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 Volume 5, Issue 2, June 2017 

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Root Causes Responsible for Trafficking of Children for Domestic Work in Pakistan
Ilyas Khan, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Pakistan
Zhu Lijiang, Associate Professor
China University of Political Science and Law, China
Muhammad Zubair, Chairman & Associate Professor

Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Pakistan

Syed Muhammad Amir, PhD Scholar

China Agricultural University, China


Trafficking of children for domestic work is a complex and multidimensional phenomenon and requires multidisciplinary approach which should be based on a comprehensive analysis of the root causes of the issue. The analysis of the root causes of trafficking of children for domestic work in Pakistan must consider the relevant factors that are specific to Pakistani society, namely its socio-economic circumstances and its poverty level. This paper aims to identify and examine the major causes responsible for trafficking of children for domestic work in Pakistan. In addition, the study provides how legal response to those significant causes related to this problem.

A  Study on Awareness  Towards Income Tax in Nepal
Deelip Raj Pandey
Chonbuk National University, Korea
Ji Young Jeong, Professor
Chonbuk National University, Korea

As we know that government has to do a lot of things for economic development and growth for the nation. Such as social security, development activities & others. To full fill this responsibilities every government needs fund, so in this situation where the money comes for the government? The answer is obviously the sources of tax revenue, revenues from government corporations and public enterprises, fees, special assessment, fines and penalties and foreign grants. Among them, tax is the main source of collecting the public revenues because it occupies the most important part of government treasury. So every countries either that is developed, developing or underdeveloped, policy makers always keep on telling that government should have to collect the appropriate tax amount. Yes it is true but how? Is important question so in this piece of research I tried to portray the important of tax amount  as well as putting some light on the part of  that in the developing country like Nepal people are unknown about the its  importance by the help of primary data analysis. Hence in order to collect the appropriate and optimum tax amount government should have to make awareness to the people about the tax and its importance by providing the different activities and programs.  

Beliefs and Preferences of Having Elective Caesarean Delivery Among Female Attendees to Primary Care Centers in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia 
Noura Al-Mousa, Ph. D.
Armed Forces Hospital  , Saudi Arabia

The influence of women's birth preferences on the rising cesarean section rates is uncertain and possibly changing. This study relating to women's request for cesarean delivery explores assumptions related to the social, cultural, and political-economic contexts of maternity care and decision making. The maternal request drew the attention  to explain the factors behind the escalating percentages of the women who prefer to undergone elective CS .

Objectives of this study are:

(1 ) To determine knowledge and believes about caesarean sections among women attending primary health care centers in the Eastern Province.

(2 )To determine the factors influencing their decision to undergo caesarian section;

Methodology : A Cross sectional study conducted on  the women attending primary health care center(PHCC).386 questionnaire was collected using a pre-designed self administered questionnaire includes Socio-demographic characteristics, number of children ,Items and statements reflecting knowledge and believes of the women towards the elective Caesarean section. 

Results:  It was found that 157 (58.4%) of the women had previous CS, and two thirds of them was done without definite medical indication. Furthermore, about half of the women (49.7%) indicated that they agree to undergo CS in the future. It was found that the percentage of those who agree to undergone CS in the future was significantly increasing with the age 83.7% among those aged 40+ years. Also, the percentage was almost doubled among those who have university qualifications (66.9%). Similarly, the percentages were increasing consistently with increased monthly income 56% among those with monthly income >10000 SR. most common sources of information for the women  about caesarean section were the family and friends (41.6%) and the own accepted experience (30.7%). Whereas physicians constituted only 7.6% . 38.9% of them the choice of CS was their own decision, and 28.7%  took the decision supported by their treating physicians, and 14.4% were supported by their husbands. (32.5%) of the women who had undergone caesarean section they had been exposed to pressure while taking their decision where the main source of these pressures which was the family members (54.5%), and the least to were the treating physicians (5.5%). most commonly agreed factor among women for choice of caesarean section is the previous history of CS among relatives and friends (76.4%), and experience of the operating physician (74.5%), followed by the nature of CS being less painful than that encountered on vaginal delivery (68.8%). While the least agreed factor is the impact of CS on keeping the marital relationship. Factor discouraging the choice of caesarean section was its complication on the mother (75.3%), followed by being less rewarding than vaginal delivery (73.1%), and leaving unpleasant skin mark (60.3%).  On the other side, the least recorded discouraging factor for choice of CS is being has more complications for the mothers.

Conclusion: The psychosocial context of obstetric care and decision reveals a powerful imbalance. Hence attention should be directed towards the mental health care improvement of the female in the  community in the childbearing age.  Health Care providers and childbirth educators need to become familiar with the social influences impacting women's decisions for mode of delivery so that truly informed choice discussions can be undertaken. Research into decision making that does not account for the way care is offered, observe interactions between women and practitioners, and analyze the context of Psychological care should be interpreted with caution.

An Analysis of Legal Advertisements for Cannabis Products in Colorado


Joanne Gula, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor

Colorado State University, USA


Jiaxi Shen, MFA & Assistant Professor

Colorado State University, USA


Cannabis was legalized in Colorado on November 6, 2012. It is illegal to advertise dispensaries that sell these products utilizing any electronic source or social media that sends a signal beyond Colorado’s borders. However, print advertisements are legal and are utilized by dispensaries in very competitive ways. This paper will examine the print advertisements for cannabis from three cities in Colorado (Denver, Colorado Springs, and Pueblo) that are published in local news magazines. These publications have been collected from July 2015 until January 2016. There are hundreds of advertisements available for analysis. Advertising appeals and incentives will be coded into categories that are used to sell these products. Sellers create many appeals and tactics to entice consumers (e.g.: coupons, apps, discounts, holiday specials, and rewards cards to name a few).  The advertisements will also be examined for size, color, visuals, headlines and other design and copy aspects created to attract the consumer’s attention and get them to purchase their cannabis products.

A Study of Disappointed Love and Vengeance in Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights
Ali Albashir Mohammed Alhaj, Ph.D. & Associate Professor
King Khalid University, Kingdom of Arabia

The present study aims at studying critically the themes of disappointed Love and Vengeance in Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights. Emily Bronte in   her fascinating '' Wuthering Heights'', she proves that man is a creature who   differs from all   the other creatures. The main difference lies in the extremeness of the feelings of love, hate and revenge in every human being.  In her metaphysics, love is the primary law of human nature and paramount principle of her universe. Adhere to, it is at once the source of joy and harmony; rejected or subverted, it becomes the fountainhead of enmity and revenge.  

Estimation of Crustal Structure Beneath Nile Delta Region from the Spectrum of P Wave

Ali Ahmed Gharib, Professor

National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt


Gaber Hassan Hasseip, Professor

National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt


Ahmed Ali Hosnney, Associate Professor

National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt


Gad El Kareem Mohmed, Associate Professor

National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt


Iman Farag Hassan, Associate Professor

National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt


Yaseen Mahmoud Mostfa, Ph.D.

National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt


The crustal velocity structure beneath Nile Delta region is derived using the spectral ratio of P-wave. The applied tool result shows three major crustal parts: upper crustal part followed by middle crustal part underlain by lower crustal part followed by most upper mantle part. This study is  aiming to construct crustal structure models beneath accelerometers sensors in Nile Delta region in order to obtain general crustal structure model beneath Nile Delta region using transfer function tool. However, Transfer function tool (TF) could be applicable with accelerometer seismic data where it is first time for any seismologist to use acceleration seismic data for modeling crustal structure in Egypt.

The obtained crustal model shows three major )upper, middle and lower crustal parts)  with four distinguishable  layers above  the upper most mantle part where the  p-wave velocity is 3.43 km/sec for the first 2.4 km as a soft sediment underlain by thicker and hard rock (Hard deposits) with P- wave velocity of 4.97 km/sec. The thickness of the second layer (basement) is 6.8 km. Those two layers represent upper crustal part which is unconsolidated material. The third layer shows P-wave velocity of 5.92 km/sec with 7.15 km thickness which presented the Middle crustal part. The fourth layer shows P-wave velocity of 6.8 km/sec with thickness of 16.33 km as a lower crustal part above MOHO DIS. part at depths ranging from 27 to 36.5 KM.

Traffic Density Based Light Control System
Inam Ullah Khan
Center for Emerging Sciences Engineering & Technology, Pakistan

Muhammad Umar Khan
Center for Emerging Sciences Engineering & Technology, Pakistan

Hafiz Muhammmad Salman
Center for Emerging Sciences Engineering & Technology, Pakistan

Syed Bilal Hussain Shah
Dalian Univerrsity of Technology, P.R. China

In present, vehicular traffic is increasing throughout the world, especially in large urban areas. As the number of road user’s increase constantly and current resources & infrastructures being limited; a smart traffic control will become a very important issue in the future. These needs have led to an ever increasing demand for an “intelligent” traffic control system. Therefore, optimization of traffic control to better accommodate this increasing demand is needed. Our project will demonstrate the optimization of traffic lights in a city using wireless sensors. Traffic light optimization is a tough problem. With multiple junctions, the complexity increases as the state of one light node influences the flow of traffic towards many other nodes. We proposed a traffic light controller that allows us to control and study different situations of traffic density. We sense the density of traffic using infra-red sensors. The key role behind the implementation of the “Traffic density based light control system” is to make use of an AT89C51 controller which performs processing of the real time data provided by the infra -red sensors, eventually controlling the traffic flow via the LED traffic lights.

Local Border Traffic: Case Study on Bosnia & Herzegovina and Croatia

Adnan Mahmutovic, Ph.D. &  Assistant Professor

Prince Mohammad bin Fahd University, Saudi Arabia 


Mark Olson, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor  

Prince Mohammad bin Fahd University, Saudi Arabia


Employing content analysis of articles, reports, legal and other documents, this paper focusses on key aspects of the local border traffic (LBT) regime between Bosnia & Herzegovina and Croatia. Regime, as used in this context, refers to a system of border management. The advantages and disadvantages of LBT regimes are examined from both border security and border mobility perspectives, including their respective impacts on borderland residents who are involved in socio-cultural and economic exchanges. In the absence of any extent theories, the paper’s thesis is that LBT traffic regimes can succeed in controlling crime and illegal immigration only if a conscious effort is made to maintain a balance between border security and border mobility activities. Among the key findings of the paper is that both countries, especially Bosnia and Herzegovina, need to expand border crossing infrastructure and deepen training activities established through bilateral cooperation at the grass roots level. 

The Referential and Pragmatic Values in the Use of Euphemism in Doctors-Patients' Interaction in Jordanian Governmental Hospitals
Yousef Ahmad Saleem Aljabali, English Language Instructor
Ministry of Education, Jordan

This research aims at exploring  the referential and pragmatic values in the use of euphemism in doctors and patients' interaction in Jordanian governmental hospitals. It investigates the reasons beyond using euphemistic language in medical atmosphere.  It includes a corpus of 68 doctors (males and females)  from 5 Jordanian governmental hospitals in different places. The researcher used cluster sampling process to select the sample of the study. This study involves two research instruments: a tape-recorder and interview technique. The findings of this qualitative and quantitative study indicated that using euphemistic language affects patients positively and plays an important role in enhancing doctor-patient interaction, reducing stress and anxiety, and keeping the patient safe.

Humor in Ahmad Hassan Alzubi's Sarcastic Show
Anwar Riziq Abu Alia
Zarqa University, Jordan 

This research tackles the verbal humor in Ahmad Alzubi's hints in his show; ManSaf Baladi; (a traditional Jordanian dish) which is construed literally; Who Rules My Country. This research refers also to how this verbal humor is presented before people.   

A descriptive research has been used to examine the research questions. Five videos of Ahmad Alzubi's referred to the subject were used as basis to answer the research questions, the researcher takes into consideration that the respective videos language used in the videos is Arabic language and translation or explanations have been provided once needed for easy understanding.

The researcher finds out that verbal humor in Ahmad Alzubi's hints in his show; ManSafBaladi; (a traditional Jordanian dish) which is construed literally; Who Rules My Country, is presented through puns, satire device;  burlesque, inflation, malapropism,anachronism, understatement /diminution, deflation, grotesque, invective, sarcasm, mock encomium, and also it is presented through wordplay, allusion, parody, irony and joke performance. 

An Introduction to Arab-Islamic Thought in Spain
Ghassan Ismail Abdel Khaliq, Ph.D. & Associate professor
Philadelphia University, Jordan 

This article attempts to highlight the following four points:

- That the dearth of philosophic thinking before the Islamic conquest of Spain expedited the spread of Islam according to al-Awzā’ī’s thinking.

- That the practical aspects of the Mālikite doctrine were in harmony with the practicality of the Andalusians.

- That the predominance of the Mālikite doctrine, which was encouraged by the Omayyad princes and caliphs responded to the internal need for solidarity to stem the threat of the Christian kingdoms.

- That the princes and caliphs sacrificed Islamic Kalām and philosophy more than once in order to appease the common people, who were influenced by the Mālikite jurisprudents.

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