Volume 10, Issue 1, March 2022

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Stereotypes and the Cinema of Africa
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
 
Barthelomew Gerald Aguugo
University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Abstract

The agitation for “Africanness” of the African Cinema came promptly; so did the resolve to launch counteractive actions towards the stereotypical impressions of the African peoples, which was eminent in the imperialist rules across the continent. It is in this same manner, that image reclamation and reconstruction of the negative stereotypes about Africa—as presented through the Colonial Film Unit in Nigeria and other colonial enterprises in West Africa became a concern for the pioneer filmmakers and scholars in various regions of the continent. Obviously, the concept of colonialism was to control or enslave the entire territory, gain access to their languages and cultures and then change them to suit their aim. This work is aimed at undoing the negative stereotypes created about West Africa. Haven used a qualitative research approach, the paper finds that the colonial governments in West Africa and other parts of the continent targeted the minds of the people, played a “mental supremacy game” on them and consequently altered their cultures, projecting and determining how they see themselves and how they relate to the rest of the world. Frowning at the foregoing, the paper makes salient recommendations, key of which is the need for institutions and professional guilds and associations within Nollywood to enact required reforms towards changing the negative impressions about Africa.

Attitudes and Practices Among Physicians to Lifestyle Interventions for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Noura almousa, Consultant Diabetologist
Armed Forces Hospital, Saudi Arabia 
Ahmed almalki , PhD family Physician 
Armed forces hospital, Saudi Arabia 
Ghada alfaleh, PhD Family Physician 
Armed Forces Hospital, Saudi Arabia 
Mohamed aljohny, PhD Family Physician 
Armed Forces Hospital, Saudi Arabia 
 
 Abstract

BACKGROUND: Family physicians play a major role in diabetes management. Studies in Saudi Arabia on the attitudes and practices of family physicians regarding diabetes management, including lifestyle interventions, are very limited.

OBJECTIVES: To examine family physician attitudes and practices regarding lifestyle interventions for patients with diabetes, and to determine the doctors’ perceived barriers to lifestyle interventions.

METHODS: A cross-sectional design was used to study 196 family physicians between September and October 2016. Physicians taking care of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) were conveniently recruited from 3 primary care centers located in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. A structured, self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information. A ‘positive’ attitude was defined as having a score ≥ median. RESULTS: Out of 196 physicians, 115 (58.7%) were males and the mean age was 39.8±5.8 years. Positive responses to the 10 attitude questions ranged between 52.0% and 86.0%, with an average of 79.0%. Frequent referral (>10 times during the last 6 months) to dietitians was 63.8% and to other specialized services ranged between 0.0% and 4.6%. The overall ‘frequent referral’ mean of 60.0% ranged between 40.0% and 73.0%. Frequent referral to weight loss programs was significantly associated with positive attitudes towards lifestyle interventions for patients with diabetes (p=0.004) while frequent referral to endocrinologists or diabetologists was significantly associated with ‘negative’ attitudes (p=0.007). The majority of the physicians reported the following items as barriers for the initiation of lifestyle counseling among their patients: busy doctor’s schedule (97.4%), non-cooperative patients (97.4%), lack of resources such as educational materials to take away (96.9%), lack of multidisciplinary team communication (94.9%), poor patient adherence with scheduled visits (93.9%), and lack of referral pathways (93.4%).

CONCLUSIONS: There is a generally positive attitude towards lifestyle interventions but relatively low referral practices among a sample of family physicians caring for patients with T2D in Saudi Arabia. Several system and patient barriers have been reported to limit both the initiation and effectiveness of lifestyle counseling. The current findings can be potentially helpful in identifying the components required for establishing a local improvement initiative to promote lifestyle counselling and referral practices.

The Shortage of Female Doctoral Students in U.S. Graduate Engineering Programs 
Published at American Journal of Higher Education (AJHE)
Fareeda Zikry, Researcher
Stanford University, USA
Abstract

The shortage of U.S. female engineering doctoral students' parallels rising concerns about the ability of the United States to compete in the global economy. My main research objective is, therefore, to identify university level factors that are associated with the lower enrollment and graduation rates of U.S. females in doctoral engineering programs. This study aims to understand and identify gaps in the knowledge base directly related to the chilly climate, which is an environment where women can face subtle forms of discrimination. In this study, I focused on the chilly climate that U.S. female Ph.D. students can encounter in engineering programs at American research universities. Drawing from multivariate regression models, my findings indicate that the enrollment and the graduation rates of U.S. female engineering doctoral students are higher in universities with a greater degree of economically supported students, female faculty, female teaching assistants and research assistants, and a lower student to faculty ratio. Using the status of women in organizational theory, I interpret these findings to show that a supportive environment is essential to the proportion of women that enroll and graduate from doctoral engineering programs. 

The Chinese Perspective to Recognize Medical Rescuing: An Analysis of Policy, Regulations and Professional Practices **
 
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Josh Tremblay, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
Waterford, Ireland 

 Abstract


Medical Rescuing was in high stake during the professional practices in many countries, especially developing countries such as China. Based on oriental perspective, this research proposed a critical analysis of policy, regulations and professional practices in medical rescuing based on three continuous observable stages. In the history of medical practices, the medical instructors were always recognized as unique personnel whose knowledge, experiences and professional levels were believed to be of critical importance for the overall development of medical institutions. Though a lot of empirical investigations were conducted to identify the double perspectives on the view of identifying medical instructors as both trainer and researcher, it is still worthwhile to deeply lay insight on what special professional characteristics contribute to the climax of their professional practices. As a result, this empirical study plans to give particular insights of a holistic picture to readers on this problematic issue of medical professional’s mysterious behavior and level of satisfaction through providing sophisticated implications and enriched data analysis. This study is of great importance in the field of medical professional practices and it will inspire future research on analysis of policy, regulations and professional practices during the process of medical rescuing. *

Study of the Guiding Values of The Classic of Family Reverence in Promoting College Students’ Ideology and Morality
Published at American Journal of Higher Education (AJHE)
Siyuan Chen
Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, China
Yaqin He
Advisor & Corresponding Author
Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, China

Abstract

Moral education plays an important role in the cultivation of contemporary college students’ personality. Since a wave of sinology prevailed, traditional virtues have been mentioned again. And we tend to receive knowledge and nutrients from traditional culture. As an excellent book of traditional Chinese culture, The Classic of Family Reverence has been passed on for many years. Previous studies have shown that the classic has had a huge impact in history. In present society, it also has an impact on us in all aspects. However, in order to promote the inheritance and development of traditional excellent culture, we must explore its guiding values allowing contemporary college students to deepen their understanding of the classic, establish cultural consciousness and cultural confidence, cultivate a good, healthy and progressive personality, create a good harmonious family relationship, and then form a good atmosphere in the society. This paper adopts the way of case study, taking the two groups of the students who have learned The Classic of Family Reverence in our school and those who have not taken the class as the cases. By questionnaire and interviews, it analyzes the guiding values of the book for college students’ ideology and morality. It is found that these guiding values are not only reflected in their thoughts, but also in their action and practice. However, in order to have a deeper understanding of the guiding values of the book, more life observation and interviews are needed.

Quantum Cognition Framework: How to Predict Human Normal Interaction Decision-making and Human Irrational Behavior **
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
James Baker, Ph.D. & Professor
Iowa, USA
 
 
Melissa Baldwin, Ph. D. & Lecturer
Iowa, USA

Abstract

Some scientists believe that quantum mechanics can help explain human interaction, decision-making and human irrational behaviors. This research is a very innovative and meaningful topic because from history, quantum cognition, human psychology and human behavior are not seemingly and rationally correlated. In addition, to predict human behavior by using quantum cognition was completely ignored by researchers all over the world for decades. Based upon the classical theory of quantum cognition, recent scientists found that there are many 'irrational' human behaviors which can be modeled and thus predicted by quantum theory. And by using quantum cognition model, we can also predict people's choices, decision-making process and other human behaviors. This hypothesis was based on the fact that the quantum trajectory is associated with human body movement, mood and thinking pattern and thus the logic could be explained or partially explained by quantum probability. Current research demonstrated a new perspective on predicting human behaviors. *

Comparison of MNC Owned R&D Centers in China and India as Emerging Nations in Innovation Leadership 
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Christian Amponsah, Ph.D. & Professor
Yorkville University, Canada
Daman Singh, MSc, Associate Professor
Yorkville University, Canada
Abstract

In this paper comparison is made between multi-national corporation owned research and development centers in China and India as Emerging Nations in Innovation Leadership. For decades, research and development (R&D) has been the backbone of innovation. This is because R&D supports the development of new technology, products, services, or systems which have the potential of touching all aspects of modern life. Drawing on the Ownership, Location and Internalization (OLI) framework, the paper provides a review of MNC owned R&D in the two countries and assesses the contributions of the MNC to the innovation and creativity of the two countries. The findings are that major motivation of foreign R&D in both locations are “market driven” instead of “technological driven” or “human resource driven”. However, there is a great variation of foreign R&D strategy across regions. The study concludes that market driven R&D is found mainly in China, which is called a world Global Factory, and does not have strong universities or PRIs.

Systematic Review of the Literature, Process and Development of Accountability Control: A Scientific Case Study **
Published at American Journal of Higher Education (AJHE)

Kenneth Jensen, Ph.D. & Researcher
University of New Hampshire, USA
Timothy Powell, Ph.D. & Associate Professor
Oklahoma State University, USA
Abstract

This article reviewed the research field of accountability control under the systematic review of literature, process and development. The research emcompasses the holistic domain of Management Control Systems (MCS), systematic literature, and accountability control. The article includes the definition of management control systems (MCS), the frameworks, graphic sketch, and conceptualizations of MCS with the illustration from the author's unique perspective. As we all recognize that accountability control could stay in the center of behavior, determination and final action, MCS could also function as the key element to facilitate accountability control and systematic development of original conceptualization. The author rebuilt and reconstructed the existing model of MCS and thus promoted the research of this scientific case study in a practical sense. The research result is of great value for future researchers focusing on the similar research topic. *

Strategies for Diplomatic Translation from Chinese into English—A Perspective of Political Equivalence
Published at American Journal of Higher Education (AJHE)
First Author: Yutong Jia
Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, China
 
Corresponding Author: Shan Ge, Lecturer
Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, China
Abstract

Diplomatic language has distinguished itself as being politically sensitive which requires political equivalence in diplomatic translation. The principle of political equivalence calls for accuracy and smoothness on the basis of political acuity. In diplomatic translation, the translator should maximize the conveyance of political, cultural and emotional effects of the original language. To achieve the purpose, some specific strategies such as adding words or grammatical components, and cutting down unnecessary words can be adopted. When it’s easy to find an accurate translation which is in accord with the original text, literal translation is suggested to convey the original sense. But because of differences between languages, literal translation may fail to convey the exact meaning of the original. In that case, some explanations should be added as supplements to get across original political meaning clearly to readers. When it’s hard to find specific translation of some abstract concepts or typical expressions due to cultural or historical differences, free translation should be adopted instead to convey the equivalent political meaning of the original text. When it comes to the names of places or islands, transliteration should be used to defend sovereignty. As for new political terms for which there are no established translations, new expressions can be coined to fully express the original political meaning.

Globalization, New Managerialism, and Global Disturbance: The Changing Academic Climate in the Multiple Dimensions of World’s Higher Education **
Published at American Journal of Higher Education (AJHE)
Natal Wolhuter, Research Scholar
Flensburg University of Applied Sciences, Germany
Abstract

In view of the trends in global higher education, Altbach, Reisberg, Liz (2019) pointed out that providing higher education to all aspects for a country’s general population means confronting social inequalities completely rooted in history, culture, social and economic structure which may influence each individual to compete in society. By investigating the changing nature of the academic profession in contemporary society, the researcher narrowed down the research scope of this particular article to globalization, new managerialism, and global disturbance: the changing academic climate in the dynamic dimension of world’s higher education. First of all, the researcher globalization, new managerialism, and global disturbance by citing extensive references and self-interpretation. Second, the author reviewed the basic literature in the recent educational field and illustrated how to improve the cognitive recognition of the basic concepts mentioned. By comparing the two distinctive schools of academic assertions, the author skillfully left the research questions for readers to doubt, dispute, reflect, summarize and conclude. It is envisioned by the author that in the future comparative work on trends in higher education, researchers should take particular attention on both the practical aspects and the methodological aspect based on extensive research and deduction.  *

Application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Among Healthcare Workers: A Transformative and Fundamental Technology in the Medical Field **
Published at American Journal of Computer Sciences (AJCS)
Takashi Suzuki, Ph.D. & Researcher
Kansai University, Japan
Abstract

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the similarity of human intelligence that is processed by some systems. In Schönberger (2019), AI was perceived as the most transformative and fundamental technology in the 21st century. Even in the medical field, AI gradually gained momentum and started to lead the trend of gradually changing the infrastructure of medical practices. With the practical nature of Artificial Intelligence (AI) as well as Machine learning, deep learning, and image processing work in the field of medical imaging, AI will totally change our perspective in healthcare work and it will definitely benefit the real life of healthcare. As we can also witness from the current society in the modern era that in every aspect of medical fields, medical practitioners are employing advanced AI technology to take care of patients, make medical decisions for patients and family members.  With the fast development of AI technology in the medical field, healthcare work will embrace a prosperous and fruitful future.  *

Effects of Biochemically Triggered Heat Stress (BTHS) on Crop Plants: A Futuristic Perspective **
Published at American Academic Journal of Agriculture (AAJA)
 
Amal Ali, Ph.D. Scholar
University of Karachi, Pakistan
Abstract

Extensive Heat Stress (EHS) is defined as an important environmental stress which confines plant growth, development, metabolism, fruition, and productivity on the worldwide scale (Hasanuzzaman & Nahar, 2013). Plant growth development and productivity actually concerns countless biochemical interaction and reactions that are sensitive to temperature. Gradually rising environmental temperature is the key component for environmental control, which is in advance of most perilous abiotic stress. Nanotechnology, viewing the agricultural sectors, have captured intensive research efforts because of their distinctive properties and numerous applications. A field trial was performed to evaluate the effect of HHS levels on growth, yield and quality of crop under heat stress. The plant measurements were made for heat induced changes on osmolytes accumulation, lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress and antioxidative response, seed nutrient and yield attributes at flowering stage. Among all sowing dates, the crop which was sown on March 7, 2018 (First sowing date), statistically performed better than other sowing dates although foliar application of 20 ppm zinc oxide nanoparticles ameliorate mungbean performance under both, no heat and heat induced environments.  *

Constructive Analysis of Ideology and Discourse: A Critical Review of News Coverage and Ratings **
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
 
Richard Garcia, Ph. D. & Lecturer
Montana State University, USA

Abstract

According to TEUN (2007), contrary to most traditional descriptive methods, ideologies are hereby defined within a multidisciplinary framework which unites social, cognitive and discursive sub-components. The current study shaded a critical look at the news reports of the Saudi Arabia. Previous research has focused on media ratings which pays to ideology and public opinion. However, it also has been described how changing in media discourse affects the process. This study analyzed the 20 news reports originated from Saudi Arabia using the method of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). The results show that the differences in the reports using variation patterns which in turn possess the potential of changing and monitoring readers` ideologies and thinking patterns via influencing their opinions and world view on the nature of power relations and interactional activities. The current research tries to contribute to the area of research on media discourse and ideology construction by arguing that discourse variation has not been sufficiently defined and interpreted. An effort will also be made to offer tentative resorts of such dynamic variation.  *

Comprehensive Effects of Biochar Application: A Sustainable and Holistic Method to Achieve the Increase of Crop Production **
Published at American Academic Journal of Agriculture (AAJA)
Joseph Moore, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
University of Exeter, UK
Abstract

The current research focused on the comprehensive effects of Biochar application and how to achieve sustainable increase in the production of agricultural crop production. From previous research, we can see that maltreatment of inorganic fertilizers has become non -sustainable or increasingly not affordable in many areas of agricultural practice around the world due to loss of soil erosion, soil fertility, and increased fertilizer cost. Furthermore, fertilizers which are chemical in nature also polluting soil, water and air and pose many toxic products in living communities. Since the increasing fertilizer cost and urban sprawl, which quickly decrease the agricultural farm and quality of soilj, an alternative method was required to achieve sustainability in agricultural crop production. Biochar is this kind of alternative and well-recognized method by scientists because of its major role in carbon sequestration, decreasing the emissions of greenhouse gases, waste management, renewable sources of energy and a rich source of nutrients as an amendment in soil. Studies in this research demonstrated that Biochar was a reliable and porous solid charcoal-similar material, with rich carbon obtained from the pyrolysis of various organic material e.g., farm and forest and chicken litter. The current critical review summarizes about biochar production through comparison, application and influence on soil physicochemical properties, as well as interaction with the soil microorganisms, the key role in the soil after amendment with mobilizing bacteria, effects in the reduction in greenhouse gases and metal contamination and its positive and negative impacts on plant growth and yield attribute when biochar was operated in the soil.  *

Effectiveness of Mass Communication in Changing Human Behavior: The Impact and Result of Strategical Analysis of SNSs Application on Social Events **
Published at American Journal of Human Resource Management (AJHRM)
Charles Davis, Ph.D. Scholar
Robert Gordon University, UK
Abstract

This paper aims at finding out the effectiveness of mass communication in changing human behavior and how SNSs Application could possibly strategically change the social events. The researcher started the article by summarizing the current category of SNSs and reviewing the current controversies of SNSs application. Then based on the literature review and data analysis, the researchers posted challenging questions about misconduct of social networking tools in the field of mass communication. One of the unsolved problems remains on how to define mass media and mass communication in the 21st century with rich tech and artificial intelligence. And how to encourage the community to get involved in communications planning, disseminating communication information and achieving the goal of mass communications.  *

Considerations for Home and Community-Based  COVID-19 Pandemic: The Undiscovered Consequences Among Iranian Startups **
Published at American Journal in Health Science (AJHS)
Robert Johnson, Ph.D.
University of Richmond, USA

Abstract 

Due to the allocation of health resources and services, it is commonly believed that community-based protection and prevention is very effective to cut off Covid-19 transmission at the beginning stage. Recent years, the COVID-19 abrupt outbreak has become a major concern with substantial effects on markets, and the world economy. The impact of COVID-19 is assessed to be even more than all the previous global pandemic. In this short-term, due to the impacts of this pandemic, startups are more prone to fail or succeed faster than ever before; however, the challenges they face are not yet clearly scrutinized, as the pandemic was faster than scholars. This study therefore investigates the main challenges of Iranian startups by interviewing the co-founders of fifteen well-known startups. The two-step coding was used to analyze findings and these findings were explained in a focus group session to which startup co-founders, policymakers, and scholars were invited. It was concluded, six principal types of challenges are major concern by this pandemic, including, human resources management, support measures financial and marketing, mechanisms, crisis management, and few others. The research will have great impact and influence on alleviating the current emergent situation.  *

Education, Knowledge and Economy in the Triangle of Recent Urban Development: The Case for New Entrepreneurs under Constraints of Neoliberalism and Higher Education Matrix **
 
Published at American Journal of Higher Education (AJHE)
Rosemary Williams, Ph.D. and Instructor
Mount Saint Vincent University, Canada
 
Michael Brown, Ph.D.
Mount Saint Vincent University, Canada

Abstract 

Education opportunity is considered to be one of the most valuable factors in the economic development and employee retain rate. This particular research will demonstrate how the co-effect of education, knowledge and economy will influence recent urban development. The domination of neoliberalism and the connected discourses of new public management during the 1990s to 2000s has introduced a fundamental uplift in the way of higher education in universities and other institutions. Each has defined and justified their institutional existence. The old professional culture of intellectual enquiry and examination has been replaced with institutional new performativity, as evidenced by the emergence of an emphasis on measured outputs: on planned development, student performance, quality assurance measures and academic credit and audits. This paper identified the links between neoliberalism and globalization as well as neoliberalism and the knowledge economy. According to it, in a global neoliberal environment, the role of higher education in economic development is governed by governments as having greater importance to the extent that higher education has become the new star ship in the policy fleet for governments around the world. Universities are the basic driver for economic knowledge and as a consequence higher education institutions have been encouraged to develop links with industry. The recognition of the economic importance of higher education for economic viability is necessary to promote greater entrepreneurial skills and develop the new performative measures to enhance output to achieve targets. This paper attempts to document these trends at the level of both political philosophy and economic theory. The author believes that the research result will give the light in the research of education, economy and urban development.  *

Increasing Optimal Efficiency of Crop Production under the Negative Influence of Global Greenhouse Effect **
 
Published at American Academic Journal of Agriculture (AAJA)
Bradley Smith, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
Pepperdine University, USA
Abstract

The Green Revolution in 1960s enabled a sharp increase of the production of major staple grain crops (wheat, corn, rice, etc) to solve the ever-increasing demands of an increasing global population growing with geometric numbers. This article focused on how to increase the optimal efficiency of crop production under the impact of global greenhouse effect. We understand that the climate change effects have advanced in the past decade, there are still gaps in knowledge regarding the potential impacts of climate change on agriculture. These gaps are especially wide when it comes to specialized cultivation systems such as those of fruit and vegetable, which globally provide a high contribution to the human diet. To fill these gaps, we need a multifaceted approach that integrates physiology and genomics tools and might thus provide comprehensive answers, aiming at future needs. The increase in atmospheric CO2 is one of the main drivers of the climate changes and the increase of the global temperature. The CO2 molecule is also an essential nutrient for plants and increases in its concentration in the atmosphere have the potential to improve plant productivity (Leisner, 2020). However, optimizing the repose of plants to the increase in CO2 is a challenge due to its  complex interaction with the regulation of stomata, transpiration and the efficiency of water use, issues discussed in detail in open stomata  agriculture by Fara et al. 2019. The cultivation of crops with high productive potential and with greater resilience to biotic and abiotic stresses is seen as one of the methods with the greatest potential for obtaining higher yields, reducing the use of pesticides and without increasing the cultivated areas. Advances in genomics revolutionized and accelerated plant breeding. This will continue as costs decrease and more advanced methods are developed and applied. This was discussed by Gomes et al. 2020, in the characterization of a germplasm bank of Cucurbita moschata D. where they described the genetic relationships of agro-morphological characteristics, with the purpose of identifying early flowering genotypes, genotypes with high total levels of carotenoids in the fruit pulp and those with high potential for seed productivity and seed oil. There is an urgent need to support resilient and sustainable agriculture and the path is implementing cultivation practices and identifying new genes for agriculture. These genes should be directed to the optimization of production, mainly for the development of characteristics such as greater efficiency in the use of water, aspect fundamental in the current scenario, aiming at greater productive efficiency, less energy input and less risks to the environment.  *

Positive and Negative Benefits of Flaxseed as an Organic Food Source During the Period of Sustainable and Strategic Development **
 
Published at American Academic Journal of Agriculture (AAJA)
Süleyman Özberk, Ph. D. and Lecturer
Cukurova University, Turkey
Abstract

Flaxseed was cultivated in Babylon in around many centuries ago and many people consider it as one of the most powerful plant foods on the planet (Magee, 2020). When Traced back to history, we can also realize that flaxseed can be used to treat diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, stroke and all kinds of cancer. The application of flaxseed was highlighted by scientists and medical workers for many centuries. However, the valuable effects of flaxseed was always underestimated to a large degree, and even people who are working in the specific field can not cognitively associate the benefits of flaxseed with the treatment of certain disease. Thus, the waste of flaxseed was unnoticed when it comes over-consumption and non-effective consumption. This article will enumerate both the positive side and the negative side of flaxseed which will benefits sustainable development as an organic food source. After a systematic comparison and analysis, the conclusion was drawn naturally with statistic analysis and logic induction as scientific collaboration. *

Comparing Obesity in Urban and Rural Area Based on Demographic Factors and How Obesity Negatively Influence People’s Life Quality and Educational Level **
Published at American Journal in Health Science (AJHS)
Chukwunonso Ogbeide, Ph.D. Scholar & Lecturer
University of Benin. Nigeria
Abstract

According to recent research done by Zibima, S. B., Wasini, K. B., & Oniso, J. I. (2020), obesity is dramatically increasing year by year and it was consider one of the most severe life-threatening fatal diseases globally by the end of 2020. The fact is that obesity itself may not be dangerous, but the complications related to obesity can be deadly or fatal in a great extent. Though many researchers have had extensive research in this field, only a few compared the scientific data from unban area with which from the suburban area. The goal of this research is first, to employ scientific data, research, and analysis with the goal of raising public awareness for people who are within the high-risk group and try to rescue them by informing them of the basic knowledge of obesity’s origin, prevention, danger, threatening, and treatment. Second, the realistic purpose for this research is comparing obesity in urban and rural area based on demographic factors and how obesity negatively influence people’s life quality and educational level. A questionnaire was obtained from 200 attendees and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for the scientific analysis of the data. The research results confirmed the doubts and anxiety of the severely negative influence of obesity on educational achievements, human life quality, life expectancy at present and in the future. *

Contemporary Research on Synthesis Methods of Metal-organic Frameworks (MOFs) **
Published at American Journal of Chemical Science (AJCS)
Shawna Pochipinski, Ph. D. & Lecturer
University of Abuja, Nigeria
 
Abdulkadir Bamisaye, Ph. D. & Assistant Professor
Abia State University, Nigeria

Abstract

Recent years, the research on Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are countless yet no previous research focused on MOF on the basis that they are a class of hybrid network of supramolecular solid materials composed of organized organic linkers and metal cations. This research paper displayed enormously high surface areas with tunable pore size and fitful functionality, and it can be applied to the hosts for a range of guest molecules. After the thorough discovery research, MOFs have experienced widespread exploration for their applications in gas storage, drug delivery and sensing. An ultimate goal of the current research is to better understand the two-sided effects of MOF membranes and the research result showed significant positive proofs. The preliminary conclusion is that MOFs can be regarded as a reusable merging of solid acids and organic polymers in the area of construction and industrial foundation. This article synthesized the functionality of MOFs with unique perspective and the research implications are of great importance in further discovering and advancing the practical development of chemical science. *

Understanding Our Mind Through Guidance: How Philosophy Enables Us to Perceive the World and Master Human Mind **
Published at American Journal of Philosophy Quarterly (AJPQ)
Keith Jardine, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
University of Central Missouri, USA
 
Carlos Knoll, Ph.D. Scholar
University of Central Missouri, USA
Abstract

The current research is understanding our mind: how philosophy enables us to perceive the world and master human mind. As we all know, designing a study about the thinking pattern to investigate how minds work while thinking is the mind in conversation with itself. The central model stated that the mind is the core mode of self-interrogation in psychotherapy and psychology built on philosophical precepts. Both Socratic dialogue and stoicism are evident in the principles of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT). CBT and especially REBT instruct people to examine and dispute their beliefs and thus to tolerate unpleasant feelings—shades of Epictetus. The connection is bidirectional: The most perplexed evidence showed that people's psychological positions on philosophical questions in the center of the free-will existence are significantly influenced by their individual temperament and personality rather than cognitive ability. Future research will explore related philosophical questions which remain for human beings to further discover. *

From Western Culture to Eastern Culture: A Dialogic Perspective on the Holistic Overview of Chinese Culture and American Culture **
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Wenbin Xue, Ph. D. & Lecturer
China University of Mining & Technology, China
Abstract

Due to globalization, the clear-cut contrast between Chinese culture and American culture was blurred through constant cultural dialogue and interaction. Culture is complex and multidimensional. It is in fact too complex to define a certain culture in simple terms and rough definition. Kroeber and Kluckhohn in 1952 identified over 160 different definitions of culture. One of the earliest widely cited definitions by Tylor in 1887 defines culture as “that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by human as a member of society.” With a dialogic perspective, this article investigated the differences and common features between western culture and eastern culture by observing the holistic overview of specific culture in China and in America. The research result confirms our hypothesis. The research also suggested that people in modern era should view distinct culture with more tolerance, appreciation and respect. New culture should be redefined with respect to historical facts, linguistic uniqueness and differences in customs.  *

 
Research Review: Practical Research on Applications of MOFs for Gas Storage **
 
Published at American Journal of Chemical Science (AJCS)
Jack Willough, Ph. D. & Director of Research
University of New Orleans, USA
 
Nancy Evans, Ph. D. & Lecturer
University of New Orleans, USA
Abstract

Recent years, research on MOF application showed positive tendency in MOF effects on gas storage. However, current researchers conducted a serious investigation and found the previous research had obvious flaws in over-generalization. Several options are available for storing gases effectively, but these mostly require high-pressure tanks and multistage compressors. Such methods are highly expensive for practical uses and there is a need for them to be substituted by simple and less expensive solutions. In an attempt to overcome these issues and to find safer storage methods, several materials, like zeolites or activated porous carbons, have been studied for gas storage. However, MOFs have outperformed most of these traditional materials in terms of gas storage, separation and industrial application. Easy synthetic procedures, high surface area, wide opportunities for functionalization and tunable pore structures make MOFs preferable compared with other porous materials. This article reviews studies of storage applications for important gases like H2, CO2, CH4, CO, NO, hydrocarbons etc. within MOFs, with a brief description of the factors responsible for effective storage. The current researcher hopes that this research result could be reevaluated and reinstated in order to avoid practical losses. *

Applied Linguistics Revisited: Can University Students Improve English Language Skills in a “Hybrid-Method-Setting” in a Remote Area in Mainland China **
 
Published at American Journal of Applied Linguistics (AJAL)
Xiaobin Zhang, Ph. D. & Associate Professor
Shanxi Normal University, China
Abstract

The current research on applied linguistics provided us a new perspective on language acquisition and this research will solve the research question: Can University Students Improve English Language Skills in a “Hybrid-Method-Setting” in a Remote Area in Mainland China? We selected 100 students from English linguistics major class and trained them through different techniques in the classroom. Teachers give them training materials and specific instruction in learning and performances. Then instructors gave insightful suggestions for English-as-a-second-language learners (ESLs) on how to improve their English language skills from the perspective of applied linguistics and cognitive linguistics; The research yielded constructive result which has far-reaching impact on English teaching and learning activities with meaningful findings, First result revealed that students should be mentally prepared to engage in practical exercises and be ready to active participation in the classroom. Second, students should often attend specific seminar and question answer session to obtain the expected level of language skills during the process of language application. In addition, authentic motivation, deep interest and collaboration are also key factors which positively influence the final achievement of language acquisition. *

Contributing Factors in Determining Balance Between Job Opportunities, Job Employment and Job Satisfaction in European Countries **
Craig Henderson , Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
University of Houston, USA
Abstract

Nowadays, due to the harsh competition in job market, job opportunities declines year by year. Even if people were employed, the benefits for job and the satisfaction in job decrease. How to balance between Job opportunities, job employment and job satisfaction in European countries remains critical changes to be reasonably resolved. This research aims to discover contributing factors in determining balance between job opportunities, job employment and job satisfaction in European countries and the implication was also disclosed at the end of the article.  *

The Critical Perspectives in Efficiently Managing and Evaluating Corporate Employee Conducts, Operation Risks and Policy Optimization with the Help of Practical Real-world Examples, Empirical Research Result and Employees' Cooperation **
Vincent Griffin, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor 
Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada
Abstract

In recent years, research on assessing employee behavior, operational risk, and policy optimization has gradually increased. But how to use the practical real-world examples, the experience of research results and the cooperation of employees, as three effective means, effectively manage and evaluate the risk of employee behavior, operation and policy optimization is comparatively rare. This research article combines real-life examples and empirical survey methods to achieve optimal management and evaluation on the corporate employee behavior, operational risk and policy optimization so that the company's employees' work capacity improves, behavior standardized, and product quality promoted.  This research will serve as an inspirational guide for the future development and prosperity of modern enterprises. *

Sports Governance in Saudi Arabia
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Mohrah Almuawi, Ph.D. & Associate Professor
Concordia University Chicago, USA
Abstract

Over the years, traditional as well as modern sports have become so popular across the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In Saudi Arabia, sports are viewed as an essential element of making the society more vibrant and complete (Alyusuf, 2021). Individuals across the country have for over thousands of years enjoyed sport activities, such as camel and horse racing, hunting with hounds together with falconry. Currently, modern sports such as soccer and golf have increasingly become popular. Saudi Arabians of all ages have taken soccer to the heart, from local playgrounds and learning institutions to the exemplary modern international stadia. As the kingdom of Saudi Arabia seeks to diversify its economy, promote sports’ contribution to GDP, and encourage social and physical well-being, the sports sector is playing an important role in this endeavor. Several efforts and initiatives have been established to promote the sports activities, interest, and facilities in the kingdom. One such effort included the development of effective and efficient sports governance in Saudi Arabia. This paper will explore sports governance in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia from the establishment of the General Presidency for Youth Welfare to the current ministry of sports and the sports developments accomplished within the regime.

“filmpreneurship”: Taxonomy of Nollywoods Creative Enterprises
 
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Barthelomew Gerald Aguugo, Ph.D. Scholar
University of Port Harcourt, Niheria
Abstract

The booming Nigerias motion picture industry, alias Nollywood, has risen through tick and thins to become one of the most prominent in global cinema, consequently, one of Nigerias largest economic sectors. The industry is a reliable model for how artistic innovation and entrepreneurship have collaboratively stretched out in a unique context. Relying on extensive data collection, including in-depth interviews with key industry players, this article touches the genesis of Nollywood and brings to barehow its continual productiveness with popular culture, apprenticeship cum formal skills acquisition and Nigerias multiethnic realitieshave all contributed to its success both nationally and globally. The study relies on a comparative analysis of two entrepreneurial theories, innovation theory and behavior theory. An original qualitative research was carried out using both questionnaire and in-depth interviews to generate data from 15 Nollywood practitioners all based in Port Harcourt, the treasure base and garden city of the nation. Haven established the entrepreneurial viability of Nollywood, the work recommends Nollywood for a more government attention towards a robust GDP. 

Establishing Validity and Rigour in Qualitative Research: A Case Evidence of a Supply Chain Management Setting  
 
Published at American Journal of Business Management  (AJBM)
Adebisi Adewole, PhD & Deputy Director
University of the West of Scotland, United Kingdom
Abstract

As the application of qualitative inquiry increases in popularity within the field of supply chain management, the construct of validity of research in the subject field continues to receive increasing attention in the methodological literature. (Erickson, 1985; Maxwell, 1992; Denzin & Lincoln, 2005). This paper presents and describes the different methods to increase accuracy and validity in qualitative enquiries, using evidence from supply chain case study research. The paper also explains how rigor (reliability and validity) was established using verification strategies for evaluating trustworthiness and utility. 

 
Correlates of Written English Proficiency Among First Year College Students 
 
Published at American Journal of Higher Education (AJHE)
Desiree Dawn P. Justol, Assistant Professor
Tagoloam Community College, Philippines
Abstract

Writing is one of the four language skills which is challenging for the first or second language learners. This study determined the correlates of written English language proficiency among First year college students in one of the higher education institutions in Misamis Oriental. A total of 280 students from the different courses were randomly chosen as participants in this study. The correlational research method was employed. Mean, standard deviation, and Pearson r was used to generate the findings of the study. Using a questionnaire, the participants’ profile were determined. Students show a very satisfactory level in their general ability while their reading ability is at a moderate level. Thus, participants’ major learning style is visual. On the other hand, written English proficiency was determined using a rubric. The general finding showed that students had a moderate level of written proficiency measured in terms of content, organization, vocabulary, grammar, and mechanics. Results reveal that students’ general ability and reading ability had a significant relationship with their written English proficiency. Furthermore, among all the learning preferences, only tactile showed a significant relationship with the students’ written English proficiency. The findings of the study point to the need for intervention to develop further the students’ written competence.