Volume 8, Issue 1, March 2020

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The Syntactic Variations in Adjective Phrase – Double Comparatives and Double Superlatives in Pakistani English (PakE): A Corpus Based Study*
Published at American Journal of Applied Linguistics  (AJAL)
Muhammad Imran, Ph.D. Scholar
International Islamic University Malaysia, Malaysia
Mohd. Ridwan Abdul Wahid, Ph.D. & Associate Professor
International Islamic University Malaysia, Malaysia
 
Abstract

This research seeks to identify the variations in Adjective Phrase with Double Comparatives and Double Superlatives in PakE, and investigate the influence of the substrate linguistic effect of Urdu language on PakE. For this study, a recently released corpus – GlowbE-PK was utilized. 20 Adjective phrases with double comparatives and double superlatives in PakE were selected from thousands of concordance lines and a large amount of text. This study utilized the mixed method research and also kept in view the Sociolinguistic Variation and World Englishes conventions of research. The Frequency of each token (phrase), and then accumulative and average frequencies were also given. It was an interesting fact to know that ‘More better’ token displayed the maximum frequency of 0.92, and five other tokens – ‘More smaller’, Most clearest’, ‘Most oldest’, ‘Most prettiest’ and ‘Most smallest’ displayed the minimum frequency of 0.02. The results and discussions indicated the noticeable variation in the Adjective phrase of PakE from Standard English. This research also confirms the linguistic influence of substrate language Urdu on Pakistani English, however without denying the other factors that can influence and cause the variation in the use of Pakistani English. These investigations and findings clearly demonstrate the success of the objectives of this research.

The Conflict Resolution of Bureaucratic Regional Expansion in Indonesia*
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Suraji, Lecturer 
Hang Tuah University Surabaya, Indonesia 
Ph. D. Scholar at Ghazali Shafie Graduate School of Government 
Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia

Ahmad Bakri Putra, Ph.D. Scholar
Ghazali Shafie Graduate School of Government
Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia

Muhamad Ali Embi, Ph. D. & Professor
Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
Abstract

The main subject of the regional expansion basic implementation in the era of regional autonomy is to improve and increase the public services quality to the people of Indonesia. Based on that main subject, the researcher initiated actions to implement a regional expansion process in Indonesia. The primary objectives of regional expansion include: First, to increase the efficiency and orderliness of the regional government due to Indonesia’s wide territory and dense population. Second, the researcher explains Indonesians have a diversity in ethnicity, language, income, and a tangible gap between urban and village population. This basic research has become a reference in regional expansion and the determination of regional equipment which comprises the principles of efficiency, feasibility, sincerity of achievement, and objectivity free of political interests, corruption, collusion, and nepotism. This study is expected to reveal the problems and the right solutions in the issue of regional expansion and to contribute to inform academia specifically in the field of public policy, specifically related to regional autonomy.

Causes of Absenteeism and Academic Performance of Low Performing Students of Esperanza National High School*
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
SAMSUDIN N. ABDULLAH, Ph. D. & Master Teacher II
Esperanza National High School, Philippines
Abstract

This study was directed to determine the effect of habitual absenteeism on the academic performance of low performing students. Descriptive correlational research design was employed to provide good analysis and interpretation of data. Respondents were students, close friends and parents. Student absenteeism was determined through survey questionnaire and academic performance was gathered through document analysis. Mean, t-test, ANOVA and Pearson r were applied to accurately describe the collected data. Absenteeism of males was significantly higher than females. Students’ reasons of chronic absences were supported by their parents. However, they were opposed by their friends. Student absenteeism had a negative impact on academic performance.

Prospective Study of the Use of the 308-nm Excimer Laser for the Treatment of Vitiligo: The Experience in Sultanate of Oman*
 
Published at Journal of American Academic Research in Health Science (JAAR-Health Science)
Iman Al Rusheidi, MD & Dermatology Specialist
Ministry of Health, Oman
Al Musna Polyclinic, Oman
Khadijah Al Abri, Dermatology Consultant
Department of Dermatology
Al Nahdha Hospital, Oman 
 
Noora Al Rubaie, Senior Specialist
Department of Dermatology
Al Nahdha Hospital, Oman 

 Abstract

Objectives: The 308-nm excimer laser represents the latest advance in the concept of selective phototherapy.  This study, evaluated the use of 308-nm excimer laser for the treatment of vitiligo. The main objectives were to estimate the success rate for the treatment with excimer laser in different body sites and determine the factors favouring good response.

Methods: This prospective study conducted on 68 patients attending dermatology department at Al-Nahdha Hospital from February 2016 to May 2017. Written consent obtained from the patients for enrolment in the study. Selected lesions were administered monochromatic 308-nm excimer laser as a mono or combined therapy. The repigmentation was assessed from photographs taken at the start and at the end of the study using 1−3 scales (1 = 0–25%, 2 = 26–75%, 3 = 76–100% repigmentation). The treatment was considered successful if > 75% repigmentation was achieved after a minimum of 15 sessions or a maximum of 30 sessions of laser treatment in a monotherapy or in combination therapy.

Results: Out of the 68 patients enrolled in the study, only 40 patients who completed a minimum of 15 treatment sessions were analysed. Twenty patients (50%) entered the study with more than one sites. Lesions located on the face, perioral, neck/ scalp and trunk, (i.e. high responder location group) showed a better response to excimer laser treatment than lesions located on the upper extremities, hand, periungual, and feet (i.e., low responder location group). At the end of the 15 treatments, score 3 repigmentation was achieved in four patients (26.7%) with lesion on face, one patient (16.7%) with lesions over the neck/scalp, and two patients lesion on trunk. In 20 patients that received 30 treatments, the success rate of achieving grade 3 repigmentation was 77.8% over face, 75% over neck/scalp, and 100% over perioral area.

Conclusions:  Treating vitiligo with 308-nm excimer laser give a better & faster response. Lesion location and number of treatments may be the key factors affecting the clinical outcome.

A Pragma-Cognitive Study of Discourse Markers Used by Talk Show Hosts*
Published at American Journal of Applied Linguistics (AJAL)
Xiaojuan Su, Lecturer
Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, China

 Abstract

As a language demonstrator, a talk show host’s proper use of discourse markers greatly affects the quality of his (her) program. From the perspective of cognition, this study adopts a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods to analyze the pragmatic functions of discourse markers used by talk show hosts. The study results show that discourse markers frequently appear in the host's utterances, especially in the initial position, and the use of discourse markers strengthens the host's communicative intentions, makes the conversation context more substantial, and narrows the scope of the audience's search for discourse correlation. As a result, the two sides (host and audience) have achieved the ideal communication effect. This particular study provides a reference for talk show hosts’ application of language organization, and at the same time helps to enhance the audience's understanding of programs. In addition, this study also has a certain enlightenment effect on foreign language teaching.

Banks and Small Business Credit Scoring*
 
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Lawrence Jones-Esan,  Ph. D. & Lecturer
University of Sunderland in London, UK

 Abstract

Small businesses credits are majorly an ongoing problem with those who manage small businesses. Institutions vary largely on the rules and strategies they use in providing small business credits. This study helps those who manage the small business by analysing the impact of a credit rating on the availability of the small business credit and also the price of the credit and the risk associated with it. The study is a qualitative analysis of 41 banks in the US and the loans provided for the period between 2009-2011. The study used linear multiple regression models, and parameters are estimated through an ordinary least square method. The study mainly focused on the usage of small business credits rating by banks and its impact on the availability of small business credits and on the price of the credits with associated risk. The small businesses with different requirements are recommended to approach the banks that adopt the small business credit rating in different ways. The banks and loans are divided into one category that purchases own credit rating models, use ‘discretion’, must be approached by the business not ready to pay a high price on business credits. The other category is the banks and loans that are given with terms set using small business credit rating and allowed small business credit rating to automatically accept or reject loans, use ‘rules’, must be approached by the businesses with large credit requirements and whose credit is risky. The way that small business can affect the credit rating is left for further research.

Technical Review of the Award-winning Social Realist Films of Brillante Mendoza*
 
Published at American Journal of Applied Linguistics (AJAL)
DOMINGO S. SAGNIP JR., Ph.D.
Master Teacher at Deped Bacoor City, Philippines
Professor at St. Dominic College of Asia, Philippines

 Abstract

The study technically reviewed social realism in five award-winning films of Brillante Mendoza. Specifically, the study analyzed the cinematography, lighting, sound/music, editing, and production design of the award-winning films of Brillante Mendoza. Content analysis qualitative method of research was employed in analyzing social realism in the award-winning films purposely selected on the bases of their listing as award-winning films. Data gathered from the five (5) award-winning films were purely analyzed based on their contents and reflection of social realism with the aim of providing a scaffold for an in-depth examination. Focused Group Discussion (FGD) was also used to obtain independent expert analysis of the selected five (5) films of Brillante Mendoza, while triangulation was used by the researcher to corroborate the result of his own investigation. Data gathered were analyzed comprehensively based on Levi-Strauss Structuralism Theory to come up with valid findings on the research problem about social realist films. The content analysis among others, revealed that in Masahista, the composition of shots is good, but sometimes, the lighting, though it attempts to show a gripping realism, makes the scene convincingly lit to favor the camera. It could have maintained a peg on realism suggesting a dark, depressing, or contemplative mood without a feel that its source of light is more than what it should have. In Tirador, the film and its characters played by professional and nonprofessional actors exude a frustrated, furious energy. Intruding into every facet of indigent life, the hand-held camera hunts for lost dentures and unguarded wallets, hard drugs, and easy marks. In Serbis, the set designs deserve to be noticed. The cinematography is rough at times, but effective. The processing gives the images too edgy a look at times. The lighting is not bad, but there is too much street noise. In Kinatay, the actors, aided by unconventional found-footage style camera angles, really perform well in making the scenes appear so natural, so as to make the viewer really believe he is an invisible spectator on the actual site. In the film Thy Womb, arranged with an eclectic cinematic grammar, the director incorporates aerial shots of the sea gypsy community combined with underwater sequences, slow motion observational shots and seemingly traditional filmmaking that are always in motion, never static. The study concluded that technically Brillante Mendoza’s award-winning films provided aesthetic value that made them appealing to the viewers, and hence recommended that filmmakers in the country should create social realist films that not only expose people to social problems but also entice them to watch such films for their aesthetic value. 

Impact of Emerging Technologies on Future Employment Opportunities at United States*
Published at American Journal of Business Management (AJBM)
Saritha Attuluri, Doctorate in Business Administration
California School of Management & Leadership
Alliant International University, USA

Emel Yarimoglu, Ph.D. & Associate professor of Marketing
Yasar University, Turkey

 Abstract

Robots, artificial intelligence, machine learning are transforming human life. People are worried about the impact of development of technology on their jobs. Therefore, there is a strong need to determine how emerging technologies are going to affect future employment opportunities and their benefits. This particular study explored the impact of these emerging technologies on workforce. If society needs to cut off jobs due to robotics, many social benefits delivered through jobs are also affected. There are many questions raised for public policy because of emerging technologies which impact on various demographic works. As a result, there is a need to confirm social contract for new economy to deliver social benefits which are unfolding.

Continuity and Change: Indigenous Governmental System in Ibibioland, 1900 – 1987*
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Nkereuwem David Edemekong, Ph.D. & Head of Department
History & International Studies
University of Uyo, Nigeria
 
Blessing J. Edet, Ph.D. Scholar & Lecturer
University of Uyo, Nigeria
Abstract

Indigenous Governmental System in Ibibioland is a vast area of study. An attempt is being made in this study to highlight its changing patterns between 1900 and 1987. It mirrors the nature of politics and governance in Ibibio land before, during and after the eventual invasion, conquest and imposition of British- made governmental system. While the colonial powers experienced an almost feeble military resistance from Ibibio people, changes within the indigenous cultural, governmental and religious systems, easily and expectedly gave way to European institutions which in turn dictated the pace of development in the colonial Ibibioland and thereafter. Unfortunately, scholars of Nigeria’s local history have not given ample academic attention to the changing patterns of governmental systems as it has to do with the Ibibio area.  The work argues that although various studies involving pre-colonial governmental system in Ibibioland have described indigenous governmental institutions as more value-laden than what obtained thereafter, this viable Ibibio structure was, unfortunately, weakened following introduction of British governmental system because of the self-serving political and economic policies of the colonial powers. This, in turn, laid the foundation of the compromised political system in the post-colonial era.  The paper concludes that while the present Akwa Ibom state governmental system, a predominantly European system, is a more civilized and flexible one, its structural indices, compared to the pre-colonial standards, paraded a largely undermined structure  in the context of efficacy, trustworthiness and viability in the colonial and post-colonial era within the geographical and chronological scopes of this study.

Rethinking Traditional Theories of Individual Leadership in International Relations*
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Richard Miller, Professor
Osaka Women's University, Japan
Abstract

In an interconnected globalized world that is on the one hand globalized and at the same time returning to an anarchistic system, individuals continue to shape the international order. Leadership styles have been studied with conventional methods of categorizing expected behaviors. Yet, when populist leaders are elected, and private individuals take leadership roles as international game powers continues, the traditional categories need to be reconsidered. This paper reviews the traditional leadership categories and how some individuals have affected international outcomes and why a heterodox approach may be necessary.

The History of Cloud Computing in Saudi Arabia*
 
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Faisal Al-hamazani
School of Education
University of Queensland, Australia
Abstract

Cloud technology is an increasingly influential information technology pattern across the globe, and cloud computing technology has been adopted in several developing countries. This emerging technology has enhanced government function in sectors including business, education and health care. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is still in the early stages of engaging with this technology, with some research into adoption. This paper reviews the literature concerning the history of cloud computing in Saudi Arabia, including the launch of internet connectivity and community buy-in to the concept of the cloud. Further, this review considers how Saudi Arabian authorities, sectors and companies have implemented cloud technology in relation to consumers and end-users. This paper also examines some key issues encountered in Saudi Arabian contexts, such as adoption and security.

A Review of Theories and Models of Technology Acceptance*
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Faisal Al-hamazani
School of Education
University of Queensland, Australia
Abstract

Theories and models of technology acceptance is one of the most widely used to investigate technology adoption. These scientifically due to the study of theories and models that sequentially measure the users' intentions and actions. These theories and models focus on significant factors across different contexts. Despite the spread theories and their exploitation through studies, there are some limitations regarding their study in some contexts. This paper revised these theories and models in technical contexts. Furthermore; this paper provided an overview of limitations on theories and models regarding user acceptance of the technology. The existing review offers insight to the investigators to develop a conceptual model that can be reflective in the background contexts.

An Analysis of Social Listening and Use of Social Media as Marketing Tools Among University Students in Nigeria*
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Ogunniyi Matthew Babatope, Ph.D. &Economist
University of Lagos, Nigeria
 
Ogunshakin, Olanike Theresa (Miss)
Communication Specialist
University of Lagos, Nigeria
Abstract

Timeless art of listening before speaking starts from childhood, unfortunately, many listen to respond rather than listen to understand. All over the world today, so many conversations happen on social media but very few people/organisations listen to them and fewer still, learn from them. Although this problem may seem inconsequential, it has a great effect on the success of every one of us either as individuals or corporate entities. In an era where content is King, engagement is Queen and data (information) is the new Currency, this research analyses how Nigerian university students tap into this enormous data generated from the amount of time Nigerians spend on social media to advance their businesses; it also analyses how they utilise social media and social listening as viable marketing tools in running smart businesses. This study recommends that university students in Nigeria, as well as other brands, governmental and non-governmental organisations should make use of social media and the social listening aspect of it to effectively boost online presence, clientele range and record significant increase in ROI.

Study of the Impact of Culture Factors on Sino-US Business Negotiations*
Published at American Journal of Business Management (AJBM)
Yixuan Sun
Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, China
 
Xiaojuan Su, Lecturer
Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, China
Abstract

With the rapid development of economic globalization, businesses and trades between various countries are increasing with each passing day. Business negotiation is the link of communication and cooperation between many countries, which can not only promote the economic development of countries, but also strengthen the peaceful coexistence among countries. From the perspective of cross-cultural negotiation, this paper aims to explore the causes, characteristics and improvement measures of the cultural differences between China and the United States.

Prospects and Challenges of Online Education in Secondary Schools in Northern Nigeria*
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Michael Olugbenga
M.Ed Educational Administration and Planning
Great Panaf Schools, Nigeria
Abstract

This study investigated the prospects and challenges of online education. It also examined availability of the gadgets used to enhance the operation of the system and the relationship between schools with functional computer laboratories and schools without the laboratories. The survey method was used to gather information. The simple sampling was used to select subjects. The respondents or research subjects were SS3 students drawn from grade "A" private schools in 10 different states in the northern part of the country. 10 students from each state got their questionnaire via email through their school principals. Data were analyzed using simple percentage. The analysis revealed that most schools in the north still face a lot of challenges like inadequate computer laboratories, shortage of power supply, lack wide internet coverage, diversion of attention especially among teenagers are problems to contend with. From the hypotheses tested the result showed that students especially teenagers find it difficult to concentrate as they are used to the physical classroom, it also revealed that retention is a problem as they get distracted due to irregular power supply and shortage of internet bandwidth. It also revealed that if the issue of trust, monitoring, power supply and making internet services free can be improved, online education can become an acceptable norm among our students in the secondary school.

Mathematical Modelling as a Tool for Sustainable Development in Nigeria*
Published at American Journal in Applied Mathematics(AJAM)
ONWUKA PHILOMINA IFEANYI, Ph.D., Associate Professor & HOD
College of Education, Nigeria
Menkiti Chika Cordelia, Ph.D. Scholar
Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nigeria
Abstract

Mathematics in its abstract nature is seen as the queen of all sciences. Nigeria being one of a developing nation requires Mathematics that can effectively put science and technology in fore front of national development. Many of our developmental teaching problems facing Nigeria currently could be solved if it is possible to get a Mathematical model that could describe them. By way of definition; a Mathematical model is a description of a system using Mathematical concepts and language. In this work, a review of Mathematical modelling and the role it can play on the path of sustainable development in our current century was done. We highlighted different types of Mathematical modelling and classified them. Some of the applications and challenges of Mathematical modelling were examined. The results show that mathematical modelling is one of the tools needed to transform the Nigeria economy from a developing to a developed economy. From the review, it is recommended that the Nigerian government should invest more on Mathematics Education at all levels including Primary, Secondary and Tertiary in order to train more mathematical modellers and provide the enabling environment for teaching and learning of Mathematics. Also students should be motivated or encouraged to study Mathematics in general and mathematical modelling in particular through grants, loan and scholarships.

Cultivating New Business Leaders in the New Century and Growing Business with Emerging Leadership, Policy and Concept with Mutual Interaction*
Published at American Journal of Business Management (AJBM)
Marvin Katchuk, Ph. D. Scholar
University of New England, Australia
Abstract

Evidence showed that current days, there is a growing need for recognizing the importance of leadership development and cultivation, which would be considered the first-most task in resolving world business disputes and malfunction. In coping with the problems, this current study followed our goal by learning interactions and developing design of network contribution and potentially emerging leadership phenomena via an interpretative grounded theory study in different but comparable collaborative interorganizational networks. As applied for interpretive grounded theory research, we seek to relate our study’s result back to corresponding literature in order to develop a sound theoretical contribution. Since leadership emerged as an empirically stranded main theme, in the end results were able to   apply advance theory on plural forms of leadership such as cooperative or shared leadership to grow our business even at a small level or at commercial level.

Chemical Science Re-hypothesized: Ongoing Debate with Research on Solvothermal Synthesis Method (SSM) of MIL-101(Cr)*
Published at American Journal of Chemical Science (AJCS)
David MacQuoid, Ph. D. Resarcher
The University of Iowa, USA
Abstract

In the chemical field, Solvothermal Synthesis (SS) means chemical reaction which takes place in a solvent at temperatures above the boiling point and pressures above 1 bar. Researcher needs to control the medium used in a solvothermal synthesis within limited temperature and thus the research result would be more accurate. In this study MIL-101(Cr) was synthesized according to Ferey. Typically, Cr (NO3)3 3. 9H2O (800 mg, 2.0 mmol), terephthalic acid (332 mg, 2.0 mmol), and HF (0.1 mL, 0.5 mmol) were mixed with ultrapure water (9.6 mL) in a Teflon-lined bomb. The Teflon-lined bomb was then sealed and placed in an oven at 220^oC for 8 hour. After being cooled to room temperature, the resultant green crystalline solid was washed thoroughly with DMF and ethanol and collected by centrifugation at 10000 rpm for 5 min. The procedure was repeated at least three times to remove the unreacted terephthalic acid fromMIL-101(Cr) pores. The green solid was then evacuated in vacuum at 150^oC for 12 h to form dehydrated MIL-101(Cr), which will be characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrometry, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The research results can be frequently used in the chemical industry in the near future.

Paralleled Equivalence: Research on Interwoven Relationship Between Language and Literature*
Published at American Journal of Applied Linguistics (AJAL) 
Shunwen Tang, Ph.D. & Linguist
Zhejiang University of Technology, China
Abstract

A lot of scholars doubted how language and literature interrelated and inter-reacted and they may find answers in current research. This research is based on the interviews and questionnaire asking from the teachers and students as well. Literature is beneficial to language development. It is a good resource of accurate diction, diverse sentence patterns, and passionate narratives. Majority of students go for English literature because of the importance and significance of English language. As Peter has said; “English drives its significance from its relation to life outside the classroom. We study English language as it (English) plays a central role in human experience. ”The close relationship between literature and language has a strong effect on a student's language learning. There is the interwoven relationship between language and literature. Language is a method of communication and literature can be the content being communicated. “Great literature is simply language charged with meanings to the utmost possible degree” Gillian Lazar has explained this idea in the following manner; “Literature exposes students to complex themes and fresh unexpected use of language. A good novel or short story may be particularly gripping in that; it involves students in suspense of unraveling the plot. The language of a play may engage students in Murat presented a paper titled “Teaching English Through Literature” and the conclusion of it, Literature is not only a tool for developing the written and oral skills of the students in the target language but also is a window opening into the culture of the target language, building up a cultural competence in students .Literature is seen as the main medium in which the students can develop their language without any doubt. The four skills, reading, writing, speaking and listening can be developed in a noticeable way that attracts the attention of the educationists.

The Rising of Online Learning Pyramid: E-Learning Revolutionary Innovation under the Current Era of Global Pandemic*
 
 Published at American Journal of Higher Education (AJHE) 
Scott Walker, Ph. D. & Assistant Professor
Clarkson University, USA
 
Donalda Flores, Ph. D. & Lecturer
Clarkson University, USA

Abstract 

Research on Higher Education (HE) revealed the importance of interaction between traditional classroom teaching and online tech-aided teaching. However, due to global pandemic, educations see a rising popularity of online learning matrix, which was described as a learning pyramid in this particular research. Current research designed the eLearning strategies to facilitate the public and private sector of education. Selected few universities and their campuses in China to educate students through eLearning and webinar. Their result showing has great importance especially in the COVID-19 pandemic situation. AS demand for information technology at universities level has increased in the current situation while everyone is quarantined. The eLearning provides campus wide integrated information systems covering all functional areas. Results show 90% control managerial activities including admission, academics, examinations, fee, placement, alumni, and finance through this eLearning approach.

Digital Computer-Based Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Practice: Will AI Cause Global Disaster and Human Destruction* 
 
Chris Peterson, Ph. D. & Associate Professor
Central Queensland University, Australia
 
Abstract

Stephen Hawking warned humans that he predicted in the future of Artificial Intelligence (AI) replacing human beings and our landing on other planets. It showed the great capacity of AI in determining human being’s future development. The capability of a digital computer-controlled robot to execute tasks commonly related with artificial intelligent beings. The term is frequently applied to the project of developing systems capable of the intellectual processes characteristic of humans, such as the ability to reason, discover meaning, generalize, or learn from past experience. This paper argues Some programs have attained the performance at expert’s level and working as professionals in performing certain specific tasks, so that the applications artificial intelligence as diverse as medical diagnosis, computer search engines, and voice or handwriting recognition. Future research should also discover how to address the conflicts between human beings and Artificial Intelligence (AI) to avoid predicted disasters. 

Effectiveness of a Training Program in Improving the Level of University Adaptation Among a Sample of Students of Qassim University*
 
BAHJAT ABDUL MAJEED MAH'D ABU SULAIMAN, Ph. D. & Assistant Professor
Malida Branch - Deanship of Educational Services
Qassim University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
 
Abstract

The study aimed to uncover the effectiveness of a training program in improving the level of university adaptation among a sample of students of Qassim University. The study sample consisted of (26) students of the preparatory year in Qassim University who have a low level of university adaptation based on their grades on the university adaptation scale. Their scores were considered tribal. In this light, the students were randomly divided into two groups: a control group that did not receive any treatment, and an experimental group that received a training program for seven sessions. Immediately after treatment was completed, direct measurement of the experimental group and the control group was taken. Then, two weeks after the treatment was completed, the delayed measurement (retention) of the experimental group and the control group was also taken. . The results of the study showed statistically significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in the level of university adaptation between the pre-measurement and direct measurement at (a = 0.05) in favor of the experimental group. There were also statistically significant differences in the level of university adaptation between direct measurement and delayed measurement (retention) in favor of the experimental group and direct testing.

Contributing Factors in Determining Balance Between Job Opportunities, Job Employment and Job Satisfaction in European Countries 
Craig Henderson , Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
University of Houston, USA
Abstract

Nowadays, due to the harsh competition in job market, job opportunities declines year by year. Even if people were employed, the benefits for job and the satisfaction in job decrease. How to balance between Job opportunities, job employment and job satisfaction in European countries remains critical changes to be reasonably resolved. This research aims to discover contributing factors in determining balance between job opportunities, job employment and job satisfaction in European countries and the implication was also disclosed at the end of the article.  *

The Critical Perspectives in Efficiently Managing and Evaluating Corporate Employee Conducts, Operation Risks and Policy Optimization with the Help of Practical Real-world Examples, Empirical Research Result and Employees' Cooperation 
Vincent Griffin, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor 
Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada
Abstract

In recent years, research on assessing employee behavior, operational risk, and policy optimization has gradually increased. But how to use the practical real-world examples, the experience of research results and the cooperation of employees, as three effective means, effectively manage and evaluate the risk of employee behavior, operation and policy optimization is comparatively rare. This research article combines real-life examples and empirical survey methods to achieve optimal management and evaluation on the corporate employee behavior, operational risk and policy optimization so that the company's employees' work capacity improves, behavior standardized, and product quality promoted.  This research will serve as an inspirational guide for the future development and prosperity of modern enterprises. *

Practice Guideline of Patient Treatment under Protection of Scientific Interventions ---A Tentative Assumption of Medical Research
Ali Flores, Ph.D. & Lecturer
Future University in Egypt, Egypt    
 
Raymond Nelson, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
Adelphi University, USA
Abstract

Recent years of research in patient intervention treatment has made great breakthrough and the study in this field also shifted from theoretical hypothesis to practical treatment process. This specific study will introduce the practical guideline of patient treatment process and result under the protection of scientific intervention to ensure the safety and security of the progress of the practice. With examples, research survey, the author also revealed the possible direction of future medical research and the research findings and implications were also discussed. *

Contemporary Research on Synthesis Methods of Metal-organic Frameworks (MOFs)
Published at American Journal of Chemical Science (AJCS)
Shawna Pochipinski, Ph. D. & Lecturer
University of Abuja, Nigeria
 
Abdulkadir Bamisaye, Ph. D. & Assistant Professor
Abia State University, Nigeria

Abstract

Recent years, the research on Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are countless yet no previous research focused on MOF on the basis that they are a class of hybrid network of supramolecular solid materials composed of organized organic linkers and metal cations. This research paper displayed enormously high surface areas with tunable pore size and fitful functionality, and it can be applied to the hosts for a range of guest molecules. After the thorough discovery research, MOFs have experienced widespread exploration for their applications in gas storage, drug delivery and sensing. An ultimate goal of the current research is to better understand the two-sided effects of MOF membranes and the research result showed significant positive proofs. The preliminary conclusion is that MOFs can be regarded as a reusable merging of solid acids and organic polymers in the area of construction and industrial foundation. This article synthesized the functionality of MOFs with unique perspective and the research implications are of great importance in further discovering and advancing the practical development of chemical science. *

Understanding Our Mind Through Guidance: How Philosophy Enables Us to Perceive the World and Master Human Mind
Published at American Journal of Philosophy Quarterly (AJPQ)
Keith Jardine, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
University of Central Missouri, USA
 
Carlos Knoll, Ph.D. Scholar
University of Central Missouri, USA
Abstract

The current research is understanding our mind: how philosophy enables us to perceive the world and master human mind. As we all know, designing a study about the thinking pattern to investigate how minds work while thinking is the mind in conversation with itself. The central model stated that the mind is the core mode of self-interrogation in psychotherapy and psychology built on philosophical precepts. Both Socratic dialogue and stoicism are evident in the principles of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT). CBT and especially REBT instruct people to examine and dispute their beliefs and thus to tolerate unpleasant feelings—shades of Epictetus. The connection is bidirectional: The most perplexed evidence showed that people's psychological positions on philosophical questions in the center of the free-will existence are significantly influenced by their individual temperament and personality rather than cognitive ability. Future research will explore related philosophical questions which remain for human beings to further discover. *

From Western Culture to Eastern Culture: A Dialogic Perspective on the Holistic Overview of Chinese Culture and American Culture
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Wenbin Xue, Ph. D. & Lecturer
China University of Mining & Technology, China
Abstract

Due to globalization, the clear-cut contrast between Chinese culture and American culture was blurred through constant cultural dialogue and interaction. Culture is complex and multidimensional. It is in fact too complex to define a certain culture in simple terms and rough definition. Kroeber and Kluckhohn in 1952 identified over 160 different definitions of culture. One of the earliest widely cited definitions by Tylor in 1887 defines culture as “that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by human as a member of society.” With a dialogic perspective, this article investigated the differences and common features between western culture and eastern culture by observing the holistic overview of specific culture in China and in America. The research result confirms our hypothesis. The research also suggested that people in modern era should view distinct culture with more tolerance, appreciation and respect. New culture should be redefined with respect to historical facts, linguistic uniqueness and differences in customs.  *

Research Review: Practical Research on Applications of MOFs for Gas Storage
 
Published at American Journal of Chemical Science (AJCS)
Jack Willough, Ph. D. & Director of Research
University of New Orleans, USA
 
Nancy Evans, Ph. D. & Lecturer
University of New Orleans, USA
Abstract

Recent years, research on MOF application showed positive tendency in MOF effects on gas storage. However, current researchers conducted a serious investigation and found the previous research had obvious flaws in over-generalization. Several options are available for storing gases effectively, but these mostly require high-pressure tanks and multistage compressors. Such methods are highly expensive for practical uses and there is a need for them to be substituted by simple and less expensive solutions. In an attempt to overcome these issues and to find safer storage methods, several materials, like zeolites or activated porous carbons, have been studied for gas storage. However, MOFs have outperformed most of these traditional materials in terms of gas storage, separation and industrial application. Easy synthetic procedures, high surface area, wide opportunities for functionalization and tunable pore structures make MOFs preferable compared with other porous materials. This article reviews studies of storage applications for important gases like H2, CO2, CH4, CO, NO, hydrocarbons etc. within MOFs, with a brief description of the factors responsible for effective storage. The current researcher hopes that this research result could be reevaluated and reinstated in order to avoid practical losses. *

Applied Linguistics Revisited: Can University Students Improve English Language Skills in a “Hybrid-Method-Setting” in a Remote Area in Mainland China
 
Published at American Journal of Applied Linguistics (AJAL)
Xiaobin Zhang, Ph. D. & Associate Professor
Shanxi Normal University, China
Abstract

The current research on applied linguistics provided us a new perspective on language acquisition and this research will solve the research question: Can University Students Improve English Language Skills in a “Hybrid-Method-Setting” in a Remote Area in Mainland China? We selected 100 students from English linguistics major class and trained them through different techniques in the classroom. Teachers give them training materials and specific instruction in learning and performances. Then instructors gave insightful suggestions for English-as-a-second-language learners (ESLs) on how to improve their English language skills from the perspective of applied linguistics and cognitive linguistics; The research yielded constructive result which has far-reaching impact on English teaching and learning activities with meaningful findings, First result revealed that students should be mentally prepared to engage in practical exercises and be ready to active participation in the classroom. Second, students should often attend specific seminar and question answer session to obtain the expected level of language skills during the process of language application. In addition, authentic motivation, deep interest and collaboration are also key factors which positively influence the final achievement of language acquisition. *

Effects of Insect-control Compounds on the Systematically Increasing in Crop Production Against Desert Locust 
Published at American Academic Journal of Agriculture (AAJA)
Muhammad Aziz, Ph.D. Scholar
Sindh Agriculture University, Pakistan
Abstract

Desert Locust, according to Schistocerca gregaria (Magora, Lecoqb & Hunter, 2008) is a famous agricultural pest that causes severe damage to crops and leads to economic losses in different agricultural stages. In recent years, agricultural practitioners realized the importance of locust prevention and control to avoid or at least decrease the harmful environmental effects and the damage to organic cop production. As a result, the desert locust control becomes an emergent necessity to improve the overall grain production in the fields. According to Magora, Lecoqb & Hunter (2008), the success deploy of preventive control could possibly be realized in a systematic way by comparing population size, location, fields quality, locust distribution and acid level before and after the strategy was carried out by employing effective control tools and techniques. The research result found that in order to effectively control the severe influence of desert locust, one to two years’ research and preparation should become a routine work by agricultural practitioners. The research result also revealed that the combination of new-chemistry insecticides could be used as an effective measure and also could be an important factor for the integrated pest management of locust.  *

Globalization, New Managerialism, and Global Disturbance: The Changing Academic Climate in the Multiple Dimensions of World’s Higher Education
Published at American Journal of Higher Education (AJHE) 
Natal Wolhuter, Research Scholar
Flensburg University of Applied Sciences, Germany
Abstract

In view of the trends in global higher education, Altbach, Reisberg, Liz (2019) pointed out that providing higher education to all aspects for a country’s general population means confronting social inequalities completely rooted in history, culture, social and economic structure which may influence each individual to compete in society. By investigating the changing nature of the academic profession in contemporary society, the researcher narrowed down the research scope of this particular article to globalization, new managerialism, and global disturbance: the changing academic climate in the dynamic dimension of world’s higher education. First of all, the researcher globalization, new managerialism, and global disturbance by citing extensive references and self-interpretation. Second, the author reviewed the basic literature in the recent educational field and illustrated how to improve the cognitive recognition of the basic concepts mentioned. By comparing the two distinctive schools of academic assertions, the author skillfully left the research questions for readers to doubt, dispute, reflect, summarize and conclude. It is envisioned by the author that in the future comparative work on trends in higher education, researchers should take particular attention on both the practical aspects and the methodological aspect based on extensive research and deduction.  *

Application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Among Healthcare Workers: A Transformative and Fundamental Technology in the Medical Field
Published at American Journal of Computer Sciences (AJCS)
Takashi Suzuki, Ph.D. & Researcher
Kansai University, Japan
Abstract

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the similarity of human intelligence that is processed by some systems. In Schönberger (2019), AI was perceived as the most transformative and fundamental technology in the 21st century. Even in the medical field, AI gradually gained momentum and started to lead the trend of gradually changing the infrastructure of medical practices. With the practical nature of Artificial Intelligence (AI) as well as Machine learning, deep learning, and image processing work in the field of medical imaging, AI will totally change our perspective in healthcare work and it will definitely benefit the real life of healthcare. As we can also witness from the current society in the modern era that in every aspect of medical fields, medical practitioners are employing advanced AI technology to take care of patients, make medical decisions for patients and family members.  With the fast development of AI technology in the medical field, healthcare work will embrace a prosperous and fruitful future.  *

Effects of Biochemically Triggered Heat Stress (BTHS) on Crop Plants: A Futuristic Perspective
Published at American Academic Journal of Agriculture (AAJA)
 
Amal Ali, Ph.D. Scholar
University of Karachi, Pakistan
Abstract

Extensive Heat Stress (EHS) is defined as an important environmental stress which confines plant growth, development, metabolism, fruition, and productivity on the worldwide scale (Hasanuzzaman & Nahar, 2013). Plant growth development and productivity actually concerns countless biochemical interaction and reactions that are sensitive to temperature. Gradually rising environmental temperature is the key component for environmental control, which is in advance of most perilous abiotic stress. Nanotechnology, viewing the agricultural sectors, have captured intensive research efforts because of their distinctive properties and numerous applications. A field trial was performed to evaluate the effect of HHS levels on growth, yield and quality of crop under heat stress. The plant measurements were made for heat induced changes on osmolytes accumulation, lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress and antioxidative response, seed nutrient and yield attributes at flowering stage. Among all sowing dates, the crop which was sown on March 7, 2018 (First sowing date), statistically performed better than other sowing dates although foliar application of 20 ppm zinc oxide nanoparticles ameliorate mungbean performance under both, no heat and heat induced environments.  *

Constructive Analysis of Ideology and Discourse: A Critical Review of News Coverage and Ratings
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
 
Richard Garcia, Ph. D. & Lecturer
Montana State University, USA

Abstract

According to TEUN (2007), contrary to most traditional descriptive methods, ideologies are hereby defined within a multidisciplinary framework which unites social, cognitive and discursive sub-components. The current study shaded a critical look at the news reports of the Saudi Arabia. Previous research has focused on media ratings which pays to ideology and public opinion. However, it also has been described how changing in media discourse affects the process. This study analyzed the 20 news reports originated from Saudi Arabia using the method of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). The results show that the differences in the reports using variation patterns which in turn possess the potential of changing and monitoring readers` ideologies and thinking patterns via influencing their opinions and world view on the nature of power relations and interactional activities. The current research tries to contribute to the area of research on media discourse and ideology construction by arguing that discourse variation has not been sufficiently defined and interpreted. An effort will also be made to offer tentative resorts of such dynamic variation.  *

Comprehensive Effects of Biochar Application: A Sustainable and Holistic Method to Achieve the Increase of Crop Production 
Published at American Academic Journal of Agriculture (AAJA)
Joseph Moore, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
University of Exeter, UK
Abstract

The current research focused on the comprehensive effects of Biochar application and how to achieve sustainable increase in the production of agricultural crop production. From previous research, we can see that maltreatment of inorganic fertilizers has become non -sustainable or increasingly not affordable in many areas of agricultural practice around the world due to loss of soil erosion, soil fertility, and increased fertilizer cost. Furthermore, fertilizers which are chemical in nature also polluting soil, water and air and pose many toxic products in living communities. Since the increasing fertilizer cost and urban sprawl, which quickly decrease the agricultural farm and quality of soilj, an alternative method was required to achieve sustainability in agricultural crop production. Biochar is this kind of alternative and well-recognized method by scientists because of its major role in carbon sequestration, decreasing the emissions of greenhouse gases, waste management, renewable sources of energy and a rich source of nutrients as an amendment in soil. Studies in this research demonstrated that Biochar was a reliable and porous solid charcoal-similar material, with rich carbon obtained from the pyrolysis of various organic material e.g., farm and forest and chicken litter. The current critical review summarizes about biochar production through comparison, application and influence on soil physicochemical properties, as well as interaction with the soil microorganisms, the key role in the soil after amendment with mobilizing bacteria, effects in the reduction in greenhouse gases and metal contamination and its positive and negative impacts on plant growth and yield attribute when biochar was operated in the soil.  *

Effectiveness of Mass Communication in Changing Human Behavior: The Impact and Result of Strategical Analysis of SNSs Application on Social Events
Published at American Journal of Human Resource Management (AJHRM)
Charles Davis, Ph.D. Scholar
Robert Gordon University, UK
Abstract

This paper aims at finding out the effectiveness of mass communication in changing human behavior and how SNSs Application could possibly strategically change the social events. The researcher started the article by summarizing the current category of SNSs and reviewing the current controversies of SNSs application. Then based on the literature review and data analysis, the researchers posted challenging questions about misconduct of social networking tools in the field of mass communication. One of the unsolved problems remains on how to define mass media and mass communication in the 21st century with rich tech and artificial intelligence. And how to encourage the community to get involved in communications planning, disseminating communication information and achieving the goal of mass communications.   *

Considerations for Home and Community-Based  COVID-19 Pandemic: The Undiscovered Consequences Among Iranian Startups
Published at American Journal of Health Science (AJHS)
Robert Johnson, Ph.D.
University of Richmond, USA

Abstract 

Due to the allocation of health resources and services, it is commonly believed that community-based protection and prevention is very effective to cut off Covid-19 transmission at the beginning stage. Recent years, the COVID-19 abrupt outbreak has become a major concern with substantial effects on markets, and the world economy. The impact of COVID-19 is assessed to be even more than all the previous global pandemic. In this short-term, due to the impacts of this pandemic, startups are more prone to fail or succeed faster than ever before; however, the challenges they face are not yet clearly scrutinized, as the pandemic was faster than scholars. This study therefore investigates the main challenges of Iranian startups by interviewing the co-founders of fifteen well-known startups. The two-step coding was used to analyze findings and these findings were explained in a focus group session to which startup co-founders, policymakers, and scholars were invited. It was concluded, six principal types of challenges are major concern by this pandemic, including, human resources management, support measures financial and marketing, mechanisms, crisis management, and few others. The research will have great impact and influence on alleviating the current emergent situation.   *

Education, Knowledge and Economy in the Triangle of Recent Urban Development: The Case for New Entrepreneurs under Constraints of Neoliberalism and Higher Education Matrix 
 
Published at American Journal of Higher Education (AJHE)
Rosemary Williams, Ph.D. and Instructor
Mount Saint Vincent University, Canada
 
Michael Brown, Ph.D.
Mount Saint Vincent University, Canada

Abstract 

Education opportunity is considered to be one of the most valuable factors in the economic development and employee retain rate. This particular research will demonstrate how the co-effect of education, knowledge and economy will influence recent urban development. The domination of neoliberalism and the connected discourses of new public management during the 1990s to 2000s has introduced a fundamental uplift in the way of higher education in universities and other institutions. Each has defined and justified their institutional existence. The old professional culture of intellectual enquiry and examination has been replaced with institutional new performativity, as evidenced by the emergence of an emphasis on measured outputs: on planned development, student performance, quality assurance measures and academic credit and audits. This paper identified the links between neoliberalism and globalization as well as neoliberalism and the knowledge economy. According to it, in a global neoliberal environment, the role of higher education in economic development is governed by governments as having greater importance to the extent that higher education has become the new star ship in the policy fleet for governments around the world. Universities are the basic driver for economic knowledge and as a consequence higher education institutions have been encouraged to develop links with industry. The recognition of the economic importance of higher education for economic viability is necessary to promote greater entrepreneurial skills and develop the new performative measures to enhance output to achieve targets. This paper attempts to document these trends at the level of both political philosophy and economic theory. The author believes that the research result will give the light in the research of education, economy and urban development.   *

Increasing Optimal Efficiency of Crop Production under the Negative Influence of Global Greenhouse Effect
 
Published at American Academic Journal of Agriculture (AAJA)
Bradley Smith, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
Pepperdine University, USA
Abstract

The Green Revolution in 1960s enabled a sharp increase of the production of major staple grain crops (wheat, corn, rice, etc) to solve the ever-increasing demands of an increasing global population growing with geometric numbers. This article focused on how to increase the optimal efficiency of crop production under the impact of global greenhouse effect. We understand that the climate change effects have advanced in the past decade, there are still gaps in knowledge regarding the potential impacts of climate change on agriculture. These gaps are especially wide when it comes to specialized cultivation systems such as those of fruit and vegetable, which globally provide a high contribution to the human diet. To fill these gaps, we need a multifaceted approach that integrates physiology and genomics tools and might thus provide comprehensive answers, aiming at future needs. The increase in atmospheric CO2 is one of the main drivers of the climate changes and the increase of the global temperature. The CO2 molecule is also an essential nutrient for plants and increases in its concentration in the atmosphere have the potential to improve plant productivity (Leisner, 2020). However, optimizing the repose of plants to the increase in CO2 is a challenge due to its  complex interaction with the regulation of stomata, transpiration and the efficiency of water use, issues discussed in detail in open stomata  agriculture by Fara et al. 2019. The cultivation of crops with high productive potential and with greater resilience to biotic and abiotic stresses is seen as one of the methods with the greatest potential for obtaining higher yields, reducing the use of pesticides and without increasing the cultivated areas. Advances in genomics revolutionized and accelerated plant breeding. This will continue as costs decrease and more advanced methods are developed and applied. This was discussed by Gomes et al. 2020, in the characterization of a germplasm bank of Cucurbita moschata D. where they described the genetic relationships of agro-morphological characteristics, with the purpose of identifying early flowering genotypes, genotypes with high total levels of carotenoids in the fruit pulp and those with high potential for seed productivity and seed oil. There is an urgent need to support resilient and sustainable agriculture and the path is implementing cultivation practices and identifying new genes for agriculture. These genes should be directed to the optimization of production, mainly for the development of characteristics such as greater efficiency in the use of water, aspect fundamental in the current scenario, aiming at greater productive efficiency, less energy input and less risks to the environment.  *

 

 

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