Volume 8, Issue 3, September 2020

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Developing EFL Students' Pragmatic Competence Through Sitcoms: A Conceptual Framework for Teaching Contexts
Published at American Journal of Applied Linguistics (AJAL)
Osama Mudawe Nurain Mudawe, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
English Department, College of Arts and Humanities, Jazan University, KSA. 

Teaching pragmatics in EFL settings seems to be daunting tasks for teachers. This complexity has been attributed to the fact that there are no particular textbooks for teaching pragmatics for EFL students. Typically, teachers tend to create various scenarios tailored for exposing students to authentic conversations to promote their understanding of the functional role of the language used in real and authentic daily life contexts. Sitcom, as an example of a repository for authentic materials, could effectively be used as a springboard for teaching pragmatics. Therefore, the study attempts to probe into the potentials of using Sitcom as a source for exposing EFL students to a comprehensible input that would develop their pragmatic competence in association with various parts of speech acts. Moreover, it provides a conceptual framework for improving EFL students' pragmatic abilities through the analysis of the natural conversation by applying Gricean maxims associated with what Hymes considered through pragmatic to insights into the nature of various tactics and strategies, which might be implemented for classroom instruction. The study triggered some findings that emphasize the decisive role of sitcoms as teaching tools with extraordinary and significant promises for EFL settings. The natural flow of authentic conversation accelerates EFL students' access to an abundance of the functional role of the language in the lively, funny, and humored environment.

***Can Learners Teach Other: Case Study of Peer Instruction in the University Course: Introduction to Linguistics
Published at American Journal of Applied Linguistics (AJAL)
Wang Duqin, Ph.D. & Professor
Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, China
Wang Shanhan, Research Scholar
Capital Normal University, China

Peer Instruction has attracted international concern since its emergence. While the vast majority of studies seem to prove its effectiveness in facilitating comprehension, cultivating thinking and promoting development of problem solving, there were studies which showed that Peer Instruction was powerless. To examine the effect of Peer Instruction, and to explore affecting factors, the present study chose a teaching reform project which involved application of Peer Instruction to a university course, "Introduction to Linguistics" in Beijing, China as the case. Compared T-test of students’ performance in concept tests and independent Sample Test of the Experimental Group and Control Group’s performance in course examination failed to show significant improvement of students’ understanding, and on the contrary, some reverse effects were also discovered. Interviews with the students showed that many factors, like students’ language ability, their ways of thinking, modes of presentation and language event itself can all hinder the effects of Peer Instruction. The present study seems to suggest Peer Instruction is not so powerful as previous studies demonstrated. Learners may not be able to teach others in comprehension of abstract concepts.

***Students' Spelling Mistakes in English Language: Diagnosis and Handling
Published at American Journal of Applied Linguistics (AJAL)
Dr. Abdelazim Mabrook Abdalbein Mabrook, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
Onaizah Colleges, K.S.A


Spelling, an essential part in our daily communication, formulation of words relies most on ones’ capacity of thinking and organizing words, either in writing or pronunciation. Even though, spelling plays an important role on EFL Students' daily writing, EFL students at Onaizah schools still have hindrances and encountered difficulties towards spelling. In this respect, students are unable to spell words correctly and even commit mistakes in spelling. Therefore, this study aimed to diagnose and setup a good handle to treat the students' spelling mistakes.  The study used experimental group and control group as tools in collecting information.  The samples which were intentionally selected consisted of 50 ESL/EFL students.  The study found that the differences in the variables of post-test scored highest marks in favor of the experimental group. Therefore, there are statistically significant differences depending on the variables of the complete the missing letters, write the silent letters, write the plural nouns, and add and copy the suffixes, thus the differences are in favor of experimental group.  There are also a statistically significant differences in the students answers to the variables related to dictation and spelling, thus the differences are in favor of experimental group.  The study recommended the following: 1) Teachers have to adopt spelling and dictation lesson in  intermediate schools, it will be helpful to these ages to avoid misspelling of some words.  2)  The students should be exposed to variety of spelling skills such as; the phonics, inflection spelling rules, reciting the homophones, recognizing the silent letters, the British and American Pronunciation, compound words, consonant digraphs and diphthongs to avoid spelling mistakes. It is also recommended to enhance the spelling awareness, teaching spelling and dictation strategies which benefit the student's spelling.

***Investigation of Antibiotics Susceptibility Profile and R-plasmid Among Bacteria Isolated from Blood Cultures of Hospitalized Patients in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria
Published at Journal of American Academic Research in Health Science (JAAR—HS)
Owolabi Shola Lawrence, Lecturer
Gateway (ICT) Polytechnic, Nigeria

Azeez Ikimot, Lecturer
Tai Solarin University of Education, Nigeria

Despite the effective and efficient efforts, mounted on the challenges of treatment failure ascribed  to antimicrobial resistance, in hospital settings around the globe, the morbidity and mortality rate, associated with antimicrobial resistance, remains a global public health challenge. Hence, this study was carried out to investigate the antibiotics susceptibility profile and R-plasmid, among bacteria, isolated from blood cultures of hospitalized patients, in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. The collected isolates were identified morphologically and biochemically. The inoculum was incubated at 370c for 4-6 hours; the turbidity was adjusted to 0.5 McFarland standards. Different types of antibiotic discs were used. The zone of inhibition was recorded as sensitive or resistant. Plasmid  extraction was done using alkaline lysis method. The molecular weight of the plasmid was determined by gel electrophoresis. Out of 50 isolates, obtained from three different hospitals in Abeokuta, 20 (40%) were E coli, followed by Klebsiella pneumonia 10(20%), Streptococcus pneumonia 10(20%), Staphylococcus aureus 5(10%), Salmonellae typhi 3 (6%) and Enterobacter spp 2(4%) respectively. Highest susceptibility pattern was observed in ciprofloxacin 82% and ofloxacin 82%, cefuroxime 76%, and ceftazidime 64%, respectively. All isolates were resistant to tetracycline 100%, multiple drug resistance was observed with plasmids molecular sizes ranging from 4kb to 8kb. Antimicrobial resistance remains a global public health challenge. There is a need for periodic research to dismay the spread of this threat. Furthermore, education strategy and awareness on the source of antibiotic resistance should be a high priority. Hence, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin remain the most potent antibiotics, in the treatment of enteric bacteria.

***Alternatives to Imprisonment in Saudi Arabia 
Published at Journal of American Academic Research  (JAAR)
Rasha saad Almalki, Lecturer
Taif University, Saudi Arabia 


This study evaluates the application of alternatives to imprisonment in Saudi Arabia and examines whether the legal system is willing to address the issue of prison alternatives. To achieve this purpose, this work investigates the position of sharia, which is the main source of Saudi legislation, regarding the application of alternatives to imprisonment. Further, the study explores and highlights the reality of the application of alternatives to imprisonment in Saudi courts. In addition, this study analyzes a draft law of alternative sanctions (2010).

The study draws the conclusion that the application of alternatives to imprisonment in Saudi Arabia faces a host of challenges. These include the lack of a legal framework which controls the use of alternatives to imprisonment, the lack of education of the public on the same, and uncertainty with regard to the executive bodies. The study makes recommendations for reform including the enactment of law establishing alternatives to imprisonment and considers the gaps in the 2010 draft and how to avoid them.  It recommends intensifying public awareness and constructing the infrastructure required for alternatives to imprisonment, in the hopes that such recommendations will contribute effectively toward the development of the criminal justice system in Saudi Arabia.


***Increasing Physical Activity Index Among Dengvaxia Recipients Through Theory-based Goal-setting Curriculum Supplement Integration: A Physical Literacy Intervention
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Samboy D. Franco, Research Scholar
Department of Education, Philippines


Today’s youth do not engage in the recommended amount of physical activity. More so, the fear around the controversial Dengvaxia vaccine limited the physical activities of students. This quasi-experimental research investigated the effectiveness of integrating a theory-based goal-setting curriculum supplement in increasing their physical activity index. Currently, no sufficient foundation study was explored on theory-based goal-setting curriculum supplement integration in the Philippines. Independent sample t-test was used to identify the significant difference of the correlated variables. Findings uncovered an improvement in the physical activity level index results of the respondents which can be interpreted as a result of the effective treatment.

***Nationalism in Aaron Copland's Music
Published at Journal of American Academic Research  (JAAR)
Heng Wang
Nanjing Normal University, China

He Huang, DMA
Nanjing Normal University, China


In the early 20th century, there were four important genres in western music: Nationalism, Impressionism, Expressionism, and Neoclassicism, which have a great influence on the development of western music. There were also many important composers who have made significant contributions in their own fields. Nationalism was not a new genre in the 20th century. As early as in the middle of the 19th century, nationalism had been developed in many countries. However, there were some differences and new characteristics of nationalism in the 20th century. In this paper, I would like to take Aaron Copland for example, to trace back and get to know how American musicians established their national music.

***Social Inclusion: A Poverty Reduction Approach
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
George Umeji, Ph.D. Scholar & Lecturer
Paul University, Nigeria
Eberechukwu Edith Eleanya, Ph.D. Scholar & Lecturer
Paul University, Nigeria
Ndubueze Ezindu Obisike, Ph.D. & Lecturer
Paul University, Nigeria
Camillus N. Okuma, Ph.D & Senior Lecturer
Madonna University, Nigeria
Paul Ikechukwu Unegbu, Lecturer
Federal College of Education(Technical) Umunze, Nigeria
Irene Nkechi Onwuka, Lecturer
Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria


This study, social inclusion: a poverty reduction approach, using descriptive research method, examines the relationship between social exclusion, social inclusion and poverty. It is amongst the findings of this study that social exclusion is not just a major cause of poverty but a key factor in poverty severity. However, social inclusion, as a means to ending poverty in Nigeria, can be achieved through creation of employment opportunities, access to education and skills acquisition as well as minimizing social exclusion.

***Non-surgical Root Canal Treatment of Maxillary 1st Molar with Five Canals
Published at Journal of American Academic Research in Health Science (JAAR—HS)
Dr. Lama Mohammad Charouf, Research Scholar
Batterjee Medical College, Saudi Arabia
Dr. Gufaran Ali Syed, Ph.D., Research Scholar & Associate Professor
Batterjee Medical College, Saudi Arabia 

Clinicians should always keep in mind that anatomical variations and different number of canals can exist in any tooth, especially in maxillary first molars. Knowledge and tools like magnification and CBCT imaging can lead to correct diagnosis and successful treatment. This article presents a case of successful non-surgical root canal treatment of maxillary first molar with three mesiobuccal canals by an intern at a teaching hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

***Adsorption of Cr ion from Composite Industrial Wastewater: Proteus Mirabillis as Efficient Bioadsorbent
Published at American Journal of Chemical Sciences (AJCS)
Qaiser Imran, PhD Scholar 
Zhejiang University, China
Tahira Yasmeen, Associate Professor
Government college University Faisalabad,Pakistan
Faisal Islam, Postdoc 
Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China 
Arslan Anjum, Scholar
Arid Agriculture university, Pakistan
Abdul Ghaffar, Postdoc 
Zhejiang University, China

This study deals with the isolation, adsorption of chromium ion and characterization of bacteria from industrial effluents. The 300 colonies were screened from initial level on heavy metal amended NA/LB medium. 26 pure colonies were selected in the secondary screening from wastewater. These colonies are preserved on LB media containing K2Cr2O7 salt for further studies. All isolated strains are resistance to the Cr ion but there tolerance level is varied. The bacteria isolated from specific Cr contaminated site like tannery effluent exhibit more resistant i.e. the CrR11, CrR16, CrR21, showed MIC of 70 ppm while the strains CrR19, CrR4 show least MIC. The strain CrR7, CrR21 was most resistance and fast growers then other bacterial strains. The Biosorption potential of the isolated strains was showed that these bacteria possess effective metal sorption efficiency within a short time of treatment process. The highest reduction at 70 ppm by Bacteria proteus mirabillis which known through Characterization was shown by the CrR11 by 91%, CrR16 by 86%, CrR21 by 92%, CrR 7 by 82% in 24 hours at pH of 7 and temp was 30oC. Physicochemical parameters like pH, TDS, TSS, EC and Temperature of effluents measured by standard methods. The pH of waste water samples were in the range of 6.0-7.4 which was within the limits of the NEQS (6-10 pH). Total Dissolved solids (TDS) and Total suspended solids (TSS) in the effluent varied form 490-550 mg/l and 61-73 mg/l and respectively. The values of TDS and TSS were below the NEQS recommendations. The highest value of EC was found in S7 while least is found in S5 sample. The temperature of S3, S4, S7 effluent samples was found above the NEQS (40oC) guidelines for industrial effluents.

***An Appraisal of Sabotage in the Nigerian Oil Industry 
Published at American Journal of Law and Practices  (AJLP) 
Gaga Wilson Ekakitie, Ph.D. & Research scholar
Delta State University, Nigeria

This paper examines the origin and effect of sabotage in the Nigerian oil industry. It adopts expository method in approaching the theme. Essentially the paper discovers that sabotage is stoutly argued to have been responsible for most of the oil spills in Nigeria. There are lots of covering up by oil companies and government in order to shelve responsibilities, even though, it is very obvious that pipeline vandalization is not a job for illiterate villagers as it requires specialized skills and tools. The paper discovers that the reasons for sabotage ranges from the neglect of the oil producing communities by government and the oil companies to the greed and selfishness of the people. The paper notes with concern the monumental effects of sabotage on government, the oil companies and the host communities, the loss of human lives and the grave consequences on the environment. This paper recommends; that in order to stop and/or mitigate the hardship associated with sabotage in the Nigerian oil industry, the Land Use Acts and other obnoxious legislations be abrogated and for environmental protection to be effective, rights and duties of government, its agencies and citizens must be precisely defined. Lastly, the fine payable by oil giant should be classified and made known in the public domain as boost community claim and mitigation. 

***The Defence of Insanity under the Nigerian Criminal Law
Published at American Journal of Law and Practices  (AJLP) 
Gaga Wilson Ekakitie, Ph.D. & Research scholar
Delta State University, Nigeria

This paper aimed at critically analysing the defence of insanity under the Nigerian criminal law and a brief comparison with other jurisdictions. The time- honoured and necessarily notion of criminal responsibility comes to question.

***Role of Marketing MIX on Customer Satisfaction
Published at American Journal of Marketing Management   (AJMM) 

Tareg Mohamed Elmahei Elbashier, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
Higher Education College, Saudi Arabia

This study aims to highlight and analyze the role of the marketing mix product, price, places, promotion on customer satisfaction. In specific, the current paper explores the role of marketing mix and its overall impact on customer’s satisfaction. All Marketing MIX Product, price, place and promotion variables need to be managed by understating psychological traits of customers' buying nature. Marketing managers must have a complete understanding of their target market before blending the marketing mix elements. Marketing mix elements consist of four elements (product, price, place, promotion). Marketers control these elements to satisfy the customers (Kotler and Armstrong). Inductive data collection approach has proved to be a great help to extract gist of past research results. A large proportion of data has been gathered from secondary resources including journals, books and old research papers. The results show that all four aspects of marketing mix are equally important and any imbalance among them can damage overall results. All the 4Ps has significantly influence on customer satisfaction. Price mix is the most influential on customer satisfaction. Customers’ buying intentions are greatly affected by his/her expectations in context of a product quality, price, and product accessibility. The relationship between customer satisfaction and loyalty depends on the elimination of perception gap, service gap, operational gap and behavioral gap that needs to be managed by giving focused attention to these matters. This paper reviews prior literature and proposes to think carefully to use marketing mix strategy to meet customer expectations by eliminating any communication or perception gaps that further extend customer loyalty.

***Validity of Performance Appraisals and Whistleblowing: Respectful Workplace Policies and Political Correctness Can Threaten Academic Freedom and Free Speech
Published at Journal of American Academic Research   (JAAR) 
Robert C. Sinclair, Ph.D. , President & CEO 
Sinclair & Associates Consulting, Canada



As is the case in any organization, valid performance appraisals are necessary when making tenure and promotion decisions in academia. Indeed, the more objective and, thus, less potentially biased these data, the more valid will be the performance appraisals. Unfortunately, when someone presents valid opposing a promotion, they are acting as a whistleblower but might not be provided with whistleblower protection. I argue that the current climate of Political Correctness, bullying/harassment, and respectful workplace policies in Academia can be at odds with Academic Freedom and Free Speech (not hate speech nor inciting violence). The Academy, in my opinion, is threatened when the discussion of ideas or collection of data, that might be perceived by some members of the Academy (or the public) as Politically Incorrect, are censored. Furthermore, I argue that it is extremely problematic when the presentation of valid data opposing a particular position can be construed as Politically Incorrect and lead to complaints of bullying/harassment, in a manner akin to responses to whistleblowing in organizations. Indeed, accusations of bullying/harassment might be a symptom of Politically Correct ideologies and a result of threats to Academic Freedom. I discuss these issues and provide an example as a cautionary tale as well as, what I consider to be, the implications for the Academy. 

***On Confucius' Ideas of Guan Zhong’s Benevolence——A Study of Taiwan scholars’ Criticism of Confucius Ideas of Guan Zhong
Published at American Journal of Philosophy Quarterly (AJPQ)
Jicheng SUN, M.A., Associate Professor
Shandong University of Technology, China
Nanran YU, MTI Candidate
Shandong University of Technology, China.

Taiwan Scholars started their research on Guanzi roughly since 1940s and 1950s, and their research has gained their own features, which has seldom been studied and referred by Mainland scholars due to historical reasons. Many Taiwan scholars focus on discussing Confucius ideas of Guan Zhong and exploring Confucius’ comments on Guan Zhong’ benevolence. This paper presents different arguments among different Taiwan scholars on this issue, with the hope to provide some references for other scholars in their Guanzi studies.

***Academic Leadership in Higher Education: A Correlational Study
Published at Journal of American Academic Research  (JAAR) 
Raffles International Institute, Mongolia

The study examined the relationship of deans’ leadership characteristics and practices to faculty performance of selected private colleges in the National Capital Region of the Philippines. This study utilized the descriptive method of research that involves adequate and accurate interpretation of the findings. The respondents of this study were 89 deans and 227 faculty members of 68 selected private colleges in the National Capital Region of the Philippines. College faculty members were asked to evaluate their deans' leadership characteristics and practices. Likewise, deans were asked to evaluate the performance of their faculty. The study utilized two (2) expert-validated questionnaires to elicit the responses. Based on the results, the deans’ leadership characteristics and practices greatly impact faculty performance. Thus, deans and educational managers should specifically look into their faculty members’ academic functions and professional traits and devise a program or programs that will further enhance the indicators presented.

***Paradigms, Issues and Integration: Critical Analysis and Application on Theory of Compassion Fatigue
Published at Journal of American Academic Research  (JAAR) 
Vicky D. Isonza, Ph.D., 
University of San Carlos, Philippines

The study analyzed the ontological and epistemological delineations of five authors who investigated on the theory of compassion fatigue. Using a heuristic method of investigation, this researcher examined the author(s) attempts to connect the theory of compassion fatigue with the methods they used in their respective studies. The purpose of the delineation is to examine how the methodological tools were used to describe the application of compassion fatigue theory. Guided by the philosophical assumptions of constructivism, the five studies showed how paradigms shaped the meaning of the nature of reality (ontology) from the production of data to interpretation of results. This shaping process exist in paradigms of objectivism, interpretivism, critical theory, and pragmatism. The review of the studies revealed how objectivism held the long-standing issue of paradigmatic dominance despite the existence of internal struggles and disagreements. Each paradigm has an important knowledge to contribute to our understanding of the nature of reality. A proposition is suggested to integrate the paradigms. A qualitative approach to integration is sampled. Through an overarching axiological principle, integration is possible. Well-formulated research criteria from each paradigm will raise the standard of the evaluation where rigor can be possibly implemented in all research paradigms. 

***Mathematical Modelling as a Tool for Sustainable Development in Nigeria
Published at American Journal in Applied Mathematics (AJAM)

ONWUKA PHILOMINA IFEANYI Ph.D., Associate Professor 
College of Education Agbor, Nigeria 
Menkiti Chika Cordelia .Ph.D. Scholar 
Nwafor Orizu college of education, Nigeria 


Mathematics in its abstract nature is seen as the queen of all sciences. Nigeria being one of a developing nation requires Mathematics that can effectively put science and technology in the forefront of national development. Many of our developmental teaching problems facing Nigeria currently could be solved if it is possible to get a mathematical model that could describe them. By way of definition; a mathematical model is a description of a system using mathematical concepts and language. In this work, a review of mathematical modelling and the role it can play on the path of sustainable development in our current century was done. We highlighted different types of mathematical modelling and classified them. Some of the applications and challenges of mathematical modelling were examined. The results show that mathematical modelling is one of the tools needed to transform the Nigeria economy from a developing to a developed economy. From the review, it is recommended that the Nigerian government should invest more on mathematics education at all levels including primary, secondary and tertiary in order to train more mathematical modellers and provide the enabling environment for teaching and learning of mathematics. Also students should be motivated or encouraged to study mathematics in general and mathematical modelling in particular through grants, loans and scholarships.

***Effectiveness of a Training Program in Improving the Level of University Adaptation Among a Sample of Students of Qassim University
Malida Branch - Deanship of Educational Services
Qassim University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

The study aimed to uncover the effectiveness of a training program in improving the level of university adaptation among a sample of students of Qassim University. The study sample consisted of (26) students of the preparatory year in Qassim University who have a low level of university adaptation based on their grades on the university adaptation scale. Their scores were considered tribal. In this light, the students were randomly divided into two groups: a control group that did not receive any treatment, and an experimental group that received a training program for seven sessions. Immediately after treatment was completed, direct measurement of the experimental group and the control group was taken. Then, two weeks after the treatment was completed, the delayed measurement (retention) of the experimental group and the control group was also taken. . The results of the study showed statistically significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in the level of university adaptation between the pre-measurement and direct measurement at (a = 0.05) in favor of the experimental group. There were also statistically significant differences in the level of university adaptation between direct measurement and delayed measurement (retention) in favor of the experimental group and direct testing.



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