Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2021

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Empirical Impact Evaluation of Sales Promotional Mix on Sachet-Water Product Distribution on Enterprise Performance *
Published at American Journal of Marketing Management  (AJMM)
Julius Adima Osaremen, Ph.D., Principal Lecturer & Associate professor
Federal Polytechnic Bida, Nigeria

Extant studies bear no significant empirical research effort on the potency of sales promotional mix on enterprise performance and profitability. The marketing communication sales promotional mix element has become essential in any business’s life, be it small, medium, or large. Though not yet empirically-supported, sales promotional-mix links with the contraction and expansion of start-up and new venture creations. This study’s anchor investigates the direct impact of sales promotional mix on enterprise performance and its profitability, using a well-developed measurement and structural models to explore this inherent literature gap. Using a scientific approach, adopt primary and secondary data, formulate hypotheses, literature review, adopted questionnaire, 208 sample size, stratified random sampling, and PLS-SEM analytical methods. The study revealed that advertising sales promotion, personal selling, sales promotion, pricing sales promotion, and publicity sales promotion are positively and significantly related to enterprise performance and profitability. And the researcher recommends that the five sales promotional mix be adopted in the nation’s national strategic policy to secure and sustain individual and national economic advantage in a competitive production enterprise environment.

Cutaneous Manifestations of COVID-19: Our Observation from Muscat Governorate in Oman *
Published at American Journal of Medical Sciences  (AJMS)
Aisha Al-Ali, MD, MRCPC
Head of Department of Dermatology at Al Nahdha Hospital, Oman
Safiya Al-Shidhani, MD, OMSB, Senior Specialist
Al Nahdha Hospital, Oman
Fatma Al Balushi, MD, Senior Consultant
Al Nahdha Hospital, Oman
Mohammed H Alhinai, MRCP(London), MD Senior Consultant
Al Nahdha Hospital, Oman
Abdul Rahman Al-Azri. BA BDSc MFDS DClinDent (OralPath) GdipForOdont, Consultant
Al Nahdha Hospital, Oman
Sultan Al Lawati, MD. OMSB, Specialist 
Al Nahdha Hospital, Oman
Reham Al Riyami, MD, Medical Officer
Al Nahdha Hospital, Oman
Farah Muhannad Al Ghailani. MD, Medical Officer
Al Nahdha Hospital, Oman

Objectives: To identify the cutaneous manifestations in COVID-19 in Oman.
Methods: The study was conducted in 2 phases with initial cross-sectional data collection with subsequent telemedical investigations of late skin manifestations including confirmed COVID-19 patients evaluated at Al-Nahdha Hospital and local health centers in Muscat from March 22nd to June 2nd, 2020.
Results: The total number of patients included in the study was 374 Cutaneous manifestations observed in 1.87% (n=7) of patients at presentation with additional 1.6% (n=5) on follow up. The types of skin reactions included maculo-papular rash (n=6), urticaria (n=2), transient pruritic erythema (n=1), pruritic palmo-plantar erythema (n=1), pustular eruption (n=1) and flare up of atopic dermatitis (n=1).
Conclusions:  The low percentage of skin lesions is not contradicting previous data and it might just reflect under-reporting of skin rash in our sample population. Skin lesions can still be utilized to treat patients as suspected cases until proven otherwise. 

Factors Affecting Achievement of Engineering Students in English *
Published at American Journal of Applied Linguistics (AJAL)
Ali Furqan Syed, Lecturer
University of Lahore Sargodha Campus, Pakistan
Ijaz Hussain, Lecturer
University of Lahore Sargodha Campus, Pakistan
Ali Raza Khan, Lecturer
Superior College Sargodha, Pakistan
Samiya Anwaar, Mphil Scholar
University of Lahore Sargodha Campus, Pakistan

The purpose of the study is to explore factors affecting achievement of engineering students in English at DAE level. There are a few factors that contribute to achievement of English learners. Student factors, family factors, school factors and peer factors are external whereas age, gender, geographical affiliation, ethnicity, marital status, socio-economic status are from the internal factors. For this study, survey design is selected and for data collection a close ended questionnaire is used. The data is gathered from the sampling population consisting of 6 Technical Institutes (2 public and 4 private) of district Lahore. Multi-stage random sampling will be used to select a sample of the size 653 (70 teachers and 583 students, males and females).The data is analyzed by SPSS using statistical tests. The results of the study would have practical considerations for change in the syllabus, methodology, materials, and internship practices of engineering students. The study will also open up new avenues for future researchers.

Monetary Policy and Inflation Dynamics Strategies for Japan *
Published at American Journal of Economics and Finance (AJEF)

Jeonbuk National University, Korea
JI-YOUNG JEONG, Ph.D. & Senior Professor
Jeonbuk National University, Korea

This paper develops strategies for the monetary policies in Japan, from the qualititative perspective, taking into account the empirical analysis developed by the Bank of Japan. The structure starts explaning briefly the economy of the country, the current monetary policies, the methodology of the empirical analysis, benchmarking cases, and the qualitative analysis which is the contribution of this research. Finally, the conclusions remark the purpose of the government of Japan to achieve the goal of the 2% inflation and the path that allows to reach it.

The Effectiveness of Albert Ellis' Theory in Achieving Self-efficacy and States of Psychological Identity Among High School Students in Hail City Schools *
Published at American Journal of  Higher Education (AJHE)
Tamaader Mansor Salem Almashe, Research Scholar
Saudi Arabia

The study aimed to identify the effect of rational and irrational thoughts on high school students in the city of Hail. The study sample consisted of (120) male and female students. The researcher used the descriptive analytical method. The study reached a set of results that there is no difference between the arithmetic mean and the theoretical mean, which indicates that the study sample (high school students) was not affected by irrational ideas. The results also showed that there is a difference between the arithmetic mean and the theoretical mean, which indicates that the study sample (high school students) was affected by rational ideas. On the other hand, the results showed that there is a strong direct correlation between the scale of rational thoughts and the degree of both self-efficacy and psychological identity. In addition, there is a weak direct correlation between the scale of irrational thoughts and the degree of both self-efficacy and psychological identity.

Fundamentals of Effective Leadership*
Published at American Journal of Higher Education (AJHE)
Mohrah Salem Abdullah Almuawi, Ph.D. Scholar & Lecturer
Concordia University Chicago, USA
A. Donald Hendricks, Ph.D & Associate Professor
Concordia University Chicago, USA

For various reasons, employee empowerment is a process that cannot be ignored in an organization. A leader’s empowerment influences employees’ ability to solve problems independently in their respective departments in an organization. An organization that fails to empower its employees operates at the edge of failing. This essay discusses various ways leaders can empower their employees in an organization. The use of parallel structures is an essential approach for empowering employees. One way of empowering employees is to become a problem solver on various issues hindering employee performance and appreciating their efforts. This essay also discusses the importance of leadership in enhancing business culture and trust. A leader plays the role of ensuring that trust is prevalent in an organization. Culture and trust enhance employees' relations. Culture and trust are essential as it reduces time wastage on discussing irrelevant ideas since employees and leaders trust each other. Various ways that an organization or leader can enhance culture and trust among employees is by avoiding favoritism. A leader must be consistent in building trust among employees, and trust can be enhanced by giving rewards and fulfilling promises made to employees. This essay also discusses the importance of policy changes in an organization. Changes are inevitable, and leaders need to give reasons for implementation and changes to avoid conflict. The best way to ensure effective implementation of policy changes in an organization is by enhancing communication between company management and workers. Policy formulation and successful implementation in an organization will also be discussed.

Chemical Composition and Physicochemical Properties of Adansonia-digitata. (L)*
Published at American Journal of Chemical Science (AJCS)
Adam Ahmed Farah, Ph. D. & Associate professor
University of Kordofan, Sudan 
Asma Hamoda Mohammed, Ph. D. Scholar 
Gadah University, KSA

Ali Abdalah Eltayeib, Ph. D. Scholar
University of Kordofan, Sudan
Jubralla Mohammed Elhaj, Ph.D. Scholar
University of Dalanj, Sudan
Sara Ahmed Altigani, Research Scholar

This study aimed to identify the chemical composition of seeds, seeds contents and vitamin C of seeds oil extraction of adansonia-digitata, (L). The seeds were collected from the local market in El-Obeid City, North Kordofan State (2017). The standard procedures were applied for extract crude protein (19.23%), crude fibers (37.83%), total ash (2.40%), total carbohydrate (11.85%) and the moisture content (5.71%). The oil was extracted by using the thermal distillation method, it was found to be 22.38%. The density 0.90g/cm3, refractive index 1.47, relative viscosity 36.77 cent poise, the chemical properties such as: acid number 0.43mg KOH g-1, peroxide value 2.19mg KOH g-1, iodine value. 98.77, saponification value. 189.71mg KOH g-1, unsaponifications matters 1.73mg KOH g-1 and free fatty acids 0.21mg KOH g-1. The GC-MS methods with standard references library used, detected 26 chemical compounds. The higher percentage fatty acids found to be Linolelaidic acid 21.59%, Oleicacid 21.49% and Palmitic acid19.68%. The AAS methods were used to detect the minerals as: Na 33.90 mg/L, K1.32 mg/L, Ca 25.50 mg/L, Mg 60.60 mg/L, Cu 0.03 mg/L, Fe 0.39 mg/L, Zn 0.16 mg/L, Mn 0.04 mg/L and Pb 0.02 mg/L. and Vitamin C was found (80.10 mw/100g oil as ascorbic acid). The finding to have bright promising practical pharmaceutical application.

COVID – 19 Pandemic: Challenges of Families *
Published at American Journal of Higher Education (AJHE)
Preeti Abraham, Ph. D Scholar
Mother Teresa Women's University, India
Beulahbel Bency, Ph. D & Assistant Professor 
Mother Teresa Women's University, India

The COVID-19 pandemic is causing panic everywhere. For most of the families, it could mean making big changes in everyday routines due to financial hardships. For some it could mean the raise in concern in children, experiencing tension, stress or emotion.  Getting to a new normal situation can be very challenging as schools and daycares are closed leaving parents perplexed by this undetermined phase. We as parents are models for our kids and should never show any sign of mental disturbance.  Using positive language and being clear active listener works well.  Family support is important during this major crisis.  The environment in which children grow and develop can disturb relationship, daily routines, and the wider community can have negative consequences for children’s well-being, protection, physical and mental development. Home-based, facility based and zonal-based quarantine and isolation measure can all negatively impact children and their families. The aim of this study is to find out the impact of covid-19 on the home front. It covers areas like how parents should explain to their children COVID-19 and its effects, what they should avoid telling children at this time, explain about their financial hardships when to seek professional help, some ethical challenges, how to spend quality time and maintain good family relationships, the role of the parent at this critical time of the pandemic, how children can overcome their socio- economic stress skills and policies to mitigate the effect of COVID-19 on the above mentioned skills.

The Role of Family Upbringing in the Excellence of Students in the Saudi Society*
Published at American Journal of Higher Education (AJHE)
Ministry of Education, Saudi Arabi

The study aimed to identify the role of family upbringing in the excellence of students in the Saudi society. The study sample consisted of the parents of the students who excelled in their study at the elementary stage in the Ashbelia district in eastern Riyadh in (142) families. A questionnaire was developed by the researcher to be used as an instrument for this study, and the analytical descriptive method was used.  The results indicate that there is agreement to some extent among the members of the study sample on the role of families of students who excelled in their study regarding the academic aspect, and among the most important of these roles is to provide what the children ask for in terms of study needs, motivate children continuously to raise their level, and follow up on children's lessons on a regular basis. In addition to the roles related to setting bedtime for children, emphasizing the importance of time and organizing it for children, and praising children in front of people. The study recommended that the family encourage outstanding children to enter new horizons, and to avoid the excessive punishment or extreme disapproval if the student makes a mistake because of his daring and risk, in addition to providing the needed requirements when the children want to play or practice some creative activities inside or outside the home alone or with their colleagues. 

The Profitability from Technical Trading Strategies:  Evidence from Kase-100 Index of Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX)*
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Irfan Ullah Stanikzai, MBA. & Dean of Economic Faculty
Al - Taqwa Institute of Higher Education, Afghanistan

This study has investigated two simple but very well-known trading rules, simple moving average (SMA) and trading range break (TRB), by looking at a time series daily data of KSE-100 Index over 20 years, from January 1997 to February 2018. In order to avoid data-snooping biases, the study has applied the outcome of sample tests in addition to the traditional tests to check the validity of the trading rules. Our results show (1,50) trading rules outperforms over the 20 years testing period. These average returns from the simple moving average rules are higher than the actual returns for the sample period. Furthermore, the VMA (1,50) rules performs better than the FMA(1,50) rules due to the fact that it includes the first nine days information into consideration in the investment decision. Keeping in view the nine days flexible period to buy or sell out of the outperform stock, the VMA (1,50) rules has generated excess returns than the FMA (1,50) rules. However, the overall returns of the TRB rules were found small. The overall result suggests that trading strategies can be used to earn excess returns in the KSE-100 index of Pakistani Stock Exchange. 

Witold Lutoslawski and Symphony No. 3*
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
He Huang, DMA
University of Arizona, USA

Witold Lutoslawski believed that when conceiving a work, a whole set of psychological design is needed. His composing techniques are those general ideas that are the result of inspiration and can be used several times. The Symphony No. 3 is one of the representative works in his late years, in this work, the composer shows his talent in the layout of multiple compositional materials, structural power of acoustic signals, and the concept of structural forms and organization. More importantly, controlled aleatoricism is the most important salient feature of this piece.

The Use of Simulation With the School of Nursing and Health Professions (Sonhp) Prelicensure Students to Support the Practice Toward the Transgender Communities *
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Genevieve Charbonneau, MS, Director of Clinical Labs
University of San Francisco, USA

The purpose of this paper is to examine the different disparities in student disciplines and provide critical review of current literature on how microaggressions against transgender communities and more specifically against transgender patients are lacking in many of the prelicensure nursing programs at the School of Nursing and Health Professions Simulation Center in the San Francisco Bay Area.  The goal of the research would be to enhance nurse faculty's readiness for student diversity in the classroom and clinical setting and provide experiential learning in nursing education as well as promote knowledge, skills and attitudes to have a more effective approach to teach cultural competence and sensitivity in caring for vulnerable populations (Nursing Faculty Readiness for Student Diversity, 2019).  Simulation and its experiential learning environment and how comprehensively, underestimating the needs of support needs of adjunct faculty could transform into difficulty creating and maintaining a highly qualified adjunct workforce and weakened educational experiences for students. Through the distribution of the Qualtrics survey, and through our classroom learnings, and literature, the researcher would like to be able to identify key issues within the transgender community.  Through this, the researcher is hoping to gain understanding of the need for the transgender individuals who are finding it very difficult to obtain health care services and those who are being mistreated by healthcare provider’s solutions through the lens of conceptual frameworks.  These concepts would help to determine that with them, there may be success in helping adjunct faculty to develop, integrate, and evaluate clinical simulation activities in four key areas: curriculum, instruction, operations, and research.

How to Integrate Assistive Technology and Instrumental Enrichment to Facilitate and Make a Difference in Special Education
Published at American Journal of Higher Education (AJHE)
Mateo Gonzalez, Ph.D. & Academic Researcher
Creighton University, USA

Technology has opened numerous magic windows for educators to facilitate learners with special needs or even children with disabilities. Thus the need for assistive technology and  instrumental enrichment to facilitate and make a difference in special education becomes a popular research topic to be investigated. And the breakthrough for special teaching technique is associated with instrumental enrichment, which was frequently abbreviated to IE. The theory was based on an interactionist theory of learning between the teacher and the learners. The ideal setting under IE is defined as the following: the size of the class is ideally in single figures; IE involves a program of mental activities, with an emphasis on the nonverbal, such as patterns of shapes; In reality, however, it also includes language, numbers and pictures. There are fifteen separate sequenced sets of tasks; each one is claimed to develop a particular mental skill. In the classroom setting, there usually involves comparison, classification, sequencing and understanding relationships in space and time. *

Transforming Signals of Medical Instruction under the Constructive Research of Related Clinical Practices (CP) with Moderate Consideration of Health Training Revolution
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Hayes  Knebel, Ph.D. & Lecturer
Pangasinan State University, Philippines


In the field of medical practice, the use of transforming behaviors under the constructive research has radical outcomes in medical instruction. At the heart of such systematic practices lies the position of fully-skilled health care professionals who greatly commit to whatever they are required to achieve. From historical records, the medical instructors were always recognized as unique personnel- whose knowledge, experiences and professional levels were believed to be critical importance for the overall development of medical institutions. Though a lot of empirical investigation were conducted to identify the multiple perspectives on the view of identifying medical instructors as both trainer and researcher, it is still worthwhile to deeply lay insight on what special professional characteristics contributing to the climax of their professional practices. In return, this empirical study plans to bridge the gap and give particular insights of a holistic picture to readers on this problematic issue of medical professional’s mysterious behavior and level of satisfaction through providing sophisticated implications and enriched data analysis. To view and understand the more detailed discussion of current research and practice, one needs to fully engage in the research design, implications and overall practices of the health professions in the case. *

Population Structure and Diversity of Marine Gastropods in Nickel Mining Site Along the Shoreline in Carrascal, Surigao del Sur *
Published at American Journal of Nature Sciences (AJNS)
Rizza May Plaza Canete, Assistant Professor & Program Head
Tagoloan Community College, Philippines

Nickel is a trace metal widely distributed in the environment as a result of natural and anthropogenic processes. This metal is considered harmful when it enters the body since it will interfere with the metabolism of other essential metals which can suppress or interfere with its toxic and carcinogenic effects to the body. It is for this major reason that many people along the intertidal area of a nickel mining company in Carrascal, Surigao del Sur in Mindanao, the Philippines, are so concern about the harmful effects of mining nickel in the mountains along the coast not only to their fishing livelihood but also to their health since they also utilize the resources of the coast for food. Added to this is the lack of proper disposal of the mining wastes that directly are dumped into the bay resulting to siltation and contamination of the bay. We investigated the status of the bay by looking into the communities of both economically and non-economically important gastropods as potential indicators of nickel pollution in the bay. The physicochemical conditions of the sea water along the coastline were measured and identified that includes temperature, pH, salinity, and dissolved oxygen (DO) including the amount of nickel in the silt where the gastropods were collected. Results show low richness and diversity index in the gastropods. Low species richness and diversity were observed in all areas. While nickel amounts in silt vary from area to area, we cannot make a direct correlation with its effects on diversity as the areas are also being continuously exploited by coastal communities by collecting the gastropods for food and economic purposes. However, with the varying amounts of nickel in silt, more studies are needed for the monitoring of nickel in the meat of gastropods since this may or may not affect the health of the people who will be eating them. ​

Applied Linguistics Revisited: Can University Students Improve English Language Skills in a “Hybrid-Method-Setting” in a Remote Area in Mainland China
Published at American Journal of Applied Linguistics (AJAL)
Xiaobin Zhang, Ph. D. & Associate Professor
Shanxi Normal University, China

The current research on applied linguistics provided us a new perspective on language acquisition and this research will solve the research question: Can University Students Improve English Language Skills in a “Hybrid-Method-Setting” in a Remote Area in Mainland China? We selected 100 students from English linguistics major class and trained them through different techniques in the classroom. Teachers give them training materials and specific instruction in learning and performances. Then instructors gave insightful suggestions for English-as-a-second-language learners (ESLs) on how to improve their English language skills from the perspective of applied linguistics and cognitive linguistics; The research yielded constructive result which has far-reaching impact on English teaching and learning activities with meaningful findings, First result revealed that students should be mentally prepared to engage in practical exercises and be ready to active participation in the classroom. Second, students should often attend specific seminar and question answer session to obtain the expected level of language skills during the process of language application. In addition, authentic motivation, deep interest and collaboration are also key factors which positively influence the final achievement of language acquisition. *

Effectiveness of Mass Communication in Changing Human Behavior: The Impact and Result of Strategical Analysis of SNSs Application on Social Events
Published at American Journal of Human Resource Management (AJHRM)
Charles Davis, Ph.D. Scholar
Robert Gordon University, UK

This paper aims at finding out the effectiveness of mass communication in changing human behavior and how SNSs Application could possibly strategically change the social events. The researcher started the article by summarizing the current category of SNSs and reviewing the current controversies of SNSs application. Then based on the literature review and data analysis, the researchers posted challenging questions about misconduct of social networking tools in the field of mass communication. One of the unsolved problems remains on how to define mass media and mass communication in the 21st century with rich tech and artificial intelligence. And how to encourage the community to get involved in communications planning, disseminating communication information and achieving the goal of mass communications.   *

Considerations for Home and Community-Based  COVID-19 Pandemic: The Undiscovered Consequences Among Iranian Startups
Published at American Journal of Health Science (AJHS)
Robert Johnson, Ph.D.
University of Richmond, USA


Due to the allocation of health resources and services, it is commonly believed that community-based protection and prevention is very effective to cut off Covid-19 transmission at the beginning stage. Recent years, the COVID-19 abrupt outbreak has become a major concern with substantial effects on markets, and the world economy. The impact of COVID-19 is assessed to be even more than all the previous global pandemic. In this short-term, due to the impacts of this pandemic, startups are more prone to fail or succeed faster than ever before; however, the challenges they face are not yet clearly scrutinized, as the pandemic was faster than scholars. This study therefore investigates the main challenges of Iranian startups by interviewing the co-founders of fifteen well-known startups. The two-step coding was used to analyze findings and these findings were explained in a focus group session to which startup co-founders, policymakers, and scholars were invited. It was concluded, six principal types of challenges are major concern by this pandemic, including, human resources management, support measures financial and marketing, mechanisms, crisis management, and few others. The research will have great impact and influence on alleviating the current emergent situation.   *

Education, Knowledge and Economy in the Triangle of Recent Urban Development: The Case for New Entrepreneurs under Constraints of Neoliberalism and Higher Education Matrix 
Published at American Journal of Higher Education (AJHE)
Rosemary Williams, Ph.D. and Instructor
Mount Saint Vincent University, Canada
Michael Brown, Ph.D.
Mount Saint Vincent University, Canada


Education opportunity is considered to be one of the most valuable factors in the economic development and employee retain rate. This particular research will demonstrate how the co-effect of education, knowledge and economy will influence recent urban development. The domination of neoliberalism and the connected discourses of new public management during the 1990s to 2000s has introduced a fundamental uplift in the way of higher education in universities and other institutions. Each has defined and justified their institutional existence. The old professional culture of intellectual enquiry and examination has been replaced with institutional new performativity, as evidenced by the emergence of an emphasis on measured outputs: on planned development, student performance, quality assurance measures and academic credit and audits. This paper identified the links between neoliberalism and globalization as well as neoliberalism and the knowledge economy. According to it, in a global neoliberal environment, the role of higher education in economic development is governed by governments as having greater importance to the extent that higher education has become the new star ship in the policy fleet for governments around the world. Universities are the basic driver for economic knowledge and as a consequence higher education institutions have been encouraged to develop links with industry. The recognition of the economic importance of higher education for economic viability is necessary to promote greater entrepreneurial skills and develop the new performative measures to enhance output to achieve targets. This paper attempts to document these trends at the level of both political philosophy and economic theory. The author believes that the research result will give the light in the research of education, economy and urban development.   *

Increasing Optimal Efficiency of Crop Production under the Negative Influence of Global Greenhouse Effect
Published at American Academic Journal of Agriculture (AAJA)
Bradley Smith, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
Pepperdine University, USA

The Green Revolution in 1960s enabled a sharp increase of the production of major staple grain crops (wheat, corn, rice, etc) to solve the ever-increasing demands of an increasing global population growing with geometric numbers. This article focused on how to increase the optimal efficiency of crop production under the impact of global greenhouse effect. We understand that the climate change effects have advanced in the past decade, there are still gaps in knowledge regarding the potential impacts of climate change on agriculture. These gaps are especially wide when it comes to specialized cultivation systems such as those of fruit and vegetable, which globally provide a high contribution to the human diet. To fill these gaps, we need a multifaceted approach that integrates physiology and genomics tools and might thus provide comprehensive answers, aiming at future needs. The increase in atmospheric CO2 is one of the main drivers of the climate changes and the increase of the global temperature. The CO2 molecule is also an essential nutrient for plants and increases in its concentration in the atmosphere have the potential to improve plant productivity (Leisner, 2020). However, optimizing the repose of plants to the increase in CO2 is a challenge due to its  complex interaction with the regulation of stomata, transpiration and the efficiency of water use, issues discussed in detail in open stomata  agriculture by Fara et al. 2019. The cultivation of crops with high productive potential and with greater resilience to biotic and abiotic stresses is seen as one of the methods with the greatest potential for obtaining higher yields, reducing the use of pesticides and without increasing the cultivated areas. Advances in genomics revolutionized and accelerated plant breeding. This will continue as costs decrease and more advanced methods are developed and applied. This was discussed by Gomes et al. 2020, in the characterization of a germplasm bank of Cucurbita moschata D. where they described the genetic relationships of agro-morphological characteristics, with the purpose of identifying early flowering genotypes, genotypes with high total levels of carotenoids in the fruit pulp and those with high potential for seed productivity and seed oil. There is an urgent need to support resilient and sustainable agriculture and the path is implementing cultivation practices and identifying new genes for agriculture. These genes should be directed to the optimization of production, mainly for the development of characteristics such as greater efficiency in the use of water, aspect fundamental in the current scenario, aiming at greater productive efficiency, less energy input and less risks to the environment.  *

Positive and Negative Benefits of Flaxseed as an Organic Food Source During the Period of Sustainable and Strategic Development
Published at American Academic Journal of Agriculture (AAJA)
Süleyman Özberk, Ph. D. and Lecturer
Cukurova University, Turkey

Flaxseed was cultivated in Babylon in around many centuries ago and many people consider it as one of the most powerful plant foods on the planet (Magee, 2020). When Traced back to history, we can also realize that flaxseed can be used to treat diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, stroke and all kinds of cancer. The application of flaxseed was highlighted by scientists and medical workers for many centuries. However, the valuable effects of flaxseed was always underestimated to a large degree, and even people who are working in the specific field can not cognitively associate the benefits of flaxseed with the treatment of certain disease. Thus, the waste of flaxseed was unnoticed when it comes over-consumption and non-effective consumption. This article will enumerate both the positive side and the negative side of flaxseed which will benefits sustainable development as an organic food source. After a systematic comparison and analysis, the conclusion was drawn naturally with statistic analysis and logic induction as scientific collaboration.  *

Collaborative Group Tasks, Problem Solving, and Social Interaction under the Environment of Computer-aided Intelligent Learning Environment
Published at American Journal of Computer Sciences (AJCS)
Robin Bachman, Ph.D. Scholar
Stevens Institute of Technology, USA

Learning through computer-aided inquiry was considered as an important breakthrough in teaching and learning history as it substantially improved the frequency of social interaction, cognitive thinking and learning achievements. According to Dillenbourg, P., Järvelä, S., & Fischer, F. (2009), the collaboration among peers can be “pre-designed” with specific purpose of improving learner ability and learning effectiveness in a specific field of acquisition. In addition, it can facilitate affective, social, emotional and motivational ability with the aid of purposeful scenarios and online interaction. The researcher did the experiment in a remote US university with 100 learners in the control group and 100 learners in the experimental group. The test result surprised all test takers and organizers with non-effects related predictive results. The current research focused on the observation and analysis of collaborative group task, problem solving, and social interaction under the environment of computer-aided and intelligent Learning environment. The research result will be beneficial to scholars all over the world who has a particular interest in discovering how computer-aided learning environment on collaborative group task, problem solving, and learning improvement.  *

Comparing Obesity in Urban and Rural Area Based on Demographic Factors and How Obesity Negatively Influence People’s Life Quality and Educational Level
Published at American Journal in Health Science (AJHS)
Chukwunonso Ogbeide, Ph.D. Scholar & Lecturer
University of Benin. Nigeria

According to recent research done by Zibima, S. B., Wasini, K. B., & Oniso, J. I. (2020), obesity is dramatically increasing year by year and it was consider one of the most severe life-threatening fatal diseases globally by the end of 2020. The fact is that obesity itself may not be dangerous, but the complications related to obesity can be deadly or fatal in a great extent. Though many researchers have had extensive research in this field, only a few compared the scientific data from unban area with which from the suburban area. The goal of this research is first, to employ scientific data, research, and analysis with the goal of raising public awareness for people who are within the high-risk group and try to rescue them by informing them of the basic knowledge of obesity’s origin, prevention, danger, threatening, and treatment. Second, the realistic purpose for this research is comparing obesity in urban and rural area based on demographic factors and how obesity negatively influence people’s life quality and educational level. A questionnaire was obtained from 200 attendees and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for the scientific analysis of the data. The research results confirmed the doubts and anxiety of the severely negative influence of obesity on educational achievements, human life quality, life expectancy at present and in the future.  *

Physical , Cellular, Psychological and Holistic Treatment of Clinical Disease Caused by Immune Deficiency Syndrome (IDS)
Published at American Journal of Medical Sciences (AJMS)
Sara Johnson, Ph.D. & Lecturer
Cleveland State University, USA

Previous research only focused on how the disease was diagnosed and how the treatment was employed, but this particular research focused on the physical, cellular, psychological, and holistic treatment of clinical disease caused by immune deficiency syndrome (IDS). As we all know that the immune system protects the body from germs, disease, or other life-threatening problems. However, at a certain period of time, the immune system is lack or gets off track and thus has a weaker or powerless response to all threats to humans. The low performance or low reaction with less activity was called immune deficiency and it makes people unable to response or fight off infections.

The severe result of immune deficiency lead to illness, or even life loss. Some scientists also call this immune deficiency disorder in order to distinct this concept with other similar ones. Primary immunodeficiency (2020) indicated that many people with primary immune deficiency syndrome (IDS) have demonstrated an inborn deficiency or a lifetime missing of some of the body's immune defenses shield or with the immune system not working efficiently. As a result, these people are more susceptible to germs that can cause infections and fatal diseases. Through quasi experimental research, this research coincided with presumptions from previous researchers and it will contribute to the further development of IDD research in the new era.  *

Contemporary Research on Synthesis Methods of Metal-organic Frameworks (MOFs)
Published at American Journal of Chemical Science (AJCS)
Shawna Pochipinski, Ph. D. & Lecturer
University of Abuja, Nigeria
Abdulkadir Bamisaye, Ph. D. & Assistant Professor
Abia State University, Nigeria


Recent years, the research on Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are countless yet no previous research focused on MOF on the basis that they are a class of hybrid network of supramolecular solid materials composed of organized organic linkers and metal cations. This research paper displayed enormously high surface areas with tunable pore size and fitful functionality, and it can be applied to the hosts for a range of guest molecules. After the thorough discovery research, MOFs have experienced widespread exploration for their applications in gas storage, drug delivery and sensing. An ultimate goal of the current research is to better understand the two-sided effects of MOF membranes and the research result showed significant positive proofs. The preliminary conclusion is that MOFs can be regarded as a reusable merging of solid acids and organic polymers in the area of construction and industrial foundation. This article synthesized the functionality of MOFs with unique perspective and the research implications are of great importance in further discovering and advancing the practical development of chemical science. *

Understanding Our Mind Through Guidance: How Philosophy Enables Us to Perceive the World and Master Human Mind
Published at American Journal of Philosophy Quarterly (AJPQ)
Keith Jardine, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
University of Central Missouri, USA
Carlos Knoll, Ph.D. Scholar
University of Central Missouri, USA

The current research is understanding our mind: how philosophy enables us to perceive the world and master human mind. As we all know, designing a study about the thinking pattern to investigate how minds work while thinking is the mind in conversation with itself. The central model stated that the mind is the core mode of self-interrogation in psychotherapy and psychology built on philosophical precepts. Both Socratic dialogue and stoicism are evident in the principles of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT). CBT and especially REBT instruct people to examine and dispute their beliefs and thus to tolerate unpleasant feelings—shades of Epictetus. The connection is bidirectional: The most perplexed evidence showed that people's psychological positions on philosophical questions in the center of the free-will existence are significantly influenced by their individual temperament and personality rather than cognitive ability. Future research will explore related philosophical questions which remain for human beings to further discover. *

The Role of Punctuation Marks to Convey and Clarify the  Meaning of Written English *
Published at American Journal of Applied Linguistics (AJAL)
Elnour Hadi, PhD. & Assistant Professor
Jazan University KSA

This study entitled “The Role of Punctuation Marks to Convey and Clarify the Meaning of Written English”. It has a great effect in the field of second language teaching and learning. This study explains the different types of punctuation marks that used in writing English to fulfill efficient learning for ESL learners. The study aims at using the effective techniques for using punctuation marks for learning English.. Moreover, to express the actual usage of these marks which make the writing process so effective in coping with what is going in all over the world. The main source of data collection is the questionnaire, beside, different references, books, forums and internet as secondary resources.