and Discourse: A Critical Review of News Coverage and Ratings **
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
 
Richard Garcia, Ph. D. & Lecturer
Montana State University, USA

Abstract

According to TEUN (2007), contrary to most traditional descriptive methods, ideologies are hereby defined within a multidisciplinary framework which unites social, cognitive and discursive sub-components. The current study shaded a critical look at the news reports of the Saudi Arabia. Previous research has focused on media ratings which pays to ideology and public opinion. However, it also has been described how changing in media discourse affects the process. This study analyzed the 20 news reports originated from Saudi Arabia using the method of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). The results show that the differences in the reports using variation patterns which in turn possess the potential of changing and monitoring readers` ideologies and thinking patterns via influencing their opinions and world view on the nature of power relations and interactional activities. The current research tries to contribute to the area of research on media discourse and ideology construction by arguing that discourse variation has not been sufficiently defined and interpreted. An effort will also be made to offer tentative resorts of such dynamic variation.  *

Comprehensive Effects of Biochar Application: A Sustainable and Holistic Method to Achieve the Increase of Crop Production **
Published at American Academic Journal of Agriculture (AAJA)
Joseph Moore, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
University of Exeter, UK
Abstract

The current research focused on the comprehensive effects of Biochar application and how to achieve sustainable increase in the production of agricultural crop production. From previous research, we can see that maltreatment of inorganic fertilizers has become non -sustainable or increasingly not affordable in many areas of agricultural practice around the world due to loss of soil erosion, soil fertility, and increased fertilizer cost. Furthermore, fertilizers which are chemical in nature also polluting soil, water and air and pose many toxic products in living communities. Since the increasing fertilizer cost and urban sprawl, which quickly decrease the agricultural farm and quality of soilj, an alternative method was required to achieve sustainability in agricultural crop production. Biochar is this kind of alternative and well-recognized method by scientists because of its major role in carbon sequestration, decreasing the emissions of greenhouse gases, waste management, renewable sources of energy and a rich source of nutrients as an amendment in soil. Studies in this research demonstrated that Biochar was a reliable and porous solid charcoal-similar material, with rich carbon obtained from the pyrolysis of various organic material e.g., farm and forest and chicken litter. The current critical review summarizes about biochar production through comparison, application and influence on soil physicochemical properties, as well as interaction with the soil microorganisms, the key role in the soil after amendment with mobilizing bacteria, effects in the reduction in greenhouse gases and metal contamination and its positive and negative impacts on plant growth and yield attribute when biochar was operated in the soil.  *

Effectiveness of Mass Communication in Changing Human Behavior: The Impact and Result of Strategical Analysis of SNSs Application on Social Events **
Published at American Journal of Human Resource Management (AJHRM)
Charles Davis, Ph.D. Scholar
Robert Gordon University, UK
Abstract

This paper aims at finding out the effectiveness of mass communication in changing human behavior and how SNSs Application could possibly strategically change the social events. The researcher started the article by summarizing the current category of SNSs and reviewing the current controversies of SNSs application. Then based on the literature review and data analysis, the researchers posted challenging questions about misconduct of social networking tools in the field of mass communication. One of the unsolved problems remains on how to define mass media and mass communication in the 21st century with rich tech and artificial intelligence. And how to encourage the community to get involved in communications planning, disseminating communication information and achieving the goal of mass communications.  *

Considerations for Home and Community-Based  COVID-19 Pandemic: The Undiscovered Consequences Among Iranian Startups **
Published at American Journal in Health Science (AJHS)
Robert Johnson, Ph.D.
University of Richmond, USA

Abstract 

Due to the allocation of health resources and services, it is commonly believed that community-based protection and prevention is very effective to cut off Covid-19 transmission at the beginning stage. Recent years, the COVID-19 abrupt outbreak has become a major concern with substantial effects on markets, and the world economy. The impact of COVID-19 is assessed to be even more than all the previous global pandemic. In this short-term, due to the impacts of this pandemic, startups are more prone to fail or succeed faster than ever before; however, the challenges they face are not yet clearly scrutinized, as the pandemic was faster than scholars. This study therefore investigates the main challenges of Iranian startups by interviewing the co-founders of fifteen well-known startups. The two-step coding was used to analyze findings and these findings were explained in a focus group session to which startup co-founders, policymakers, and scholars were invited. It was concluded, six principal types of challenges are major concern by this pandemic, including, human resources management, support measures financial and marketing, mechanisms, crisis management, and few others. The research will have great impact and influence on alleviating the current emergent situation.  *

Education, Knowledge and Economy in the Triangle of Recent Urban Development: The Case for New Entrepreneurs under Constraints of Neoliberalism and Higher Education Matrix **
 
Published at American Journal of Higher Education (AJHE)
Rosemary Williams, Ph.D. and Instructor
Mount Saint Vincent University, Canada
 
Michael Brown, Ph.D.
Mount Saint Vincent University, Canada

Abstract 

Education opportunity is considered to be one of the most valuable factors in the economic development and employee retain rate. This particular research will demonstrate how the co-effect of education, knowledge and economy will influence recent urban development. The domination of neoliberalism and the connected discourses of new public management during the 1990s to 2000s has introduced a fundamental uplift in the way of higher education in universities and other institutions. Each has defined and justified their institutional existence. The old professional culture of intellectual enquiry and examination has been replaced with institutional new performativity, as evidenced by the emergence of an emphasis on measured outputs: on planned development, student performance, quality assurance measures and academic credit and audits. This paper identified the links between neoliberalism and globalization as well as neoliberalism and the knowledge economy. According to it, in a global neoliberal environment, the role of higher education in economic development is governed by governments as having greater importance to the extent that higher education has become the new star ship in the policy fleet for governments around the world. Universities are the basic driver for economic knowledge and as a consequence higher education institutions have been encouraged to develop links with industry. The recognition of the economic importance of higher education for economic viability is necessary to promote greater entrepreneurial skills and develop the new performative measures to enhance output to achieve targets. This paper attempts to document these trends at the level of both political philosophy and economic theory. The author believes that the research result will give the light in the research of education, economy and urban development.  *

Increasing Optimal Efficiency of Crop Production under the Negative Influence of Global Greenhouse Effect **
 
Published at American Academic Journal of Agriculture (AAJA)
Bradley Smith, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
Pepperdine University, USA
Abstract

The Green Revolution in 1960s enabled a sharp increase of the production of major staple grain crops (wheat, corn, rice, etc) to solve the ever-increasing demands of an increasing global population growing with geometric numbers. This article focused on how to increase the optimal efficiency of crop production under the impact of global greenhouse effect. We understand that the climate change effects have advanced in the past decade, there are still gaps in knowledge regarding the potential impacts of climate change on agriculture. These gaps are especially wide when it comes to specialized cultivation systems such as those of fruit and vegetable, which globally provide a high contribution to the human diet. To fill these gaps, we need a multifaceted approach that integrates physiology and genomics tools and might thus provide comprehensive answers, aiming at future needs. The increase in atmospheric CO2 is one of the main drivers of the climate changes and the increase of the global temperature. The CO2 molecule is also an essential nutrient for plants and increases in its concentration in the atmosphere have the potential to improve plant productivity (Leisner, 2020). However, optimizing the repose of plants to the increase in CO2 is a challenge due to its  complex interaction with the regulation of stomata, transpiration and the efficiency of water use, issues discussed in detail in open stomata  agriculture by Fara et al. 2019. The cultivation of crops with high productive potential and with greater resilience to biotic and abiotic stresses is seen as one of the methods with the greatest potential for obtaining higher yields, reducing the use of pesticides and without increasing the cultivated areas. Advances in genomics revolutionized and accelerated plant breeding. This will continue as costs decrease and more advanced methods are developed and applied. This was discussed by Gomes et al. 2020, in the characterization of a germplasm bank of Cucurbita moschata D. where they described the genetic relationships of agro-morphological characteristics, with the purpose of identifying early flowering genotypes, genotypes with high total levels of carotenoids in the fruit pulp and those with high potential for seed productivity and seed oil. There is an urgent need to support resilient and sustainable agriculture and the path is implementing cultivation practices and identifying new genes for agriculture. These genes should be directed to the optimization of production, mainly for the development of characteristics such as greater efficiency in the use of water, aspect fundamental in the current scenario, aiming at greater productive efficiency, less energy input and less risks to the environment.  *

Positive and Negative Benefits of Flaxseed as an Organic Food Source During the Period of Sustainable and Strategic Development **
 
Published at American Academic Journal of Agriculture (AAJA)
Süleyman Özberk, Ph. D. and Lecturer
Cukurova University, Turkey
Abstract

Flaxseed was cultivated in Babylon in around many centuries ago and many people consider it as one of the most powerful plant foods on the planet (Magee, 2020). When Traced back to history, we can also realize that flaxseed can be used to treat diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, stroke and all kinds of cancer. The application of flaxseed was highlighted by scientists and medical workers for many centuries. However, the valuable effects of flaxseed was always underestimated to a large degree, and even people who are working in the specific field can not cognitively associate the benefits of flaxseed with the treatment of certain disease. Thus, the waste of flaxseed was unnoticed when it comes over-consumption and non-effective consumption. This article will enumerate both the positive side and the negative side of flaxseed which will benefits sustainable development as an organic food source. After a systematic comparison and analysis, the conclusion was drawn naturally with statistic analysis and logic induction as scientific collaboration. *

Comparing Obesity in Urban and Rural Area Based on Demographic Factors and How Obesity Negatively Influence People’s Life Quality and Educational Level **
Published at American Journal in Health Science (AJHS)
Chukwunonso Ogbeide, Ph.D. Scholar & Lecturer
University of Benin. Nigeria
Abstract

According to recent research done by Zibima, S. B., Wasini, K. B., & Oniso, J. I. (2020), obesity is dramatically increasing year by year and it was consider one of the most severe life-threatening fatal diseases globally by the end of 2020. The fact is that obesity itself may not be dangerous, but the complications related to obesity can be deadly or fatal in a great extent. Though many researchers have had extensive research in this field, only a few compared the scientific data from unban area with which from the suburban area. The goal of this research is first, to employ scientific data, research, and analysis with the goal of raising public awareness for people who are within the high-risk group and try to rescue them by informing them of the basic knowledge of obesity’s origin, prevention, danger, threatening, and treatment. Second, the realistic purpose for this research is comparing obesity in urban and rural area based on demographic factors and how obesity negatively influence people’s life quality and educational level. A questionnaire was obtained from 200 attendees and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for the scientific analysis of the data. The research results confirmed the doubts and anxiety of the severely negative influence of obesity on educational achievements, human life quality, life expectancy at present and in the future. *

Contemporary Research on Synthesis Methods of Metal-organic Frameworks (MOFs) **
Published at American Journal of Chemical Science (AJCS)
Shawna Pochipinski, Ph. D. & Lecturer
University of Abuja, Nigeria
 
Abdulkadir Bamisaye, Ph. D. & Assistant Professor
Abia State University, Nigeria

Abstract

Recent years, the research on Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are countless yet no previous research focused on MOF on the basis that they are a class of hybrid network of supramolecular solid materials composed of organized organic linkers and metal cations. This research paper displayed enormously high surface areas with tunable pore size and fitful functionality, and it can be applied to the hosts for a range of guest molecules. After the thorough discovery research, MOFs have experienced widespread exploration for their applications in gas storage, drug delivery and sensing. An ultimate goal of the current research is to better understand the two-sided effects of MOF membranes and the research result showed significant positive proofs. The preliminary conclusion is that MOFs can be regarded as a reusable merging of solid acids and organic polymers in the area of construction and industrial foundation. This article synthesized the functionality of MOFs with unique perspective and the research implications are of great importance in further discovering and advancing the practical development of chemical science. *

Understanding Our Mind Through Guidance: How Philosophy Enables Us to Perceive the World and Master Human Mind **
Published at American Journal of Philosophy Quarterly (AJPQ)
Keith Jardine, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
University of Central Missouri, USA
 
Carlos Knoll, Ph.D. Scholar
University of Central Missouri, USA
Abstract

The current research is understanding our mind: how philosophy enables us to perceive the world and master human mind. As we all know, designing a study about the thinking pattern to investigate how minds work while thinking is the mind in conversation with itself. The central model stated that the mind is the core mode of self-interrogation in psychotherapy and psychology built on philosophical precepts. Both Socratic dialogue and stoicism are evident in the principles of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT). CBT and especially REBT instruct people to examine and dispute their beliefs and thus to tolerate unpleasant feelings—shades of Epictetus. The connection is bidirectional: The most perplexed evidence showed that people's psychological positions on philosophical questions in the center of the free-will existence are significantly influenced by their individual temperament and personality rather than cognitive ability. Future research will explore related philosophical questions which remain for human beings to further discover. *

From Western Culture to Eastern Culture: A Dialogic Perspective on the Holistic Overview of Chinese Culture and American Culture **
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Wenbin Xue, Ph. D. & Lecturer
China University of Mining & Technology, China
Abstract

Due to globalization, the clear-cut contrast between Chinese culture and American culture was blurred through constant cultural dialogue and interaction. Culture is complex and multidimensional. It is in fact too complex to define a certain culture in simple terms and rough definition. Kroeber and Kluckhohn in 1952 identified over 160 different definitions of culture. One of the earliest widely cited definitions by Tylor in 1887 defines culture as “that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by human as a member of society.” With a dialogic perspective, this article investigated the differences and common features between western culture and eastern culture by observing the holistic overview of specific culture in China and in America. The research result confirms our hypothesis. The research also suggested that people in modern era should view distinct culture with more tolerance, appreciation and respect. New culture should be redefined with respect to historical facts, linguistic uniqueness and differences in customs.  *

Research Review: Practical Research on Applications of MOFs for Gas Storage **
 
Published at American Journal of Chemical Science (AJCS)
Jack Willough, Ph. D. & Director of Research
University of New Orleans, USA
 
Nancy Evans, Ph. D. & Lecturer
University of New Orleans, USA
Abstract

Recent years, research on MOF application showed positive tendency in MOF effects on gas storage. However, current researchers conducted a serious investigation and found the previous research had obvious flaws in over-generalization. Several options are available for storing gases effectively, but these mostly require high-pressure tanks and multistage compressors. Such methods are highly expensive for practical uses and there is a need for them to be substituted by simple and less expensive solutions. In an attempt to overcome these issues and to find safer storage methods, several materials, like zeolites or activated porous carbons, have been studied for gas storage. However, MOFs have outperformed most of these traditional materials in terms of gas storage, separation and industrial application. Easy synthetic procedures, high surface area, wide opportunities for functionalization and tunable pore structures make MOFs preferable compared with other porous materials. This article reviews studies of storage applications for important gases like H2, CO2, CH4, CO, NO, hydrocarbons etc. within MOFs, with a brief description of the factors responsible for effective storage. The current researcher hopes that this research result could be reevaluated and reinstated in order to avoid practical losses. *

Applied Linguistics Revisited: Can University Students Improve English Language Skills in a “Hybrid-Method-Setting” in a Remote Area in Mainland China **
 
Published at American Journal of Applied Linguistics (AJAL)
Xiaobin Zhang, Ph. D. & Associate Professor
Shanxi Normal University, China
Abstract

The current research on applied linguistics provided us a new perspective on language acquisition and this research will solve the research question: Can University Students Improve English Language Skills in a “Hybrid-Method-Setting” in a Remote Area in Mainland China? We selected 100 students from English linguistics major class and trained them through different techniques in the classroom. Teachers give them training materials and specific instruction in learning and performances. Then instructors gave insightful suggestions for English-as-a-second-language learners (ESLs) on how to improve their English language skills from the perspective of applied linguistics and cognitive linguistics; The research yielded constructive result which has far-reaching impact on English teaching and learning activities with meaningful findings, First result revealed that students should be mentally prepared to engage in practical exercises and be ready to active participation in the classroom. Second, students should often attend specific seminar and question answer session to obtain the expected level of language skills during the process of language application. In addition, authentic motivation, deep interest and collaboration are also key factors which positively influence the final achievement of language acquisition. *

Contributing Factors in Determining Balance Between Job Opportunities, Job Employment and Job Satisfaction in European Countries **
Craig Henderson , Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
University of Houston, USA
Abstract

Nowadays, due to the harsh competition in job market, job opportunities declines year by year. Even if people were employed, the benefits for job and the satisfaction in job decrease. How to balance between Job opportunities, job employment and job satisfaction in European countries remains critical changes to be reasonably resolved. This research aims to discover contributing factors in determining balance between job opportunities, job employment and job satisfaction in European countries and the implication was also disclosed at the end of the article.  *

The Critical Perspectives in Efficiently Managing and Evaluating Corporate Employee Conducts, Operation Risks and Policy Optimization with the Help of Practical Real-world Examples, Empirical Research Result and Employees' Cooperation **
Vincent Griffin, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor 
Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada
Abstract

In recent years, research on assessing employee behavior, operational risk, and policy optimization has gradually increased. But how to use the practical real-world examples, the experience of research results and the cooperation of employees, as three effective means, effectively manage and evaluate the risk of employee behavior, operation and policy optimization is comparatively rare. This research article combines real-life examples and empirical survey methods to achieve optimal management and evaluation on the corporate employee behavior, operational risk and policy optimization so that the company's employees' work capacity improves, behavior standardized, and product quality promoted.  This research will serve as an inspirational guide for the future development and prosperity of modern enterprises. *

Practice Guideline of Patient Treatment under Protection of Scientific Interventions ---A Tentative Assumption of Medical Research **
Ali Flores, Ph.D. & Lecturer
Future University in Egypt, Egypt    
 
Raymond Nelson, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
Adelphi University, USA
Abstract

Recent years of research in patient intervention treatment has made great breakthrough and the study in this field also shifted from theoretical hypothesis to practical treatment process. This specific study will introduce the practical guideline of patient treatment process and result under the protection of scientific intervention to ensure the safety and security of the progress of the practice. With examples, research survey, the author also revealed the possible direction of future medical research and the research findings and implications were also discussed. *

Collaborative Group Tasks, Problem Solving, and Social Interaction under the Environment of Computer-aided Intelligent Learning Environment **
 
Published at American Journal of Computer Sciences (AJCS)
Robin Bachman, Ph.D. Scholar
Stevens Institute of Technology, USA
Abstract

Learning through computer-aided inquiry was considered as an important breakthrough in teaching and learning history as it substantially improved the frequency of social interaction, cognitive thinking and learning achievements. According to Dillenbourg, P., Järvelä, S., & Fischer, F. (2009), the collaboration among peers can be “pre-designed” with specific purpose of improving learner ability and learning effectiveness in a specific field of acquisition. In addition, it can facilitate affective, social, emotional and motivational ability with the aid of purposeful scenarios and online interaction. The researcher did the experiment in a remote US university with 100 learners in the control group and 100 learners in the experimental group. The test result surprised all test takers and organizers with non-effects related predictive results. The current research focused on the observation and analysis of collaborative group task, problem solving, and social interaction under the environment of computer-aided and intelligent Learning environment. The research result will be beneficial to scholars all over the world who has a particular interest in discovering how computer-aided learning environment on collaborative group task, problem solving, and learning improvement. *