Volume 7, Issue 3, September 2019

SALE: $199

The Explanations of Lateness and Absences as a Result of the Ethical Environment in the Organization
Said Fouad Omar, Ph. D.
High Junior School of
Deir al-Asad, Israel
Abstract

Lateness and absences in organizations are considered in contemporary research literature as withdrawal behaviors. Withdrawal behavior is defined as an array of demonstrative activities by workers in an attempt to distance themselves from their jobs or avoid their work, while retaining their position and membership in the organization. These behaviors have negative implications related to organizational efficiency and productivity as well as to a social atmosphere. Many studies have been written about these withdrawal behaviors, mainly absences, but few have pointed to the connection to the organization's ethical environment. This article presents a general model for explaining delays and absences from an ethical point of view.

Human Trafficking and Human Development in Nigeria; Dimensioning the Issues, Challenges and Prospects for Solutions 
Charles Onuora Okwuwa, Ph.D. & Lecturer
Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Nigeria
Abstract

Nigeria is presently experiencing the challenges of human trafficking and related issues of victims living in slavery in foreign countries amid high rates of unemployment, poverty and insecurity, among others. Communal conflicts that include deaths and arson and also Boko Haram insurgency have occasioned great human distress with population movements within and outside the borders. The general aim of the research is to investigate the dimensions of human trafficking in Nigeria with a view to guiding policy programming through fact based formulations towards eliminating the scourge. The empirical research relied on both quantitative and qualitative methods and generated data from non-victims of human trafficking. Among the findings are that poverty and insecurity are the main drivers of people wanting to travel abroad for better life. Respondents identify government as the source of the country’s socio-economic problems and also hold the view that it should be responsible towards reconstruction of the country. Respondents view human development as key in developing Nigeria. Among the recommendations are high investments in education, specifically technical aspects and advancing youth entrepreneurship though flexible financing.

Reconstructing Semantic Coherence in Fiction Translation in Light of the Difference in Text Cohesion between English and Chinese ---A Case Study of the Chinese Translation of The Long Goodbye
 
Jiefu Zhang, Scholar
Foreign Languages Department
Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, China
Corresponding Author: Shan Ge, Lecturer
Foreign Languages Department
Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, China
Abstract

Text cohesion is an essential factor that affects semantic coherence in fiction translation. Neglect of the differences in cohesion and coherence between English and Chinese may result in inaccurate transference of message and loss of literary value in fiction translation. Former studies paid more attention to linguistic equivalence or cultural differences, but cohesion and coherence have not been attached enough importance to. By a close comparative study of The Long Goodbye, an important detective English novel written by Raymond Chandler, and its Chinese translation, the current study analyzes the differences in text cohesion between English and Chinese and puts forward corresponding ways to restructure cohesive ties so as to achieve semantic coherence. The study found that in English-Chinese translation, the original English grammatical cohesion should normally be converted into lexical cohesion in Chinese text due to the difference in grammar and expression habits; whereas the explicit cohesive ties like connectives in English are usually left out in Chinese because of the difference between hypotaxis and parataxis. Therefore, to reconstruct semantic coherence, cohesive devices should be converted properly according to actual situations.

Audit on Management of Third and Fourth Degree Perineal Tears
 
Muna Mohammed Al Rawahi, MD & OMSB
Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman

Deepthy Geetha, MBBS
Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman

Shahila Sheikh, MBBS & RCOG
Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman
Abstract

Objective: To look at the incidence and management of third and fourth degree perineal tears in a tertiary referral hospital in Oman, identify deficiencies and make recommendations.

Methods: 81 women who sustained obstetrical anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) over a seven years period and had vaginal delivery of singleton pregnancy with vertex presentation, were included in the audit. Retrospective data was gathered from delivery registers and medical records and analysis was carried out using EpiData version 3.1. Incidence of tears, documentation, and place of repair, grade of operator, post repair management and follow up were the parameters assessed.

Results: Incidence of obstetric anal sphincter injury was 0.28%. Nulliparity (68%) and prolonged second stage (16%) were strongly associated with third and fourth degree perineal tears. 71% of the tears followed normal vaginal delivery and 28.3% - instrumental delivery. 91% of babies had birth weight less than 4kg. Majority of tears were classified as 3a or 3b and four patients had 4th degree tears. Majority of deliveries were conducted by midwives (55%). The tears were confirmed and repaired by a registrar or above in 79% of cases. Only 54% of repairs were performed in theatre. Most of the patients received appropriate antibiotics and laxatives postoperatively. Only 18% had the recommended diet advice and only 59% were referred for physiotherapy and pelvic floor exercises. Of the 34 patients who were followed up, two had bladder problems, one had fecal incontinence, one had flatus incontinence and one had low rectovaginal fistula.

Conclusion: The low rate of OASIS in our audit could be attributed to lack of identification by the junior staff. Regular training of all Obstetrics staff is mandatory for identification and appropriate management of perineal tears.

Synthesis, Structural Analysis and DNA Interaction of Bis[4'-(4-methylphenyl)-2,2':6',2"-terpyridine]Co(III)(NO3)3.3H2O Complex
 
Ramin Zibaseresht, Ph. D. & Associate Professor
Imam Khomeini Maritime University & Aja University of Medical Sciences, Iran

 Abstract

There has been extensive studies of binding of chiral Ru(II) complexes to DNA backbone structures. J. K. Barton has studies the cationic coordination of a variety of chiral poly-pyridine Ru(II) complexes to demonstrate chiral discrimination in binding to different forms of DNA.

Many experimental techniques have been applied to study the interaction of tris(phenanthroline)ruthenium(II) ([Ru(phen)3]2+) with DNA, but despite this, its binding mode and its effect on the DNA structure are uncertain and have been the subject of much controversy.

In this study, bis[4'-(4-methylphenyl)-2,2':6',2"-terpyridine]Co(III) tris(nitrate) complex was synthesized and characterized using conventional methods such as 1H NMR, ES-MS, UV-vis spectrophotometry. The crystal structure of the complex was also determined. The complex was crystallised in the triclinic space group, Pī with two well separated complex molecules in the unit cell along with four hydrogen bounded water molecules and six nitrate groups. The Co ion was six coordinated, but the geometry was significantly distorted from that of an ideal octahedral.

In this study, the terpyridine type ligand fragment appealed because the ligand structure ensures a meridional arrangement of the donor atoms, which reduces the number of possible isomers. Co(III) ion was attracted because of its higher positive charge compared to Ru(II) which will have more affinity towards the negatively charged DNA structure. Absorbance and fluorescence methods were used to study the interaction of the Co(III) complex solution in water with DNA.

An Analysis of Bisphenol A (BPA) Levels in Canned Pet Food
Jean Qian, Student
Cypress Bay High School, USA
Abstract

Bisphenol A (BPA), previously commonly found in plastic products, has been increasingly demanded to be banned from the American market. Nowadays, BPA in products for human use has vanished. But what about pets? Canned pet food is very popular among households. Canned foods are especially of high alarm, as BPA can be directly consumed. In this study, five brands of canned pet food are tested using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Diethyl ether was used as a solvent and mixed in with small pieces of cans before being filtrated and put through the machine to detect BPA. The results showed that Wellness and Max had a peak at the HPLC graph around the determined retention time of BPA; 3.27 minutes. HPLC didn’t detect BPA in the other 3 brands, Purina, Friskies, and Natural Balance.

Epidemiology of Anogenital Warts in Three Dermatological Centers in Muscat Region, Oman
Dr. Salma Talib Ali Al Kharusi, MD
OMSB, Oman
 
Dr. Noora Al-Rubaie, Senior Specialist
Al Nahdha Hospital, Oman
 
Dr. Abdullah Al-Taai, Senior Consultant
Al Nahdha Hospital, Oman 
Abstract

Background: Anogenital warts (AGWs) are a common, highly infectious disease caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), whose high recurrence rates contribute to direct medical costs, productivity loss and increased psychosocial impact. Because of the lack of study of the epidemiology of AGWs in Oman, this study was conducted to assess the incidence and prevalence of AGWs in Oman.

Methods: A 2-year (2013-2014) retrospective observational study was conducted in three dermatological centers in Muscat region in Oman (AL Nahdha Hospital, Bowsher Polyclinic and Seeb Polyclinic). Men and women with newly diagnosed, follow-up or recurrent AGW of all age groups were included. We estimated the incidence and prevalence of AGW.

Results: The overall 2 years incidence of AGW was estimated at 8.68 cases per 1000 population. The overall 2 years incidence was higher among males (11.20 per 1000 population) than females (6.49 per 1000 population). The overall recurrence rate was 10.2%. The recurrence rate was significantly higher among males (14.1%) than females (4.1%). Incidence peaked at an earlier age in females (21-30 years) than in males (31-40 years( .The overall prevalence of AGWs was estimated to be (1.2%).

Conclusion: This study provides a first overview of the epidemiology of AGW in Oman. A quadrivalent HPV vaccine that prevents HPV 6, 11, 16, 18 related diseases will have the potential to significantly decrease the socio-economic burden associated with AGW in Oman.

Multiple Fractures in the Absence of Patient Compliance, Cooperation and Interest Against Medical Advices, the Challenge of Short- and long-term Complications: Case Report
Mohammed Ali Alhasson, MD
Department of Orthopedic Surgery
Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Saudi Arabia
Abdulmohsen Ibrahim Alabdulaly, MD
Department of Orthopedic Surgery
Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Saudi Arabia
Abstract

Discharge against medical advices (DAMA) has a harmful effect to the community as well as to individual health and it has arose great concern in recent years' research. We report a Saudi female in spite, of her critical health situation after major car traffic accident, she decided to leave the hospital without intervention. In this regards we address the issue, both from its public health, as well as, social equity aspects. Professional liability and harmful effect of this practice to individual health are of great concern. Comprehensive approach of community awareness on potential benefits of orthopedic treatment of fracture will reduce incidence of DAMA. However, all governmental medical services in Saudi Arabia are free.

Slipped Appendicoliths During Laparoscopic Appendectomy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature – Experience from Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Majed Mohammed N Alanazi, MD
Senior Registrar of General Surgery, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Saudi Arabia
Badah Aldosri, MBBS
Senior Registrar of General Surgery, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Saudi Arabia
Meshary Aldayel, MBBS
Senior Registrar of General Surgery, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Saudi Arabia
Abstract

This research reported a 37-year-old male status post laparoscopic appendectomy (Slipped appendicoliths during laparoscopic appendectomy). The particular patient was then presented to the emergency depart (ER). X-ray and ultrasound were used initially to reach the re-presentation diagnosis (retained/dropped appendicolith with collection). Then the patient was managed with abdominal washout and fecalith removal. The role of multi-disciplinary treatment was highly appreciated and outcome was very satisfactory.

Understanding the Living Condition of Artisanal Fisherfolks of Cabugao Bay, Catanduanes Island, Philippines
 
LILY PANTINO CUSTODIO, Ph. D. & Professor
Catanduanes State University, Philippines

RYAN PAUL CUSTODIO BRILLANTE, Faculty
Catanduanes State University, Philippines

 
Abstract

This This study presents the living condition of artisanal fisherfolks of Cabugao Bay. Descriptive method of research was used with the questionnaire as data gathering tool. Respondents were chosen through purposive sampling. Descriptive statistics were used in data analysis. The fisherfolk’s family eats rice every day. The fisherfolk uses gillnets in catching fish; with  friends and relatives as companions; with a  typical catch of 11 to 20 kg; has 5 to 6 fishing trips in a week for 7 to 8 hours; March, April and May are good months in fishing; bad months are October, November and December; with 21 to 40 kilos of fish catch during good months; volume of catch is sold to middlemen; common types of fishes caught include sword fish, common dolphin fish, tuna and flying fish; fishing is the primary source of family’s income; and construction work is the alternative livelihood. Recommendations to improve the living condition of the fisherfolks are offered.

Social Exclusion of the Nigerian Women in Agricultural Practice and the Futility of Pursuit of Development Efforts in Nigeria: The Case of Bwari Local Government
Charles Onuora Okwuwa, Ph.D. & Lecturer
Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Nigeria

Abstract

Available statistics reveal that Nigeria is experiencing food security, gender imbalance and socio-economic development challenges. The Nigerian women, from precolonial era, had been co-developers of societies, particularly the rural communities, with the men. Now, this group experiences social exclusion in almost all spheres of human endeavors, including agriculture, its age-long engagement. This phenomenon in a ‘main women  industry’ has negatively impacted Nigeria’s development efforts which target equity, justice and other indices of human development such as access to good health, food security, longevity, employment and poverty reduction, among others. The country scores low rates in all these indicators. These challenges provoke this research that investigates the facets of women exclusion in Nigeria’s agricultural activities, with Bwari Local Council Area sample, with a view to guiding policy programming through fact based formulations in responding appropriately to the phenomenon. The empirical research relies on both quantitative and qualitative methods with data generated from youthful women farmers in agriculture in the area. Among the findings are; low government involvement in women agricultural participation, lack of access to necessary tools and materials, loans and training for the women farmers and most importantly, their exclusion in agricultural planning and implementation processes. Conclusively, the women experience capacity deficit and hence, among others, contributes to Nigeria’s food insecurity. The recommendations include policy re-alignments targeting resource allocation gender balance, rural agriculture prioritization, improved agricultural spending and shift from inspection to effective monitoring of grassroots agriculture. Government should provide money, materials and mentality (knowledge, skills and right attitudes) for all farmers, irrespective of gender, to drive exclusiveness in agricultural initiatives at implementation level.

Travails of African Children in Faceless
MOBOLANLE SOTUNSA,  Ph.D. & Professor
BABCOCK UNIVERSITY, NIGERIA

OLUWAGBEMINIYI BAMISAYE, SCHOLAR & SENIOR EDITOR
BABCOCK UNIVERSITY, NIGERIA
Abstract

The desire and constant yearning of many children is the warmth of parental care. However, from time immemorial, child labour experiences have denied such children proper parental care and smooth mind development. In a typical African society where children are assurance of continuity and expansion of race, it becomes even more important that children are availed the most conducive atmosphere to actualize themselves. This paper, therefore, examines the experiences and travails of victims of child labour in Amma Darko’s Faceless (2003). Using the psychoanalytic theory, the study examined the pains, physical and emotional struggles and losses of children characters in the selected text. Findings revealed that children in a bid to survive, usually engage themselves in all sort of vices. It was also discovered that children deprived of proper parental care and support usually end up becoming threats to the society as such, the study recommended that parents should be responsible for the welfare of their children or ward irrespective of their social or economic status.

Mobilization of Gender-Inclusive Language Across Academic Disciplines
Caren Rimando Bansolay, Ph. D.
Assistant Professor & Head of Corporate Communications
AMA International University, Kingdom of Bahrain
Abstract

Gender-inclusive language use among higher education institutions is somewhat operational, which is tantamount to the HEI teachers’ degree of awareness on such language use. These findings are further supported by the teachers’ claims that certain factors have vividly engendered disparity in their gender language use. Atop these factors are dearths of references promoting gender language use, patterned use of gender-exclusive language in many references, and habit of using conventional words. Thus, a reference guide following a prototype materials design to incorporate the terminologies in instruction, communication and other forms of information dissemination is deemed essential to be designed and implemented.  

The Tragic Vision in William Shakespeare's Macbeth: A Critical Study
Ali Albashir Mohammed Alhaj, Ph. D. & Associate Professor
King Khalid University, KSA

Sabah Mohammed Abbas Hamza, Ph. D. & Assistant Professor
King Khalid University, KSA

Dr.Hussein Mohammed Ahmed Kilayil, Ph. D. & Assistant Professor
King Khalid University, KSA
Abstract

The present study aims at studying critically the tragic vision in William Shakespeare's Macbeth. Shakespeare's tragic vision is to a large extent Greek in design and execution. Macbeth gives the readers the keenness of economy among all Shakespearean tragedies, Macbeth is a classical tragedy as close to a Greek tragedy as Shakespeare could possibly get. The evil is depicted in the play in poetic and dramatic terms. The tragic vision is earthy and real .The action of the play is the revealing of evil in terms of direct human experience. In Macbeth , Shakespeare  shows the readers  not only the inevitable destruction of villainy, but also its genesis, growth and nature in human context. Finally the study concludes that Shakespeare considered tragedy as the most important form of literature as it reflects the truth of life .Moreover, he  succeeds in addressing  serious issues also entertaining and gripping  an audience in the theater or the stage  

What are Responsible Educator’s Roles in Task-based Interaction*
Jaquet Lyttle, Ph. D. & Associate Professor 
Monash University, Australia
Abstract

Teaching is an activity that is embedded within a set of culturally bound assumptions about teachers, teaching and learners.  These assumptions reflect what the teacher’s responsibility is believed to be, how learning is understood, and how students are expected to interact in the classroom. In some cultures, teaching is viewed as a teacher -controlled and directed process. However, task -based  learning teaches the students the technique of autonomous learning. In the activities, the teacher should promote the students’  communication procedure; in the meanwhile, the teacher is not only the participant in the classroom interaction, but also the  omniscient mediator. Teachers also have many other roles in task -based interaction as the following: Planner, Manager, Quality controller, Group organizer, Facilitator, Motivator, Empower, Team member and Co-operator...

Comparative Debate On Vygotsky and the Vygotskyan *
 
Tianhua Guan, Ph. D. 
Anhui Normal University, USA
Abstract

Vygotsky was one of the forerunner who critically responded to Piaget’s rudimental cognitive development perspective. He  argues that a child’s intellectual development cannot be considered in a social vacuum. Cognitive development takes place as a result  of mutual interaction between the child and those people with whom he has regular social contact. Vygotsky put his energies into  analyzing the overall process of education rather than concentrating on empirical studies. Unlike Piaget, he did not himself manage to follow up the empirical implications of his own ideas. Instead he attempted to synthesize all the factors affecting the transmission of knowledge. Yet despite this very theoretical approach, his work has great influence on educational practitioners...

Tentative Understanding of PPD Treatment Effectiveness and Reflective Assumption of Pre-LPD Application*
 
Adam Kingston, Ph.D. & Professor
University of Salzburg, Austria
Abstract

 

The effectiveness of the PPD treatment plan in the traditional concept only exists in the experimental results and psychological predictions of the experimenter. This research attempts to understand the results of the updated PPD vs. Pre-LPD treatment and tryies to draw a dynamic and reflective hypothesis, which is contrary to the traditional experimental results. The author uses counter-intuitive examples and reverse illustration to carry out the reliability, feasibility and effectiveness of the research. The research results have attracted great attention all over the world in academic field. 

Contributing Factors in Determining Balance Between Job Opportunities, Job Employment and Job Satisfaction in European Countries **
Craig Henderson , Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
University of Houston, USA
Abstract

Nowadays, due to the harsh competition in job market, job opportunities declines year by year. Even if people were employed, the benefits for job and the satisfaction in job decrease. How to balance between Job opportunities, job employment and job satisfaction in European countries remains critical changes to be reasonably resolved. This research aims to discover contributing factors in determining balance between job opportunities, job employment and job satisfaction in European countries and the implication was also disclosed at the end of the article. 

The Critical Perspectives in Efficiently Managing and Evaluating Corporate Employee Conducts, Operation Risks and Policy Optimization with the Help of Practical Real-world Examples, Empirical Research Result and Employees' Cooperation *
 
Vincent Griffin, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor 
Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada
Abstract

In recent years, research on assessing employee behavior, operational risk, and policy optimization has gradually increased. But how to use the practical real-world examples, the experience of research results and the cooperation of employees, as three effective means, effectively manage and evaluate the risk of employee behavior, operation and policy optimization is comparatively rare. This research article combines real-life examples and empirical survey methods to achieve optimal management and evaluation on the corporate employee behavior, operational risk and policy optimization so that the company's employees' work capacity improves, behavior standardized, and product quality promoted.  This research will serve as an inspirational guide for the future development and prosperity of modern enterprises.

Practice Guideline of Patient Treatment under Protection of Scientific Interventions
---A Tentative Assumption of Medical Research*
 
Ali Flores, Ph.D. & Lecturer
Future University in Egypt, Egypt    
 
Raymond Nelson, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
Adelphi University, USA
Abstract

Recent years of research in patient intervention treatment has made great breakthrough and the study in this field also shifted from theoretical hypothesis to practical treatment process. This specific study will introduce the practical guideline of patient treatment process and result under the protection of scientific intervention to ensure the safety and security of the progress of the practice. With examples, research survey, the author also revealed the possible direction of future medical research and the research findings and implications were also discussed.

The Scientific Evidence of Learning Effects Approval for Science Major Students with the Help of Instruction of Up-to-date New Technology in University Classroom **
Zoila Campbell, Ph.D. & Director
Swinburne University of Technology, Australia
 
Johnsie Garcia, Ph.D. Scholar
Swinburne University of Technology, Australia
Abstract

The development of modern science and technology has promoted the development of education, to a large extent. University education has no longer stayed in the traditional education model of the past. The researcher employed the advantages of the modern education model to establish an experimental model for training the professional skills of university students. Under the guidance of modern science and technology, the professional skills of university students have changed a lot, their self-awareness has also been greatly improved, and the learning effect has been greatly advanced. The results of this research will definitely be widely used in future university professional skills training and improvement of students' practical skills. The author of this article also hopes that this research will give the teaching staff some inspiration and thus improve their future teaching result.

The Potential Charm of Modern Virtual World Science Technology Learning Theory System and the Comprehensive Utility of Learner Learning, Behavior, Cognitive Health, and Cognitive Transformation*
 
Harold Powell, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
Southern Methodist University, USA
 
Shaurya Mitra, Ph.D.
National Institute of Technology, India
 
Ethan Ramirez, Ph.D. & Director
Nottingham Trent University, United Kindom

Abstract 

In recent years, the potential charm of science and technology education in the modern virtual world has been studied many times in various depths, and at the same time, it has made a lot of progress and development. But combined with virtual space technology theory and scholars, useful sexual behavior A comprehensive and multi-step study of cognitive health and cognitive transformation models has never been done. This study first defines scholars' learning, usefulness cognition, behavioral cognitive health and cognitive transformation, and the theoretical framework of virtual space education. Furthermore, the researchers proposed that virtual space education has a very deep and important significance for scholars to recognize ulterior cognitive, behavioral health and cognitive change. In addition, the researchers used statistical analysis methods to collect learning materials of nearly 100 learners. And after using the virtual space education framework, learners conduct research analysis and argumentation on the aspects of cognitive behavior, educational mental health, cognitive deep change and learning ability improvement and meaningful improvement. And profound experience and results. Many of the results of this study have been Many universities have adopted and achieved very significant results.

The Systematic Comparison Between Relevant Time Zone Theory and Time Space Constant Law to Further Explore How to Maintain the Unchanging Nature of Time-Space Transformation Under the Cognitive Perspective of Inertial System Support Theorem *
 
Bill Martinez, Gonzalez, Ph.D. Scholar
Ahmadu Bello University, Nigeria
 
Abstract

Countless research have demonstrated that if keeping time space constant law in vacuum, the time space transformation would be constant and rules-governed. This particular research focuses on the systematic comparison between Relevant Time Zone Theory and Time Space Constant Law to further explore how to maintain the unchanging nature of Time-Space Transformation Under the cognitive perspective of Inertial System Support Theorem. The research result ushered new perspectives on logic and philosophy of science with relatively stress on cognitive aspect of physics education. Finally, the author also revealed the implications of the research and put forward future expectations on research in this field. 

Achieving Dialectical Balance under the Framework of Cognitive Process of Assimilation and Accommodation*
Mark Jones, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
University of Denver, USA
Abstract

Cognitive development consists of active assimilation, active accommodation and equilibration. The theory has extraordinarily surpassed traditional behaviorism and logical positivism and laid foundation for the constructivist perspectives of people’s active role in constructing their personal knowledge and developing their cognitive ability. The article tentatively analyzed the dynamic relationship between assimilation and accommodation and initiated how to achieve dialectical balance within the cognitive framework of cognitive development...

How to Integrate Feuerstein’s Instrumental Enrichment to Facilitate Special Education *
 
Kathy Freeman, Ph. D. & Assistant Professor
University of Wolverhampton, United Kindom
Abstract

Feuerstein’s general teaching technique is called instrumental enrichment, which was frequently abbreviated to IE. The theory was based on an interactionist theory of learning between the teacher and the learners. The ideal setting under IE is defined as the following: the size of the class is ideally in single figures; IE involves a program of mental activities, with an emphasis on the nonverbal, such as patterns of shapes; In reality, however, it also includes language, numbers and pictures. There are fifteen separate sequenced sets of tasks; each one is claimed to develop a particular mental skill. In the classroom setting, there usually involves comparison, classification, sequencing and understanding relationships in space and time. When used in special education, Feuerstein tries to avoid content that is associated by special learners with previous failure...

Factors Affecting Development of Supporting Industries Towards Manufacturing Firms in the Southern Industrial Zones of Vietnam
​Dinh Chi Thanh, Ph.D Candiate
Lincoln University College, Malaysia

Nguyen Thanh Binh, Ph.D. & Lecturer
Tarlac State University, The Philippines
Abstract

Supporting industries, which are known as industries that provide material and component parts for assembling industries, play an important role in industrial development in developing countries, especially in Asian countries like Vietnam. This paper presented the current status of Vietnamese supporting industries as well as evaluated three main factors affecting manufacturing firms in the industrial zones in the southern region of Vietnam by Quality of products, Competitive competence, and Production Capacity. The author used the Quantitative approach to investigate 280 directors and production managers of FDI enterprises located in 7 industrial zones in the southern region of Vietnam. From the findings of the study, the author recommended to Vietnamese Ministry of Industry and Trade, local authority, and local firms to focus on HRM, technology factor, financial factor, and distribution system to enhance the supporting industries in Industrial Zones in Vietnam to attract more investors.

Assessment of Selected Physico-chemical Parameters and Bacteriological Analysis of Muhima Hospital Effluents (A District Hospital at Muhima Sector, Kigali City, Rwanda)
 
​Jean Baptiste BARANYIKA,  Research Scholar
Zhejiang Normal university, China

Justin KATABARWA, Research Scholar
University of Rwanda, Rwanda

Odette UWAMAHIRWE, Research Scholar
University of Rwanda, Rwanda
Abstract

The hospital effluents are composed with a defined amount of pathogenic microorganisms and different chemicals (Tulashie, Kotoka, Kholi, Aggor-Woananu, & Tetteh, 2018). These pollutants are manifested in hospital effluent after different substances were used for medical purposes such as diagnostic (diagnosis) and researches. These products or substances after diagnostic agents, disinfectants, and excreted no- metabolized pharmaceutical reach the wastewater and turn into toxic pollutants. The pollutants in hospital effluents are classified in various groups such as heavy metals, detergents, disinfectants, antibiotics, solvents-ray contrast agents and radionuclide. This study has the main objective of studying the physico-chemical parameters and bacteriological analysis of Muhima hospital effluents.

After being treated by the wastewater treatment plant (effluents), the following concentrations (mg/l) :317, 1820,0.56,9.8,242,138,and 0.103 were obtained for TSS,TDS,DO,TOC,COD,BOD5 and Cd parameters respectively. Bacteriological parameters were find to be 6x108 cfu/100 ml to 4x10 7 cfu/100ml for  E.Coli , 7x10 8 cfu/100ml to 6x10 4 cfu/100ml a for fecal coliform and  8x108 cfu/100 ml to 6x107  cfu/100ml of total coliforms  at both influent and effluent respectively. The calculated treatment efficiency (%) of above parameters was 37, 21, 40.6, 53.5, 59.5, 50.7, 93.3, 99.9and92.5 respectively. Some heavy metals were not found in this analysis while cadmium was obtained at high extent compared to the limit of who standards.

The Enlightenment from Liaofan’s Four Lessons in College Education—From the Perspective of “the Indissoluble Linkage of the One With the Many”
​Yaqin He, Associate Professor
Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, China
Abstract

With a narrative style that is unique among Chinese classical texts, Liaofan’s Four Lessons, written in 1602 CE, distinguishes itself from other so-called “family lessons.” The approach in the book to the education of young people has won praise from many scholars and readers at home and abroad and has exerted great influence on the lay public. The book’s approach to education, from the perspective of “the indissoluble linkage of the one with the many,” fuses Confucianism, Daoism and Buddhism and employs a narrative style, emphasizing relations among all things, including indissolubly linked structures and systems, and  a key idea, learning to shape one’s destiny. “The indissoluble linkage of the one with the many” is a doctrine of internal, constitutive relations. The narrative style employed to articulate the educational thought in the book helps us in a more comprehensive and systematic way to understand the wisdom of the ancient Chinese philosophy of education, which provides perfect enlightenment for college education. Furthermore, in an important practical manner, Liaofan’s Four Lessons encourages us to appreciate our cultural inheritance, enabling us to continue developing the vital spirit of Chinese culture for today and into the future.

The Theme of Marriage and Love in Thomas Hardy's Jude the Obscure:  An Ideo -literary Evaluation
 
​Ali Albashir Mohammed Alhaj, 3Ph. D.s. & Associate Professor
King Khalid University, KSA
Abstract

The current  study is an attempt at reading critically how Thomas Hardy used his novel Jude the Obscure to portray marriage and love. Hardy would agree that the world  has much good, but much less good than ill, but he  sometimes  goes much further, apparently believing that the finer the spirit, the greater  the potential , the more total  the ruin that will be contrived for it. Jude is a superb picture of a man sexual and spiritual, living in an age when two can scarcely be reconciled. After early marriage   to the earthy  Arabella ,he becomes  involved with Sue, superbly rounded  picture of one whom contemporary sexual hypocrisy has pushed into a state of neurosis-on the surface a liberated woman, underneath sexual sadist, one who can be excited only by the outré ,a tease who sexually  torments  her men, just as she finally ends up a self-lacerating Christian convert,  forcing herself  to  live with a man who physically revolts her. She is perverted, neurotic, utterly fascinating creature, the first creation from the abnormal fringes of the New Woman movement, and she brings Jude, never marked for happiness or prosperity ,to total disaster. It is only the earthy Arabella,  living for the moment ,satisfied  if her bodily wants are catered  for, who will live a life of moderate  satisfaction: as  she leaves the body of the dead .Jude to go off to join in the  Christminster  boating  festivities ,she already has another husband in view. Life will always go on through such as hr and it the process the finer spirits will be destroyed,   

Gender Inequality in Nigeria: Issues and Prospects
Bibi Farouk Ibrahim, Ph. D.
Department of Political Science and International Relations
University of Abuja, Nigeria
Ishaka Dele, Research Scholar
Department of Political Science and International Relations
University of Abuja, Nigeria
Humphrey Ukeaja, Research Scholar 
Department of Political Science and International Relations
University of Abuja, Nigeria
Abstract

The paper is a foray of issues in gender inequality in Nigeria with a view to proffering solutions. Gender inequality has been a topical issue in academic debate in Nigeria. In spite of the extensive discussions in various conferences, academic debate and fora the issue of gender imbalance and poor women participation in politics is still very low. The findings of the paper asserts that customs, norms, legal issues and political constraints are the challenges of gender in Nigeria particularly the female folks. Secondary means of data collection via journals, books, magazines and published and unpublished works was adopted by this paper. In the light of the identified constraints solutions were proffered such as; the government must make laws in view of gender and gender inclusivity and some customs and norms that are a challenge to gender should be jettisoned and discarded.

The American Position on the City of Jerusalem Under President Donald Trump and Its Implications on the Future of the Palestinian Cause
 
​Osama Abu Nahel, Ph. D. & Professor
Al Azhar University - Gaza, Palestine
Abstract

Jerusalem is the center of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, and any change in its political status or demographic structure will ignite the Middle East in the near future in a religious war that will not last. Hence, the American position in the city of Jerusalem since the emergence of the Palestinian issue has played an important role in the international policy towards this holy city. This situation was accompanied by malicious policies that encouraged the Israeli government to take a decision in 1980 to consider Jerusalem as the unified capital of (Israel). But the decision taken by the current US president Donald Trump in the autumn of 2017 to transfer the US Embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem, and recognize the city as the unified capital of Israel is dangerous, as it will have serious implications for the future of the Palestinian cause with all its files.

 

 

Journal of American Academic Research 

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