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 Volume 8, Issue 2, June 2020

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Rereading Pauline Gender Theology: A Challenge to Patriarchy in Africa*
Published at American Journal of Religious Studies (AJRS)
Osbert Uyovwieyovwe Isiorhovoja, Ph.D. & Senior Lecturer
Delta State University Abraka, Nigeria

The patriarchal traditions in Africa seem to have gained some boost with a first reader of Pauline theology from his epistles; hence some scholars have credited him with the title of misogynist. However, a careful rereading has shown that the great apostle was careful in navigating the template due to social pressure in bringing about the desired changes of egalitarian society. The paper adopts expository and hermeneutical interpretation of the phenomenon within the African context. The silence of women as credited to Paul has been read in isolation in all his epistolary thought thus, such readings require the understanding of the apostle’s cultural milieu for he had many women as co-laborers in the vineyard as well as enunciated the principle of love-patriarchalism for the home and societal well-being. Consequently, Africans should evolve a working understanding as that of Paul; to forsake the tradition of women exclusion in the society. The paper discovers that patriarchal traditions in Africa are rather too rigid to embrace innovative ideas that can transform the society due to her religio-cultural belief system. It concludes by calling for a thorough examination of the belief systems with the aim of achieving gender friendly society void of sexual discrimination and social prejudices as Paul argued in Gal. 3:28-29 and, also introduce gender studies in our institutions of learning to better appreciate the dynamics of gender equality.  

Can Learners Teach Other: Case Study of Peer Instruction in the University Course: Introduction to Linguistics*
Published at American Journal of Applied Linguistics (AJAL)
Wang Duqin, Ph.D. & Professor
Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, China
Wang Shanhan, Research Scholar
Capital Normal University, China

Peer Instruction has attracted international concern since its emergence. While the vast majority of studies seem to prove its effectiveness in facilitating comprehension, cultivating thinking and promoting development of problem solving, there were studies which showed that Peer Instruction was powerless. To examine the effect of Peer Instruction, and to explore affecting factors, the present study chose a teaching reform project which involved application of Peer Instruction to a university course, "Introduction to Linguistics" in Beijing, China as the case. Compared T-test of students’ performance in concept tests and independent Sample Test of the Experimental Group and Control Group’s performance in course examination failed to show significant improvement of students’ understanding, and on the contrary, some reverse effects were also discovered. Interviews with the students showed that many factors, like students’ language ability, their ways of thinking, modes of presentation and language event itself can all hinder the effects of Peer Instruction. The present study seems to suggest Peer Instruction is not so powerful as previous studies demonstrated. Learners may not be able to teach others in comprehension of abstract concepts.

Students' Spelling Mistakes in English Language: Diagnosis and Handling*
Published at American Journal of Applied Linguistics (AJAL)
Dr. Abdelazim Mabrook Abdalbein Mabrook, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
Onaizah Colleges, K.S.A


Spelling, an essential part in our daily communication, formulation of words relies most on ones’ capacity of thinking and organizing words, either in writing or pronunciation. Even though, spelling plays an important role on EFL Students' daily writing, EFL students at Onaizah schools still have hindrances and encountered difficulties towards spelling. In this respect, students are unable to spell words correctly and even commit mistakes in spelling. Therefore, this study aimed to diagnose and setup a good handle to treat the students' spelling mistakes.  The study used experimental group and control group as tools in collecting information.  The samples which were intentionally selected consisted of 50 ESL/EFL students.  The study found that the differences in the variables of post-test scored highest marks in favor of the experimental group. Therefore, there are statistically significant differences depending on the variables of the complete the missing letters, write the silent letters, write the plural nouns, and add and copy the suffixes, thus the differences are in favor of experimental group.  There are also a statistically significant differences in the students answers to the variables related to dictation and spelling, thus the differences are in favor of experimental group.  The study recommended the following: 1) Teachers have to adopt spelling and dictation lesson in  intermediate schools, it will be helpful to these ages to avoid misspelling of some words.  2)  The students should be exposed to variety of spelling skills such as; the phonics, inflection spelling rules, reciting the homophones, recognizing the silent letters, the British and American Pronunciation, compound words, consonant digraphs and diphthongs to avoid spelling mistakes. It is also recommended to enhance the spelling awareness, teaching spelling and dictation strategies which benefit the student's spelling.

Investigation of Antibiotics Susceptibility Profile and R-plasmid Among Bacteria Isolated from Blood Cultures of Hospitalized Patients in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria*
Published at Journal of American Academic Research in Health Science (JAAR—HS)
Owolabi Shola Lawrence, Lecturer
Gateway (ICT) Polytechnic, Nigeria

Azeez Ikimot, Lecturer
Tai Solarin University of Education, Nigeria

Despite the effective and efficient efforts, mounted on the challenges of treatment failure ascribed  to antimicrobial resistance, in hospital settings around the globe, the morbidity and mortality rate, associated with antimicrobial resistance, remains a global public health challenge. Hence, this study was carried out to investigate the antibiotics susceptibility profile and R-plasmid, among bacteria, isolated from blood cultures of hospitalized patients, in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. The collected isolates were identified morphologically and biochemically. The inoculum was incubated at 370c for 4-6 hours; the turbidity was adjusted to 0.5 McFarland standards. Different types of antibiotic discs were used. The zone of inhibition was recorded as sensitive or resistant. Plasmid  extraction was done using alkaline lysis method. The molecular weight of the plasmid was determined by gel electrophoresis. Out of 50 isolates, obtained from three different hospitals in Abeokuta, 20 (40%) were E coli, followed by Klebsiella pneumonia 10(20%), Streptococcus pneumonia 10(20%), Staphylococcus aureus 5(10%), Salmonellae typhi 3 (6%) and Enterobacter spp 2(4%) respectively. Highest susceptibility pattern was observed in ciprofloxacin 82% and ofloxacin 82%, cefuroxime 76%, and ceftazidime 64%, respectively. All isolates were resistant to tetracycline 100%, multiple drug resistance was observed with plasmids molecular sizes ranging from 4kb to 8kb. Antimicrobial resistance remains a global public health challenge. There is a need for periodic research to dismay the spread of this threat. Furthermore, education strategy and awareness on the source of antibiotic resistance should be a high priority. Hence, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin remain the most potent antibiotics, in the treatment of enteric bacteria.

Alternatives to Imprisonment in Saudi Arabia*
Published at Journal of American Academic Research  (JAAR)
Rasha saad Almalki, Lecturer
Taif University, Saudi Arabia 


This study evaluates the application of alternatives to imprisonment in Saudi Arabia and examines whether the legal system is willing to address the issue of prison alternatives. To achieve this purpose, this work investigates the position of sharia, which is the main source of Saudi legislation, regarding the application of alternatives to imprisonment. Further, the study explores and highlights the reality of the application of alternatives to imprisonment in Saudi courts. In addition, this study analyzes a draft law of alternative sanctions (2010).

The study draws the conclusion that the application of alternatives to imprisonment in Saudi Arabia faces a host of challenges. These include the lack of a legal framework which controls the use of alternatives to imprisonment, the lack of education of the public on the same, and uncertainty with regard to the executive bodies. The study makes recommendations for reform including the enactment of law establishing alternatives to imprisonment and considers the gaps in the 2010 draft and how to avoid them.  It recommends intensifying public awareness and constructing the infrastructure required for alternatives to imprisonment, in the hopes that such recommendations will contribute effectively toward the development of the criminal justice system in Saudi Arabia.


Increasing Physical Activity Index Among Dengvaxia Recipients Through Theory-based Goal-setting Curriculum Supplement Integration: A Physical Literacy Intervention*
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Samboy D. Franco, Research Scholar
Department of Education, Philippines


Today’s youth do not engage in the recommended amount of physical activity. More so, the fear around the controversial Dengvaxia vaccine limited the physical activities of students. This quasi-experimental research investigated the effectiveness of integrating a theory-based goal-setting curriculum supplement in increasing their physical activity index. Currently, no sufficient foundation study was explored on theory-based goal-setting curriculum supplement integration in the Philippines. Independent sample t-test was used to identify the significant difference of the correlated variables. Findings uncovered an improvement in the physical activity level index results of the respondents which can be interpreted as a result of the effective treatment.

Nationalism in Aaron Copland's Music*
Published at Journal of American Academic Research  (JAAR)
Heng Wang
Nanjing Normal University, China

He Huang, DMA
Nanjing Normal University, China


In the early 20th century, there were four important genres in western music: Nationalism, Impressionism, Expressionism, and Neoclassicism, which have a great influence on the development of western music. There were also many important composers who have made significant contributions in their own fields. Nationalism was not a new genre in the 20th century. As early as in the middle of the 19th century, nationalism had been developed in many countries. However, there were some differences and new characteristics of nationalism in the 20th century. In this paper, I would like to take Aaron Copland for example, to trace back and get to know how American musicians established their national music.

Social Inclusion: A Poverty Reduction Approach*
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
George Umeji, Ph.D. Scholar & Lecturer
Paul University, Nigeria
Eberechukwu Edith Eleanya, Ph.D. Scholar & Lecturer
Paul University, Nigeria
Ndubueze Ezindu Obisike, Ph.D. & Lecturer
Paul University, Nigeria
Camillus N. Okuma, Ph.D & Senior Lecturer
Madonna University, Nigeria
Paul Ikechukwu Unegbu, Lecturer
Federal College of Education(Technical) Umunze, Nigeria
Irene Nkechi Onwuka, Lecturer
Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria


This study, social inclusion: a poverty reduction approach, using descriptive research method, examines the relationship between social exclusion, social inclusion and poverty. It is amongst the findings of this study that social exclusion is not just a major cause of poverty but a key factor in poverty severity. However, social inclusion, as a means to ending poverty in Nigeria, can be achieved through creation of employment opportunities, access to education and skills acquisition as well as minimizing social exclusion.

Non-surgical Root Canal Treatment of Maxillary 1st Molar with Five Canals*
Published at Journal of American Academic Research in Health Science (JAAR—HS)
Dr. Lama Mohammad Charouf, Research Scholar
Batterjee Medical College, Saudi Arabia
Dr. Gufaran Ali Syed, Ph.D., Research Scholar & Associate Professor
Batterjee Medical College, Saudi Arabia 

Clinicians should always keep in mind that anatomical variations and different number of canals can exist in any tooth, especially in maxillary first molars. Knowledge and tools like magnification and CBCT imaging can lead to correct diagnosis and successful treatment. This article presents a case of successful non-surgical root canal treatment of maxillary first molar with three mesiobuccal canals by an intern at a teaching hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Adsorption of Cr ion from Composite Industrial Wastewater: Proteus Mirabillis as Efficient Bioadsorbent*
Published at American Journal of Chemical Sciences (AJCS)
Qaiser Imran, PhD Scholar 
Zhejiang University, China
Tahira Yasmeen, Associate Professor
Government college University Faisalabad,Pakistan
Faisal Islam, Postdoc 
Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China 
Arslan Anjum, Scholar
Arid Agriculture university, Pakistan
Abdul Ghaffar, Postdoc 
Zhejiang University, China

This study deals with the isolation, adsorption of chromium ion and characterization of bacteria from industrial effluents. The 300 colonies were screened from initial level on heavy metal amended NA/LB medium. 26 pure colonies were selected in the secondary screening from wastewater. These colonies are preserved on LB media containing K2Cr2O7 salt for further studies. All isolated strains are resistance to the Cr ion but there tolerance level is varied. The bacteria isolated from specific Cr contaminated site like tannery effluent exhibit more resistant i.e. the CrR11, CrR16, CrR21, showed MIC of 70 ppm while the strains CrR19, CrR4 show least MIC. The strain CrR7, CrR21 was most resistance and fast growers then other bacterial strains. The Biosorption potential of the isolated strains was showed that these bacteria possess effective metal sorption efficiency within a short time of treatment process. The highest reduction at 70 ppm by Bacteria proteus mirabillis which known through Characterization was shown by the CrR11 by 91%, CrR16 by 86%, CrR21 by 92%, CrR 7 by 82% in 24 hours at pH of 7 and temp was 30oC. Physicochemical parameters like pH, TDS, TSS, EC and Temperature of effluents measured by standard methods. The pH of waste water samples were in the range of 6.0-7.4 which was within the limits of the NEQS (6-10 pH). Total Dissolved solids (TDS) and Total suspended solids (TSS) in the effluent varied form 490-550 mg/l and 61-73 mg/l and respectively. The values of TDS and TSS were below the NEQS recommendations. The highest value of EC was found in S7 while least is found in S5 sample. The temperature of S3, S4, S7 effluent samples was found above the NEQS (40oC) guidelines for industrial effluents.

An Appraisal of Sabotage in the Nigerian Oil Industry *
Published at American Journal of Law and Practices  (AJLP) 
Gaga Wilson Ekakitie, Ph.D. & Research scholar
Delta State University, Nigeria

This paper examines the origin and effect of sabotage in the Nigerian oil industry. It adopts expository method in approaching the theme. Essentially the paper discovers that sabotage is stoutly argued to have been responsible for most of the oil spills in Nigeria. There are lots of covering up by oil companies and government in order to shelve responsibilities, even though, it is very obvious that pipeline vandalization is not a job for illiterate villagers as it requires specialized skills and tools. The paper discovers that the reasons for sabotage ranges from the neglect of the oil producing communities by government and the oil companies to the greed and selfishness of the people. The paper notes with concern the monumental effects of sabotage on government, the oil companies and the host communities, the loss of human lives and the grave consequences on the environment. This paper recommends; that in order to stop and/or mitigate the hardship associated with sabotage in the Nigerian oil industry, the Land Use Acts and other obnoxious legislations be abrogated and for environmental protection to be effective, rights and duties of government, its agencies and citizens must be precisely defined. Lastly, the fine payable by oil giant should be classified and made known in the public domain as boost community claim and mitigation. 

The Defence of Insanity under the Nigerian Criminal Law*
Published at American Journal of Law and Practices  (AJLP) 
Gaga Wilson Ekakitie, Ph.D. & Research scholar
Delta State University, Nigeria

This paper aimed at critically analysing the defence of insanity under the Nigerian criminal law and a brief comparison with other jurisdictions. The time- honoured and necessarily notion of criminal responsibility comes to question.

Role of Marketing MIX on Customer Satisfaction*
Published at American Journal of Marketing Management   (AJMM) 

Tareg Mohamed Elmahei Elbashier, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
Higher Education College, Saudi Arabia

This study aims to highlight and analyze the role of the marketing mix product, price, places, promotion on customer satisfaction. In specific, the current paper explores the role of marketing mix and its overall impact on customer’s satisfaction. All Marketing MIX Product, price, place and promotion variables need to be managed by understating psychological traits of customers' buying nature. Marketing managers must have a complete understanding of their target market before blending the marketing mix elements. Marketing mix elements consist of four elements (product, price, place, promotion). Marketers control these elements to satisfy the customers (Kotler and Armstrong). Inductive data collection approach has proved to be a great help to extract gist of past research results. A large proportion of data has been gathered from secondary resources including journals, books and old research papers. The results show that all four aspects of marketing mix are equally important and any imbalance among them can damage overall results. All the 4Ps has significantly influence on customer satisfaction. Price mix is the most influential on customer satisfaction. Customers’ buying intentions are greatly affected by his/her expectations in context of a product quality, price, and product accessibility. The relationship between customer satisfaction and loyalty depends on the elimination of perception gap, service gap, operational gap and behavioral gap that needs to be managed by giving focused attention to these matters. This paper reviews prior literature and proposes to think carefully to use marketing mix strategy to meet customer expectations by eliminating any communication or perception gaps that further extend customer loyalty.

Validity of Performance Appraisals and Whistleblowing: Respectful Workplace Policies and Political Correctness Can Threaten Academic Freedom and Free Speech*
Published at Journal of American Academic Research   (JAAR) 
Robert C. Sinclair, Ph.D. , President & CEO 
Sinclair & Associates Consulting, Canada



As is the case in any organization, valid performance appraisals are necessary when making tenure and promotion decisions in academia. Indeed, the more objective and, thus, less potentially biased these data, the more valid will be the performance appraisals. Unfortunately, when someone presents valid opposing a promotion, they are acting as a whistleblower but might not be provided with whistleblower protection. I argue that the current climate of Political Correctness, bullying/harassment, and respectful workplace policies in Academia can be at odds with Academic Freedom and Free Speech (not hate speech nor inciting violence). The Academy, in my opinion, is threatened when the discussion of ideas or collection of data, that might be perceived by some members of the Academy (or the public) as Politically Incorrect, are censored. Furthermore, I argue that it is extremely problematic when the presentation of valid data opposing a particular position can be construed as Politically Incorrect and lead to complaints of bullying/harassment, in a manner akin to responses to whistleblowing in organizations. Indeed, accusations of bullying/harassment might be a symptom of Politically Correct ideologies and a result of threats to Academic Freedom. I discuss these issues and provide an example as a cautionary tale as well as, what I consider to be, the implications for the Academy. 

On Confucius' Ideas of Guan Zhong’s Benevolence——A Study of Taiwan Scholars’ Criticism of Confucius Ideas of Guan Zhong*
Published at American Journal of Philosophy Quarterly (AJPQ)
Jicheng SUN, M.A., Associate Professor
Shandong University of Technology, China
Nanran YU, MTI Candidate
Shandong University of Technology, China.

Taiwan Scholars started their research on Guanzi roughly since 1940s and 1950s, and their research has gained their own features, which has seldom been studied and referred by Mainland scholars due to historical reasons. Many Taiwan scholars focus on discussing Confucius ideas of Guan Zhong and exploring Confucius’ comments on Guan Zhong’ benevolence. This paper presents different arguments among different Taiwan scholars on this issue, with the hope to provide some references for other scholars in their Guanzi studies.

Academic Leadership in Higher Education: A Correlational Study*
Published at Journal of American Academic Research  (JAAR) 
Raffles International Institute, Mongolia

The study examined the relationship of deans’ leadership characteristics and practices to faculty performance of selected private colleges in the National Capital Region of the Philippines. This study utilized the descriptive method of research that involves adequate and accurate interpretation of the findings. The respondents of this study were 89 deans and 227 faculty members of 68 selected private colleges in the National Capital Region of the Philippines. College faculty members were asked to evaluate their deans' leadership characteristics and practices. Likewise, deans were asked to evaluate the performance of their faculty. The study utilized two (2) expert-validated questionnaires to elicit the responses. Based on the results, the deans’ leadership characteristics and practices greatly impact faculty performance. Thus, deans and educational managers should specifically look into their faculty members’ academic functions and professional traits and devise a program or programs that will further enhance the indicators presented.

Paradigms, Issues and Integration: Critical Analysis and Application on Theory of Compassion Fatigue*
Published at Journal of American Academic Research  (JAAR) 
Vicky D. Isonza, Ph.D., 
University of San Carlos, Philippines

The study analyzed the ontological and epistemological delineations of five authors who investigated on the theory of compassion fatigue. Using a heuristic method of investigation, this researcher examined the author(s) attempts to connect the theory of compassion fatigue with the methods they used in their respective studies. The purpose of the delineation is to examine how the methodological tools were used to describe the application of compassion fatigue theory. Guided by the philosophical assumptions of constructivism, the five studies showed how paradigms shaped the meaning of the nature of reality (ontology) from the production of data to interpretation of results. This shaping process exist in paradigms of objectivism, interpretivism, critical theory, and pragmatism. The review of the studies revealed how objectivism held the long-standing issue of paradigmatic dominance despite the existence of internal struggles and disagreements. Each paradigm has an important knowledge to contribute to our understanding of the nature of reality. A proposition is suggested to integrate the paradigms. A qualitative approach to integration is sampled. Through an overarching axiological principle, integration is possible. Well-formulated research criteria from each paradigm will raise the standard of the evaluation where rigor can be possibly implemented in all research paradigms. 

Teaching and Learning of Mathematics in Technical and Vocational Schools Using Mathematics Laboratory for Attainment of National Development*
Published at American Journal in Applied Mathematics (AJAM)

ONWUKA PHILOMINA IFEANYI Ph.D., Associate Professor 
College of Education Agbor, Nigeria 
Menkiti Chika Cordelia .Ph.D. Scholar 
Nwafor Orizu college of education, Nigeria 
Moseri Patricia O. , Research Scholar
Agbor Technical College, Nigeria


The importance of Mathematics in the development of any nation is numerous. This paper has looked at the importance of Mathematics in technical and vocational schools, its application in the various vocations, importance of Mathematics laboratory in teaching and learning of Mathematics. The importance of mathematics laboratory cannot be over emphasized in the teaching and learning of mathematics . It arouses students’ interest and increase their performance in Mathematics. The objectives of Mathematics laboratory was also looked at. Instruments and equipment in mathematics laboratory and possibilities of having a mathematics laboratory were also considered. Suggestions were made among which: Government should provide mathematics laboratory in all technical and vocational schools, mathematics teachers should be trained how to use equipment in the laboratory and curriculum planners should include the use of mathematics laboratory in the curriculum. 

Determinants of Public Spending in Jordan*
Published at American Journal of Economics and Finance (AJEF)
Taleb Awad-Warad, Ph.D. & Professor of Economics
The University of Jordan, Jordan
Jameel Aljaloudi, Professor of Economics
Albalqa Applied University, Jordan
Yaseen M. Altarawneh, Assistant Professor of Economics
The University of Jordan, Jordan

The study main objective is to empirically evaluate the relative importance of the determinants of public spending in Jordan. To achieve its objective, it uses annual time series data covering the period 1980-2017. In light of the results of unit root test and cointegration analysis, Fully Modified Least Squares (FMLS) is used to estimate the econometric model of government expenditures determination. Consistent with economic theory, the empirical results confirm the following key determinants of public spending in Jordan: government revenues, military spending, balance of trade, trade openness and unemployment, respectively. All of these determinants of public spending carry the correct expected sign and statistically significant at better than 1%.

Construction and Practice of Project-based Thematic Teaching Mode (PBTTM) Based on Production-oriented Approach (POA)*
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Xiaojuan Su, Lecturer
Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, China

Based on the Production-oriented Approach (POA), the Project-based Thematic Teaching Method (PBTTM) is integrated into the Basic English classroom teaching, with an aim to solve the problems such as paying too much attention to language knowledge and neglecting the cultivation of skills and critical thinking ability, which has existed for a long time in the Basic English classroom. Based on the reflection on the relevant teaching practice, this paper constructs the Project-based Thematic Teaching Mode (PBTTM). Practice has proved that PBTTM has a significant effect on English language teaching.

 A Study on Application of Problem-based Learning (PBL) in English for Chemical Engineering Teaching*
Published at American Journal of Higher Education (AJHE)
Xiaojuan SU, Lecturer
Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, China
Lu Guo, Corresponding author
Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, China
Menglan Zhao
Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, China

In view of the problems existing in college English for Chemical Engineering teaching, this paper applies Problem-based Learning (PBL) teaching method to teaching practice, and aims to find a new way out for English for Chemical Engineering classroom teaching. Practice has proved that the “student-centered” PBL teaching method is not only consistent with the philosophy of language learning, but also can improve the international competence of students in the field of chemical engineering.

Waste and Art in Contemporary Nigeria: A Review*
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Antonia Okogwu, Ph. D. & Senior Lecturer
University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Waste and art in Contemporary Nigerian visual art is so visible that one cannot ignore. Artists such as El Anatsui, Dil Humphrey-Umezulike, Nnenna Okore, Ndidi Dike and many more consistently expressed themselves with waste materials of metals, plastics, fibres, and paper. The hypothetical question here is why resort to waste materials as material in art creation in Nigeria. Zero waste is the theoretical frame on which this study is hinged. The mythological approach of this study is qualitative mode with recourse to descriptive cataloguing of some visible consistent waste artists in Nigeria. Wastes in contemporary Nigeria is so indigenized that names like tokumbo, okrica, aboki, bend down select are indigenous names associated 4 with wastes of second hand value of which the Nigerian artist have researched on and alleviated to objects of unique value to eco–sensitive artistic statements that appeal to the beholder to consciously be aware of the dangers of wastes as liter or menace in the environment.

Multi-objective Resource Scheduling for Qos-based Cloud Computing*
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Hilaire NKUNZIMANA, Lecturer
University of Burundi, Burundi
William Sahinguvu, senior Lecturer
University of Burundi

Cloud computing represents the new computing paradigm. Due to its essence and nature it has brought some challenges such as security and quality of service. In order to ensure good quality of service, one should carefully manage computing resources available in the cloud. In this paper, we propose a cloud computational resource scheduling algorithm based on a genetic algorithm. First, the genetic algorithm is improved and applied to solve the problem of virtual machine allocation in cloud computing. We describe the modelling process for chromosomes and genes that correspond to the virtual machine scheduling problems. This scheduling algorithm aims at optimal placement of virtual machines in order to make full usage of the CPU and hence curb the waste time and energy of idle machines.

Effects of Insect-control Compounds on the Systematically Increasing in Crop Production Against Desert Locust 
Published at American Academic Journal of Agriculture (AAJA)
Muhammad Aziz, Ph.D. Scholar
Sindh Agriculture University, Pakistan

Desert Locust, according to Schistocerca gregaria (Magora, Lecoqb & Hunter, 2008) is a famous agricultural pest that causes severe damage to crops and leads to economic losses in different agricultural stages. In recent years, agricultural practitioners realized the importance of locust prevention and control to avoid or at least decrease the harmful environmental effects and the damage to organic cop production. As a result, the desert locust control becomes an emergent necessity to improve the overall grain production in the fields. According to Magora, Lecoqb & Hunter (2008), the success deploy of preventive control could possibly be realized in a systematic way by comparing population size, location, fields quality, locust distribution and acid level before and after the strategy was carried out by employing effective control tools and techniques. The research result found that in order to effectively control the severe influence of desert locust, one to two years’ research and preparation should become a routine work by agricultural practitioners. The research result also revealed that the combination of new-chemistry insecticides could be used as an effective measure and also could be an important factor for the integrated pest management of locust.  *

Globalization, New Managerialism, and Global Disturbance: The Changing Academic Climate in the Multiple Dimensions of World’s Higher Education
Published at American Journal of Higher Education (AJHE) 
Natal Wolhuter, Research Scholar
Flensburg University of Applied Sciences, Germany

In view of the trends in global higher education, Altbach, Reisberg, Liz (2019) pointed out that providing higher education to all aspects for a country’s general population means confronting social inequalities completely rooted in history, culture, social and economic structure which may influence each individual to compete in society. By investigating the changing nature of the academic profession in contemporary society, the researcher narrowed down the research scope of this particular article to globalization, new managerialism, and global disturbance: the changing academic climate in the dynamic dimension of world’s higher education. First of all, the researcher globalization, new managerialism, and global disturbance by citing extensive references and self-interpretation. Second, the author reviewed the basic literature in the recent educational field and illustrated how to improve the cognitive recognition of the basic concepts mentioned. By comparing the two distinctive schools of academic assertions, the author skillfully left the research questions for readers to doubt, dispute, reflect, summarize and conclude. It is envisioned by the author that in the future comparative work on trends in higher education, researchers should take particular attention on both the practical aspects and the methodological aspect based on extensive research and deduction.  *

Application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Among Healthcare Workers: A Transformative and Fundamental Technology in the Medical Field
Published at American Journal of Computer Sciences (AJCS)
Takashi Suzuki, Ph.D. & Researcher
Kansai University, Japan

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the similarity of human intelligence that is processed by some systems. In Schönberger (2019), AI was perceived as the most transformative and fundamental technology in the 21st century. Even in the medical field, AI gradually gained momentum and started to lead the trend of gradually changing the infrastructure of medical practices. With the practical nature of Artificial Intelligence (AI) as well as Machine learning, deep learning, and image processing work in the field of medical imaging, AI will totally change our perspective in healthcare work and it will definitely benefit the real life of healthcare. As we can also witness from the current society in the modern era that in every aspect of medical fields, medical practitioners are employing advanced AI technology to take care of patients, make medical decisions for patients and family members.  With the fast development of AI technology in the medical field, healthcare work will embrace a prosperous and fruitful future.  *

Effects of Biochemically Triggered Heat Stress (BTHS) on Crop Plants: A Futuristic Perspective
Published at American Academic Journal of Agriculture (AAJA)
Amal Ali, Ph.D. Scholar
University of Karachi, Pakistan

Extensive Heat Stress (EHS) is defined as an important environmental stress which confines plant growth, development, metabolism, fruition, and productivity on the worldwide scale (Hasanuzzaman & Nahar, 2013). Plant growth development and productivity actually concerns countless biochemical interaction and reactions that are sensitive to temperature. Gradually rising environmental temperature is the key component for environmental control, which is in advance of most perilous abiotic stress. Nanotechnology, viewing the agricultural sectors, have captured intensive research efforts because of their distinctive properties and numerous applications. A field trial was performed to evaluate the effect of HHS levels on growth, yield and quality of crop under heat stress. The plant measurements were made for heat induced changes on osmolytes accumulation, lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress and antioxidative response, seed nutrient and yield attributes at flowering stage. Among all sowing dates, the crop which was sown on March 7, 2018 (First sowing date), statistically performed better than other sowing dates although foliar application of 20 ppm zinc oxide nanoparticles ameliorate mungbean performance under both, no heat and heat induced environments.  *

Constructive Analysis of Ideology and Discourse: A Critical Review of News Coverage and Ratings
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Richard Garcia, Ph. D. & Lecturer
Montana State University, USA


According to TEUN (2007), contrary to most traditional descriptive methods, ideologies are hereby defined within a multidisciplinary framework which unites social, cognitive and discursive sub-components. The current study shaded a critical look at the news reports of the Saudi Arabia. Previous research has focused on media ratings which pays to ideology and public opinion. However, it also has been described how changing in media discourse affects the process. This study analyzed the 20 news reports originated from Saudi Arabia using the method of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). The results show that the differences in the reports using variation patterns which in turn possess the potential of changing and monitoring readers` ideologies and thinking patterns via influencing their opinions and world view on the nature of power relations and interactional activities. The current research tries to contribute to the area of research on media discourse and ideology construction by arguing that discourse variation has not been sufficiently defined and interpreted. An effort will also be made to offer tentative resorts of such dynamic variation.  *

Comprehensive Effects of Biochar Application: A Sustainable and Holistic Method to Achieve the Increase of Crop Production 
Published at American Academic Journal of Agriculture (AAJA)
Joseph Moore, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
University of Exeter, UK

The current research focused on the comprehensive effects of Biochar application and how to achieve sustainable increase in the production of agricultural crop production. From previous research, we can see that maltreatment of inorganic fertilizers has become non -sustainable or increasingly not affordable in many areas of agricultural practice around the world due to loss of soil erosion, soil fertility, and increased fertilizer cost. Furthermore, fertilizers which are chemical in nature also polluting soil, water and air and pose many toxic products in living communities. Since the increasing fertilizer cost and urban sprawl, which quickly decrease the agricultural farm and quality of soilj, an alternative method was required to achieve sustainability in agricultural crop production. Biochar is this kind of alternative and well-recognized method by scientists because of its major role in carbon sequestration, decreasing the emissions of greenhouse gases, waste management, renewable sources of energy and a rich source of nutrients as an amendment in soil. Studies in this research demonstrated that Biochar was a reliable and porous solid charcoal-similar material, with rich carbon obtained from the pyrolysis of various organic material e.g., farm and forest and chicken litter. The current critical review summarizes about biochar production through comparison, application and influence on soil physicochemical properties, as well as interaction with the soil microorganisms, the key role in the soil after amendment with mobilizing bacteria, effects in the reduction in greenhouse gases and metal contamination and its positive and negative impacts on plant growth and yield attribute when biochar was operated in the soil.  *

Effectiveness of Mass Communication in Changing Human Behavior: The Impact and Result of Strategical Analysis of SNSs Application on Social Events
Published at American Journal of Human Resource Management (AJHRM)
Charles Davis, Ph.D. Scholar
Robert Gordon University, UK

This paper aims at finding out the effectiveness of mass communication in changing human behavior and how SNSs Application could possibly strategically change the social events. The researcher started the article by summarizing the current category of SNSs and reviewing the current controversies of SNSs application. Then based on the literature review and data analysis, the researchers posted challenging questions about misconduct of social networking tools in the field of mass communication. One of the unsolved problems remains on how to define mass media and mass communication in the 21st century with rich tech and artificial intelligence. And how to encourage the community to get involved in communications planning, disseminating communication information and achieving the goal of mass communications.   *

Considerations for Home and Community-Based  COVID-19 Pandemic: The Undiscovered Consequences Among Iranian Startups
Published at American Journal of Health Science (AJHS)
Robert Johnson, Ph.D.
University of Richmond, USA


Due to the allocation of health resources and services, it is commonly believed that community-based protection and prevention is very effective to cut off Covid-19 transmission at the beginning stage. Recent years, the COVID-19 abrupt outbreak has become a major concern with substantial effects on markets, and the world economy. The impact of COVID-19 is assessed to be even more than all the previous global pandemic. In this short-term, due to the impacts of this pandemic, startups are more prone to fail or succeed faster than ever before; however, the challenges they face are not yet clearly scrutinized, as the pandemic was faster than scholars. This study therefore investigates the main challenges of Iranian startups by interviewing the co-founders of fifteen well-known startups. The two-step coding was used to analyze findings and these findings were explained in a focus group session to which startup co-founders, policymakers, and scholars were invited. It was concluded, six principal types of challenges are major concern by this pandemic, including, human resources management, support measures financial and marketing, mechanisms, crisis management, and few others. The research will have great impact and influence on alleviating the current emergent situation.   *

Education, Knowledge and Economy in the Triangle of Recent Urban Development: The Case for New Entrepreneurs under Constraints of Neoliberalism and Higher Education Matrix 
Published at American Journal of Higher Education (AJHE)
Rosemary Williams, Ph.D. and Instructor
Mount Saint Vincent University, Canada
Michael Brown, Ph.D.
Mount Saint Vincent University, Canada


Education opportunity is considered to be one of the most valuable factors in the economic development and employee retain rate. This particular research will demonstrate how the co-effect of education, knowledge and economy will influence recent urban development. The domination of neoliberalism and the connected discourses of new public management during the 1990s to 2000s has introduced a fundamental uplift in the way of higher education in universities and other institutions. Each has defined and justified their institutional existence. The old professional culture of intellectual enquiry and examination has been replaced with institutional new performativity, as evidenced by the emergence of an emphasis on measured outputs: on planned development, student performance, quality assurance measures and academic credit and audits. This paper identified the links between neoliberalism and globalization as well as neoliberalism and the knowledge economy. According to it, in a global neoliberal environment, the role of higher education in economic development is governed by governments as having greater importance to the extent that higher education has become the new star ship in the policy fleet for governments around the world. Universities are the basic driver for economic knowledge and as a consequence higher education institutions have been encouraged to develop links with industry. The recognition of the economic importance of higher education for economic viability is necessary to promote greater entrepreneurial skills and develop the new performative measures to enhance output to achieve targets. This paper attempts to document these trends at the level of both political philosophy and economic theory. The author believes that the research result will give the light in the research of education, economy and urban development.   *

Increasing Optimal Efficiency of Crop Production under the Negative Influence of Global Greenhouse Effect
Published at American Academic Journal of Agriculture (AAJA)
Bradley Smith, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
Pepperdine University, USA

The Green Revolution in 1960s enabled a sharp increase of the production of major staple grain crops (wheat, corn, rice, etc) to solve the ever-increasing demands of an increasing global population growing with geometric numbers. This article focused on how to increase the optimal efficiency of crop production under the impact of global greenhouse effect. We understand that the climate change effects have advanced in the past decade, there are still gaps in knowledge regarding the potential impacts of climate change on agriculture. These gaps are especially wide when it comes to specialized cultivation systems such as those of fruit and vegetable, which globally provide a high contribution to the human diet. To fill these gaps, we need a multifaceted approach that integrates physiology and genomics tools and might thus provide comprehensive answers, aiming at future needs. The increase in atmospheric CO2 is one of the main drivers of the climate changes and the increase of the global temperature. The CO2 molecule is also an essential nutrient for plants and increases in its concentration in the atmosphere have the potential to improve plant productivity (Leisner, 2020). However, optimizing the repose of plants to the increase in CO2 is a challenge due to its  complex interaction with the regulation of stomata, transpiration and the efficiency of water use, issues discussed in detail in open stomata  agriculture by Fara et al. 2019. The cultivation of crops with high productive potential and with greater resilience to biotic and abiotic stresses is seen as one of the methods with the greatest potential for obtaining higher yields, reducing the use of pesticides and without increasing the cultivated areas. Advances in genomics revolutionized and accelerated plant breeding. This will continue as costs decrease and more advanced methods are developed and applied. This was discussed by Gomes et al. 2020, in the characterization of a germplasm bank of Cucurbita moschata D. where they described the genetic relationships of agro-morphological characteristics, with the purpose of identifying early flowering genotypes, genotypes with high total levels of carotenoids in the fruit pulp and those with high potential for seed productivity and seed oil. There is an urgent need to support resilient and sustainable agriculture and the path is implementing cultivation practices and identifying new genes for agriculture. These genes should be directed to the optimization of production, mainly for the development of characteristics such as greater efficiency in the use of water, aspect fundamental in the current scenario, aiming at greater productive efficiency, less energy input and less risks to the environment.  *

Contributing Factors in Determining Balance Between Job Opportunities, Job Employment and Job Satisfaction in European Countries 
Craig Henderson , Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
University of Houston, USA

Nowadays, due to the harsh competition in job market, job opportunities declines year by year. Even if people were employed, the benefits for job and the satisfaction in job decrease. How to balance between Job opportunities, job employment and job satisfaction in European countries remains critical changes to be reasonably resolved. This research aims to discover contributing factors in determining balance between job opportunities, job employment and job satisfaction in European countries and the implication was also disclosed at the end of the article.  *

The Critical Perspectives in Efficiently Managing and Evaluating Corporate Employee Conducts, Operation Risks and Policy Optimization with the Help of Practical Real-world Examples, Empirical Research Result and Employees' Cooperation 
Vincent Griffin, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor 
Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada

In recent years, research on assessing employee behavior, operational risk, and policy optimization has gradually increased. But how to use the practical real-world examples, the experience of research results and the cooperation of employees, as three effective means, effectively manage and evaluate the risk of employee behavior, operation and policy optimization is comparatively rare. This research article combines real-life examples and empirical survey methods to achieve optimal management and evaluation on the corporate employee behavior, operational risk and policy optimization so that the company's employees' work capacity improves, behavior standardized, and product quality promoted.  This research will serve as an inspirational guide for the future development and prosperity of modern enterprises. *

Practice Guideline of Patient Treatment under Protection of Scientific Interventions ---A Tentative Assumption of Medical Research
Ali Flores, Ph.D. & Lecturer
Future University in Egypt, Egypt    
Raymond Nelson, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
Adelphi University, USA

Recent years of research in patient intervention treatment has made great breakthrough and the study in this field also shifted from theoretical hypothesis to practical treatment process. This specific study will introduce the practical guideline of patient treatment process and result under the protection of scientific intervention to ensure the safety and security of the progress of the practice. With examples, research survey, the author also revealed the possible direction of future medical research and the research findings and implications were also discussed. *

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