Volume 8, Issue 1, March 2020

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The Syntactic Variations in Adjective Phrase – Double Comparatives and Double Superlatives in Pakistani English (PakE): A Corpus Based Study
Published at American Journal of Applied Linguistics  (AJAL)
Muhammad Imran, Ph.D. Scholar
International Islamic University Malaysia, Malaysia
Mohd. Ridwan Abdul Wahid, Ph.D. & Associate Professor
International Islamic University Malaysia, Malaysia
 
Abstract

This research seeks to identify the variations in Adjective Phrase with Double Comparatives and Double Superlatives in PakE, and investigate the influence of the substrate linguistic effect of Urdu language on PakE. For this study, a recently released corpus – GlowbE-PK was utilized. 20 Adjective phrases with double comparatives and double superlatives in PakE were selected from thousands of concordance lines and a large amount of text. This study utilized the mixed method research and also kept in view the Sociolinguistic Variation and World Englishes conventions of research. The Frequency of each token (phrase), and then accumulative and average frequencies were also given. It was an interesting fact to know that ‘More better’ token displayed the maximum frequency of 0.92, and five other tokens – ‘More smaller’, Most clearest’, ‘Most oldest’, ‘Most prettiest’ and ‘Most smallest’ displayed the minimum frequency of 0.02. The results and discussions indicated the noticeable variation in the Adjective phrase of PakE from Standard English. This research also confirms the linguistic influence of substrate language Urdu on Pakistani English, however without denying the other factors that can influence and cause the variation in the use of Pakistani English. These investigations and findings clearly demonstrate the success of the objectives of this research.

The Conflict Resolution of Bureaucratic Regional Expansion in Indonesia
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Suraji, Lecturer 
Hang Tuah University Surabaya, Indonesia 
Ph. D. Scholar at Ghazali Shafie Graduate School of Government 
Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia

Ahmad Bakri Putra, Ph.D. Scholar
Ghazali Shafie Graduate School of Government
Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia

Muhamad Ali Embi, Ph. D. & Professor
Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
Abstract

The main subject of the regional expansion basic implementation in the era of regional autonomy is to improve and increase the public services quality to the people of Indonesia. Based on that main subject, the researcher initiated actions to implement a regional expansion process in Indonesia. The primary objectives of regional expansion include: First, to increase the efficiency and orderliness of the regional government due to Indonesia’s wide territory and dense population. Second, the researcher explains Indonesians have a diversity in ethnicity, language, income, and a tangible gap between urban and village population. This basic research has become a reference in regional expansion and the determination of regional equipment which comprises the principles of efficiency, feasibility, sincerity of achievement, and objectivity free of political interests, corruption, collusion, and nepotism. This study is expected to reveal the problems and the right solutions in the issue of regional expansion and to contribute to inform academia specifically in the field of public policy, specifically related to regional autonomy.

Causes of Absenteeism and Academic Performance of Low Performing Students of Esperanza National High School
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
SAMSUDIN N. ABDULLAH, Ph. D. & Master Teacher II
Esperanza National High School, Philippines
Abstract

This study was directed to determine the effect of habitual absenteeism on the academic performance of low performing students. Descriptive correlational research design was employed to provide good analysis and interpretation of data. Respondents were students, close friends and parents. Student absenteeism was determined through survey questionnaire and academic performance was gathered through document analysis. Mean, t-test, ANOVA and Pearson r were applied to accurately describe the collected data. Absenteeism of males was significantly higher than females. Students’ reasons of chronic absences were supported by their parents. However, they were opposed by their friends. Student absenteeism had a negative impact on academic performance.

Prospective Study of the Use of the 308-nm Excimer Laser for the Treatment of Vitiligo: The Experience in Sultanate of Oman
 
Published at Journal of American Academic Research in Health Science (JAAR-Health Science)
Iman Al Rusheidi, MD & Dermatology Specialist
Ministry of Health, Oman
Al Musna Polyclinic, Oman
Khadijah Al Abri, Dermatology Consultant
Department of Dermatology
Al Nahdha Hospital, Oman 
 
Noora Al Rubaie, Senior Specialist
Department of Dermatology
Al Nahdha Hospital, Oman 

 Abstract

Objectives: The 308-nm excimer laser represents the latest advance in the concept of selective phototherapy.  This study, evaluated the use of 308-nm excimer laser for the treatment of vitiligo. The main objectives were to estimate the success rate for the treatment with excimer laser in different body sites and determine the factors favouring good response.

Methods: This prospective study conducted on 68 patients attending dermatology department at Al-Nahdha Hospital from February 2016 to May 2017. Written consent obtained from the patients for enrolment in the study. Selected lesions were administered monochromatic 308-nm excimer laser as a mono or combined therapy. The repigmentation was assessed from photographs taken at the start and at the end of the study using 1−3 scales (1 = 0–25%, 2 = 26–75%, 3 = 76–100% repigmentation). The treatment was considered successful if > 75% repigmentation was achieved after a minimum of 15 sessions or a maximum of 30 sessions of laser treatment in a monotherapy or in combination therapy.

Results: Out of the 68 patients enrolled in the study, only 40 patients who completed a minimum of 15 treatment sessions were analysed. Twenty patients (50%) entered the study with more than one sites. Lesions located on the face, perioral, neck/ scalp and trunk, (i.e. high responder location group) showed a better response to excimer laser treatment than lesions located on the upper extremities, hand, periungual, and feet (i.e., low responder location group). At the end of the 15 treatments, score 3 repigmentation was achieved in four patients (26.7%) with lesion on face, one patient (16.7%) with lesions over the neck/scalp, and two patients lesion on trunk. In 20 patients that received 30 treatments, the success rate of achieving grade 3 repigmentation was 77.8% over face, 75% over neck/scalp, and 100% over perioral area.

Conclusions:  Treating vitiligo with 308-nm excimer laser give a better & faster response. Lesion location and number of treatments may be the key factors affecting the clinical outcome.

A Pragma-Cognitive Study of Discourse Markers Used by Talk Show Hosts
Published at American Journal of Applied Linguistics (AJAL)
Xiaojuan Su, Lecturer
Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, China

 Abstract

As a language demonstrator, a talk show host’s proper use of discourse markers greatly affects the quality of his (her) program. From the perspective of cognition, this study adopts a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods to analyze the pragmatic functions of discourse markers used by talk show hosts. The study results show that discourse markers frequently appear in the host's utterances, especially in the initial position, and the use of discourse markers strengthens the host's communicative intentions, makes the conversation context more substantial, and narrows the scope of the audience's search for discourse correlation. As a result, the two sides (host and audience) have achieved the ideal communication effect. This particular study provides a reference for talk show hosts’ application of language organization, and at the same time helps to enhance the audience's understanding of programs. In addition, this study also has a certain enlightenment effect on foreign language teaching.

Banks and Small Business Credit Scoring
 
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Lawrence Jones-Esan,  Ph. D. & Lecturer
University of Sunderland in London, UK

 Abstract

Small businesses credits are majorly an ongoing problem with those who manage small businesses. Institutions vary largely on the rules and strategies they use in providing small business credits. This study helps those who manage the small business by analysing the impact of a credit rating on the availability of the small business credit and also the price of the credit and the risk associated with it. The study is a qualitative analysis of 41 banks in the US and the loans provided for the period between 2009-2011. The study used linear multiple regression models, and parameters are estimated through an ordinary least square method. The study mainly focused on the usage of small business credits rating by banks and its impact on the availability of small business credits and on the price of the credits with associated risk. The small businesses with different requirements are recommended to approach the banks that adopt the small business credit rating in different ways. The banks and loans are divided into one category that purchases own credit rating models, use ‘discretion’, must be approached by the business not ready to pay a high price on business credits. The other category is the banks and loans that are given with terms set using small business credit rating and allowed small business credit rating to automatically accept or reject loans, use ‘rules’, must be approached by the businesses with large credit requirements and whose credit is risky. The way that small business can affect the credit rating is left for further research.

Technical Review of the Award-winning Social Realist Films of Brillante Mendoza
 
Published at American Journal of Applied Linguistics (AJAL)
DOMINGO S. SAGNIP JR., Ph.D.
Master Teacher at Deped Bacoor City, Philippines
Professor at St. Dominic College of Asia, Philippines

 Abstract

The study technically reviewed social realism in five award-winning films of Brillante Mendoza. Specifically, the study analyzed the cinematography, lighting, sound/music, editing, and production design of the award-winning films of Brillante Mendoza. Content analysis qualitative method of research was employed in analyzing social realism in the award-winning films purposely selected on the bases of their listing as award-winning films. Data gathered from the five (5) award-winning films were purely analyzed based on their contents and reflection of social realism with the aim of providing a scaffold for an in-depth examination. Focused Group Discussion (FGD) was also used to obtain independent expert analysis of the selected five (5) films of Brillante Mendoza, while triangulation was used by the researcher to corroborate the result of his own investigation. Data gathered were analyzed comprehensively based on Levi-Strauss Structuralism Theory to come up with valid findings on the research problem about social realist films. The content analysis among others, revealed that in Masahista, the composition of shots is good, but sometimes, the lighting, though it attempts to show a gripping realism, makes the scene convincingly lit to favor the camera. It could have maintained a peg on realism suggesting a dark, depressing, or contemplative mood without a feel that its source of light is more than what it should have. In Tirador, the film and its characters played by professional and nonprofessional actors exude a frustrated, furious energy. Intruding into every facet of indigent life, the hand-held camera hunts for lost dentures and unguarded wallets, hard drugs, and easy marks. In Serbis, the set designs deserve to be noticed. The cinematography is rough at times, but effective. The processing gives the images too edgy a look at times. The lighting is not bad, but there is too much street noise. In Kinatay, the actors, aided by unconventional found-footage style camera angles, really perform well in making the scenes appear so natural, so as to make the viewer really believe he is an invisible spectator on the actual site. In the film Thy Womb, arranged with an eclectic cinematic grammar, the director incorporates aerial shots of the sea gypsy community combined with underwater sequences, slow motion observational shots and seemingly traditional filmmaking that are always in motion, never static. The study concluded that technically Brillante Mendoza’s award-winning films provided aesthetic value that made them appealing to the viewers, and hence recommended that filmmakers in the country should create social realist films that not only expose people to social problems but also entice them to watch such films for their aesthetic value. 

Impact of Emerging Technologies on Future Employment Opportunities at United States
Published at American Journal of Business Management (AJBM)
Saritha Attuluri, Doctorate in Business Administration
California School of Management & Leadership
Alliant International University, USA

Emel Yarimoglu, Ph.D. & Associate professor of Marketing
Yasar University, Turkey

 Abstract

Robots, artificial intelligence, machine learning are transforming human life. People are worried about the impact of development of technology on their jobs. Therefore, there is a strong need to determine how emerging technologies are going to affect future employment opportunities and their benefits. This particular study explored the impact of these emerging technologies on workforce. If society needs to cut off jobs due to robotics, many social benefits delivered through jobs are also affected. There are many questions raised for public policy because of emerging technologies which impact on various demographic works. As a result, there is a need to confirm social contract for new economy to deliver social benefits which are unfolding.

Continuity and Change: Indigenous Governmental System in Ibibioland, 1900 – 1987
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Nkereuwem David Edemekong, Ph.D. & Head of Department
History & International Studies
University of Uyo, Nigeria
 
Blessing J. Edet, Ph.D. Scholar & Lecturer
University of Uyo, Nigeria
Abstract

Indigenous Governmental System in Ibibioland is a vast area of study. An attempt is being made in this study to highlight its changing patterns between 1900 and 1987. It mirrors the nature of politics and governance in Ibibio land before, during and after the eventual invasion, conquest and imposition of British- made governmental system. While the colonial powers experienced an almost feeble military resistance from Ibibio people, changes within the indigenous cultural, governmental and religious systems, easily and expectedly gave way to European institutions which in turn dictated the pace of development in the colonial Ibibioland and thereafter. Unfortunately, scholars of Nigeria’s local history have not given ample academic attention to the changing patterns of governmental systems as it has to do with the Ibibio area.  The work argues that although various studies involving pre-colonial governmental system in Ibibioland have described indigenous governmental institutions as more value-laden than what obtained thereafter, this viable Ibibio structure was, unfortunately, weakened following introduction of British governmental system because of the self-serving political and economic policies of the colonial powers. This, in turn, laid the foundation of the compromised political system in the post-colonial era.  The paper concludes that while the present Akwa Ibom state governmental system, a predominantly European system, is a more civilized and flexible one, its structural indices, compared to the pre-colonial standards, paraded a largely undermined structure  in the context of efficacy, trustworthiness and viability in the colonial and post-colonial era within the geographical and chronological scopes of this study.

Rethinking Traditional Theories of Individual Leadership in International Relations
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Richard Miller, Professor
Osaka Women's University, Japan
Abstract

In an interconnected globalized world that is on the one hand globalized and at the same time returning to an anarchistic system, individuals continue to shape the international order. Leadership styles have been studied with conventional methods of categorizing expected behaviors. Yet, when populist leaders are elected, and private individuals take leadership roles as international game powers continues, the traditional categories need to be reconsidered. This paper reviews the traditional leadership categories and how some individuals have affected international outcomes and why a heterodox approach may be necessary.

The History of Cloud Computing in Saudi Arabia
 
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Faisal Al-hamazani
School of Education
University of Queensland, Australia
Abstract

Cloud technology is an increasingly influential information technology pattern across the globe, and cloud computing technology has been adopted in several developing countries. This emerging technology has enhanced government function in sectors including business, education and health care. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is still in the early stages of engaging with this technology, with some research into adoption. This paper reviews the literature concerning the history of cloud computing in Saudi Arabia, including the launch of internet connectivity and community buy-in to the concept of the cloud. Further, this review considers how Saudi Arabian authorities, sectors and companies have implemented cloud technology in relation to consumers and end-users. This paper also examines some key issues encountered in Saudi Arabian contexts, such as adoption and security.

A Review of Theories and Models of Technology Acceptance
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Faisal Al-hamazani
School of Education
University of Queensland, Australia
Abstract

Theories and models of technology acceptance is one of the most widely used to investigate technology adoption. These scientifically due to the study of theories and models that sequentially measure the users' intentions and actions. These theories and models focus on significant factors across different contexts. Despite the spread theories and their exploitation through studies, there are some limitations regarding their study in some contexts. This paper revised these theories and models in technical contexts. Furthermore; this paper provided an overview of limitations on theories and models regarding user acceptance of the technology. The existing review offers insight to the investigators to develop a conceptual model that can be reflective in the background contexts.

An Analysis of Social Listening and Use of Social Media as Marketing Tools Among University Students in Nigeria
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Ogunniyi Matthew Babatope, Ph.D. &Economist
University of Lagos, Nigeria
 
Ogunshakin, Olanike Theresa (Miss)
Communication Specialist
University of Lagos, Nigeria
Abstract

Timeless art of listening before speaking starts from childhood, unfortunately, many listen to respond rather than listen to understand. All over the world today, so many conversations happen on social media but very few people/organisations listen to them and fewer still, learn from them. Although this problem may seem inconsequential, it has a great effect on the success of every one of us either as individuals or corporate entities. In an era where content is King, engagement is Queen and data (information) is the new Currency, this research analyses how Nigerian university students tap into this enormous data generated from the amount of time Nigerians spend on social media to advance their businesses; it also analyses how they utilise social media and social listening as viable marketing tools in running smart businesses. This study recommends that university students in Nigeria, as well as other brands, governmental and non-governmental organisations should make use of social media and the social listening aspect of it to effectively boost online presence, clientele range and record significant increase in ROI.

Study of the Impact of Culture Factors on Sino-US Business Negotiations
Published at American Journal of Business Management (AJBM)
Yixuan Sun
Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, China
 
 
Xiaojuan Su, Lecturer
Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, China
Abstract

With the rapid development of economic globalization, businesses and trades between various countries are increasing with each passing day. Business negotiation is the link of communication and cooperation between many countries, which can not only promote the economic development of countries, but also strengthen the peaceful coexistence among countries. From the perspective of cross-cultural negotiation, this paper aims to explore the causes, characteristics and improvement measures of the cultural differences between China and the United States.

Prospects and Challenges of Online Education in Secondary Schools in Northern Nigeria
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Michael Olugbenga
M.Ed Educational Administration and Planning
Great Panaf Schools, Nigeria
Abstract

This study investigated the prospects and challenges of online education. It also examined availability of the gadgets used to enhance the operation of the system and the relationship between schools with functional computer laboratories and schools without the laboratories. The survey method was used to gather information. The simple sampling was used to select subjects. The respondents or research subjects were SS3 students drawn from grade "A" private schools in 10 different states in the northern part of the country. 10 students from each state got their questionnaire via email through their school principals. Data were analyzed using simple percentage. The analysis revealed that most schools in the north still face a lot of challenges like inadequate computer laboratories, shortage of power supply, lack wide internet coverage, diversion of attention especially among teenagers are problems to contend with. From the hypotheses tested the result showed that students especially teenagers find it difficult to concentrate as they are used to the physical classroom, it also revealed that retention is a problem as they get distracted due to irregular power supply and shortage of internet bandwidth. It also revealed that if the issue of trust, monitoring, power supply and making internet services free can be improved, online education can become an acceptable norm among our students in the secondary school.

Mathematical Modelling as a Tool for Sustainable Development in Nigeria
Published at American Journal in Applied Mathematics(AJAM)
ONWUKA PHILOMINA IFEANYI, Ph.D., Associate Professor & HOD
College of Education, Nigeria
Menkiti Chika Cordelia, Ph.D. Scholar
Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nigeria
Abstract

Mathematics in its abstract nature is seen as the queen of all sciences. Nigeria being one of a developing nation requires Mathematics that can effectively put science and technology in fore front of national development. Many of our developmental teaching problems facing Nigeria currently could be solved if it is possible to get a Mathematical model that could describe them. By way of definition; a Mathematical model is a description of a system using Mathematical concepts and language. In this work, a review of Mathematical modelling and the role it can play on the path of sustainable development in our current century was done. We highlighted different types of Mathematical modelling and classified them. Some of the applications and challenges of Mathematical modelling were examined. The results show that mathematical modelling is one of the tools needed to transform the Nigeria economy from a developing to a developed economy. From the review, it is recommended that the Nigerian government should invest more on Mathematics Education at all levels including Primary, Secondary and Tertiary in order to train more mathematical modellers and provide the enabling environment for teaching and learning of Mathematics. Also students should be motivated or encouraged to study Mathematics in general and mathematical modelling in particular through grants, loan and scholarships.

Travails of African Children in Faceless
MOBOLANLE SOTUNSA,  Ph.D. & Professor
BABCOCK UNIVERSITY, NIGERIA

OLUWAGBEMINIYI BAMISAYE, SCHOLAR & SENIOR EDITOR
BABCOCK UNIVERSITY, NIGERIA
Abstract

The desire and constant yearning of many children is the warmth of parental care. However, from time immemorial, child labour experiences have denied such children proper parental care and smooth mind development. In a typical African society where children are assurance of continuity and expansion of race, it becomes even more important that children are availed the most conducive atmosphere to actualize themselves. This paper, therefore, examines the experiences and travails of victims of child labour in Amma Darko’s Faceless (2003). Using the psychoanalytic theory, the study examined the pains, physical and emotional struggles and losses of children characters in the selected text. Findings revealed that children in a bid to survive, usually engage themselves in all sort of vices. It was also discovered that children deprived of proper parental care and support usually end up becoming threats to the society as such, the study recommended that parents should be responsible for the welfare of their children or ward irrespective of their social or economic status.

Mobilization of Gender-Inclusive Language across Academic Disciplines
Caren Rimando Bansolay, Ph. D.
Assistant Professor & Head of Corporate Communications
AMA International University, Kingdom of Bahrain
Abstract

Gender-inclusive language use among higher education institutions is somewhat operational, which is tantamount to the HEI teachers’ degree of awareness on such language use. These findings are further supported by the teachers’ claims that certain factors have vividly engendered disparity in their gender language use. Atop these factors are dearths of references promoting gender language use, patterned use of gender-exclusive language in many references, and habit of using conventional words. Thus, a reference guide following a prototype materials design to incorporate the terminologies in instruction, communication and other forms of information dissemination is deemed essential to be designed and implemented.  

The Tragic Vision in William Shakespeare's Macbeth: A Critical Study
Ali Albashir Mohammed Alhaj, Ph. D. & Associate Professor
King Khalid University, KSA

Sabah Mohammed Abbas Hamza, Ph. D. & Assistant Professor
King Khalid University, KSA

Dr.Hussein Mohammed Ahmed Kilayil, Ph. D. & Assistant Professor
King Khalid University, KSA
Abstract

The present study aims at studying critically the tragic vision in William Shakespeare's Macbeth. Shakespeare's tragic vision is to a large extent Greek in design and execution. Macbeth gives the readers the keenness of economy among all Shakespearean tragedies, Macbeth is a classical tragedy as close to a Greek tragedy as Shakespeare could possibly get. The evil is depicted in the play in poetic and dramatic terms. The tragic vision is earthy and real .The action of the play is the revealing of evil in terms of direct human experience. In Macbeth , Shakespeare  shows the readers  not only the inevitable destruction of villainy, but also its genesis, growth and nature in human context. Finally the study concludes that Shakespeare considered tragedy as the most important form of literature as it reflects the truth of life .Moreover, he  succeeds in addressing  serious issues also entertaining and gripping  an audience in the theater or the stage  

Book Review: ālḥārakh āl īslāmīāh, thārāīt fī āltārīq (The Islamic Movement, Gaps in the Road) by Abdullah Al-Nafisi, second publishing by Afaq Press, Kuwait, 2012, Reviewed by Farhan Aldhafeeri.
 
Farhan M Aldhafeeri, Ph.D. Scholar
School of Philosophy, Theology & Religion
Centre of Islamic and Middle East Studies
University of Birmingham, United Kingdom

Abstract 

In this article, the author will review some of the outlines and main idea of Nafisi's self-criticism of the reality of Islamic movements through his book (The Islamic Movement, Gaps in the Road). The book was first published in 1986 and reprinted recently at Afaq Library in Kuwait in 2012. Indeed, the book is one of the most powerful books in the field of self-criticism of Islamic movements. It was originally a weekly article, and each episode contains a critical perspective and thus is worthy of countless reflection. It is absolutely hard for us to comprehend and internalize the essence and soul Nafisi provided in the limited lines and spaces. 

 
 
It is No Longer Business as Usual: An Assessment of the Canada Corruption of Public Officials Act
 
Alex Fomcenco, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
Aalborg University, Denmark
Dave Deonarain, LL.M., LL.B.
Ontario Ministry of the Attorney General, Ca
 
Abstract

Using R. v. Karigar, a 2013 ruling of the Ontario Superior Court of Justice as a starting point, this article addresses the question of effectiveness of the Canada Corruption of Public Officials Act and Bill S-14: An Act to Amend the Foreign Public Officials Act. The article points out that through the years Canada has become much more effective in pursuing the goal of prosecuting those that through activities banned by the legislation in question distort free competition not only in Canada but anywhere else in the world as well. The authors remind corporate directors to remain vigilant and abstain from practices prohibited by this legislation, as aside from facing potential imprisonment and significant fines, following breach of the legislation in question, directors must also be aware that they are personally accountable.

Effectiveness of a Training Program in Improving the Level of University Adaptation Among a Sample of Students of Qassim University
 
BAHJAT ABDUL MAJEED MAH'D ABU SULAIMAN, Ph. D. & Assistant Professor
Malida Branch - Deanship of Educational Services
Qassim University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
 
Abstract

The study aimed to uncover the effectiveness of a training program in improving the level of university adaptation among a sample of students of Qassim University. The study sample consisted of (26) students of the preparatory year in Qassim University who have a low level of university adaptation based on their grades on the university adaptation scale. Their scores were considered tribal. In this light, the students were randomly divided into two groups: a control group that did not receive any treatment, and an experimental group that received a training program for seven sessions. Immediately after treatment was completed, direct measurement of the experimental group and the control group was taken. Then, two weeks after the treatment was completed, the delayed measurement (retention) of the experimental group and the control group was also taken. . The results of the study showed statistically significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in the level of university adaptation between the pre-measurement and direct measurement at (a = 0.05) in favor of the experimental group. There were also statistically significant differences in the level of university adaptation between direct measurement and delayed measurement (retention) in favor of the experimental group and direct testing.

Contributing Factors in Determining Balance Between Job Opportunities, Job Employment and Job Satisfaction in European Countries **
Craig Henderson , Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
University of Houston, USA
Abstract

Nowadays, due to the harsh competition in job market, job opportunities declines year by year. Even if people were employed, the benefits for job and the satisfaction in job decrease. How to balance between Job opportunities, job employment and job satisfaction in European countries remains critical changes to be reasonably resolved. This research aims to discover contributing factors in determining balance between job opportunities, job employment and job satisfaction in European countries and the implication was also disclosed at the end of the article. 

The Critical Perspectives in Efficiently Managing and Evaluating Corporate Employee Conducts, Operation Risks and Policy Optimization with the Help of Practical Real-world Examples, Empirical Research Result and Employees' Cooperation **
Vincent Griffin, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor 
Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada
Abstract

In recent years, research on assessing employee behavior, operational risk, and policy optimization has gradually increased. But how to use the practical real-world examples, the experience of research results and the cooperation of employees, as three effective means, effectively manage and evaluate the risk of employee behavior, operation and policy optimization is comparatively rare. This research article combines real-life examples and empirical survey methods to achieve optimal management and evaluation on the corporate employee behavior, operational risk and policy optimization so that the company's employees' work capacity improves, behavior standardized, and product quality promoted.  This research will serve as an inspirational guide for the future development and prosperity of modern enterprises.

Estimation of Crustal Structure Beneath Nile Delta Region from the Spectrum of P Wave** 
Ali Ahmed Gharib, Professor
National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt    
 
Gaber Hassan Hasseip, Professor
National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt   
 
Ahmed Ali Hosnney, Associate Professor
National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt   
 
Gad El Kareem Mohmed, Associate Professor
National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt   
 
Iman Farag Hassan, Associate Professor
National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt  
 
Yaseen Mahmoud Mostfa, Ph.D.
National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt
Abstract

Few studies directly compare Epidural Steroid Injection (ESI) versus Conservative Physical Therapy (CT). This retrospective study aims to compare the efficacy of ESI and CT in motor vehicle accident patients, measured by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The 61 ESI+CT and 109 CT-alone procedures were selected and categorized by cervical or lumbosacral injection region. As hypothesized, VAS reduced significantly for both CT-alone group and ESI+CT group (p< 0.0001). On average, as measured by Cohen’s d, the VAS reduction was over two standard deviations in ESI+CT group but only over one standard deviation in CT-alone. Therefore, while CT is significantly effective in reducing pain, adding ESI may have increased the effect size. The mean change for Lumbosacral ESI+CT (4.242) is higher than that for Lumbosacral CT-alone (3.490) with a marginal p-value of 0.080 but not significantly different for Cervical ESI+CT (3.800) versus Cervical CT-alone (3.479).

Practice Guideline of Patient Treatment under Protection of Scientific Interventions ---A Tentative Assumption of Medical Research**
Ali Flores, Ph.D. & Lecturer
Future University in Egypt, Egypt    
 
Raymond Nelson, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
Adelphi University, USA
Abstract

Recent years of research in patient intervention treatment has made great breakthrough and the study in this field also shifted from theoretical hypothesis to practical treatment process. This specific study will introduce the practical guideline of patient treatment process and result under the protection of scientific intervention to ensure the safety and security of the progress of the practice. With examples, research survey, the author also revealed the possible direction of future medical research and the research findings and implications were also discussed.

The Scientific Evidence of Learning Effects Approval for Science Major Students with the Help of Instruction of Up-to-date New Technology in University Classroom **
Zoila Campbell, Ph.D. & Director
Swinburne University of Technology, Australia
 
Johnsie Garcia, Ph.D. Scholar
Swinburne University of Technology, Australia
Abstract

The development of modern science and technology has promoted the development of education, to a large extent. University education has no longer stayed in the traditional education model of the past. The researcher employed the advantages of the modern education model to establish an experimental model for training the professional skills of university students. Under the guidance of modern science and technology, the professional skills of university students have changed a lot, their self-awareness has also been greatly improved, and the learning effect has been greatly advanced. The results of this research will definitely be widely used in future university professional skills training and improvement of students' practical skills. The author of this article also hopes that this research will give the teaching staff some inspiration and thus improve their future teaching result.

The role of Sociology in National Development with Particular reference to Niger State, Nigeria
Steve Nwokeocha, Ph. D. & Professor of Sociology of Education
Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University
 
 Charles Okwuwa, Ph. D.Scholar & Lecturer
Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Nigeria
Abstract

This research paper eloquently and logically stated that sociology emerged in Europe and America in times of industrial and general societal unrest. As universally acknowledged that, sociology from birth was oriented towards problem-solving and creation of a prosperous and progressive society. Nigeria, including Niger Sate, today faces similar huge developmental problems and can rely significantly on sociological paradigms to resolve some of the national and state problems that seem intractable. Regrettably, the general underdevelopment issues of Nigeria including unemployment, ignorance about the role of sociologists, absence of a national framework for the utilization of sociologists, poor governance, school-industry dichotomy and other factors have impaired the functioning of sociologists in Nigeria. Nevertheless, sociologists are clearly part of the change agents in the various sectors of national life. Among these are sociologists of education advancing teaching and learning in Nigeria; medical sociologist changing values systems of medical practice and saving lives; criminologists combating crime and contribution to law enforcement; developmental sociologists working with international and national organizations to lift humanity; political sociologists advancing the rules of governance; and demographers deeply involved in managing population and life-related issues. The paper therefore believes that removing the enumerated obstacles will boost the contribution of sociologists to national development, including Niger State.

The Price-setting Strategy Under the Theoretical Instruction of Social Exchange Theory and Free Market Principle *
 
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
 
Timothy Whittier, Ph.D. & Associate Professor
University of Washington, USA
Keith Willey, Ph.D. & Associate Professor
University of Connecticut, USA
Abstract

This paper will discuss three major concepts which are essential properties of social exchange theory where the individuals, who have something of value to offer each other, will make financial decisions based on certain outcomes; and they have to decide whether to exchange and in what amounts. This is termed as ‘price setting.’ Social exchange theory proposes that social behavior is the result of an exchange process; while social conflict theory sees social life as an opposition and focuses on the allocation of resources, power, and inequality. The rationale of this exchange is to capitalize on benefits and minimize costs since people weigh the potential benefits and risks of social relationships. A free market is one where voluntary exchange and the laws of supply and demand provide the markets; prices for goods and services are set freely by the forces of supply and demand and are permitted to reach their point of symmetry without intrusion by government policy.

Starting from the Field of Practical Teaching, to Reach the Reasonable Analysis of the Differences, Commonalities Between Eastern and Western Teaching Under Diverse Cultural Backgrounds: The Results and Future Inspiration *
 
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Halley Goodwin, Ph. D. & Assistant Professor
University of Minnesota--Twin Cities, USA
 
Susan Benjamin, Ph. D. & Assistant Professor
University of Minnesota--Twin Cities, USA
Abstract

Education has an ‘acculturating’ role -- it refines, sensitizes & perceives, creating   a national cohesion, a scientific temper and an independence of ‘mind’ and ‘Spirit,’ thus enhancing the goals of socialism, secularism and  democracy as enshrined in each nation’s constitution. This should be the major commonality between Eastern and Western Teaching under diverse cultural backgrounds. From a cultural perspective, no education is neutral. It either domesticates or liberates. The present western type of education in the ‘Third World’ is predominantly domesticating and not people friendly. It is biased towards the western oriented elite and the rich. In the promising post- industrial global scenario, education has added significance; because the production of knowledge has become the most decisive economic activity. ‘New Liberalism’ is projected as the ideology suited to the Third Wave’ has serious implications on the ethical and cultural life of people all over the world. In the existing fragile, social situation of the world, education has to be used as a cultural weapon for the genuine freedom of the people of the entire world. Alternatively, through education we must aim at a ‘paradigm shift’.

The Positive and Negative Effects of Market Competition Pressure on the Development of Tourism and the Future Development of Tourism Industry In USA *
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)

Sandra Gibson, Ph. D. & Associate Professor
Michigan State University, USA
 
Steve Wolford, Ph. D. & Professor
University of Iowa, USA
Abstract

Tourism industry is central for the payback it brings due to its role as a profit-making activity that creates demand and expansion for many more industries. Tourism and hospitality creates job opportunities in diverse sectors like accommodation, food and beverage establishments, transportation services, travel agencies, tour action companies, natural and cultural attractions sites. Some of the most noteworthy tourism trends today and in the near future are ‘Travelling Alone, Eco Travel, Local Experience, Leisure Travel: Robots, Automation, Artificial Intelligence. Recognition Technology.’ Competition is important for any business to thrive because it provides assurance that you're getting customers because of the quality of your products and services, it determines market value.But it has its own disadvantage .Greater competition among seller’s results in a lower product market price.And when competition is restricted, prices are likely to increase and quality is likely to suffer.

The Application of Quantum Physics Theory to Predict the Future Development of Earth and Human Beings: Prospects and Invisible Challenges *
 
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)

Steven Adams, Ph. D. & Assistant Professor
University of Delaware, USA
 
Kelly Holmes, Ph. D. & Associate Professor
Saint Louis University, USA
Abstract

The marathon mission to grasp the decisive nature of matter and force has entered a brand new epoch of ambiguity and anticipation unmatched in the past century. Fundamentally, physical science predicts terribly strange things concerning how matter works that are utterly divided with how things appear to figure within the planet. Luckily, theoretical physics thrives on enigma, and it eventually overcame those issues through two intellectual upheavals as profound as any within the history of human thought: the quantum revolution and also Einstein’s theory of relativity. Science and technology alike are watching for the cryptic world of quantum phenomena to be controlled and place to use. Each has performed supremely well, giving civilization new insight into and incomparable command of matter and energy. However they're now not capable to  make a case for what we all know of reality. Physics currently needs a brand new set of classes to explain the contents of the cosmos

The Moral and Ethical Challenges with the Application of Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the Field of Modern Medical Science *
 
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Kelly Higgins, Ph. D. & Professor
Howard University, USA
 
Timothy Speck, Ph. D. & Associate Professor
Temple University, USA
Abstract

This paper aims to explore the moral and ethical challenges in the application of Artificial Intelligence (AI), which is used in prospective health care and medical education. It can be applied to almost any fields in medicine, and its contributions to biomedical research, medical education, and delivery of health care seem limitless. This might appear a threat to doctors that they could be rendered outmoded with this type of technology. Nevertheless, this authoritative technology creates a fresh set of ethical challenges that must be acknowledged and addressed since AI technology has tremendous capability to threaten patient preference, safety, privacy, and confidentiality, limitations between the physician’s and machine’s role in patient care.  Finally, anticipating potential ethical pitfalls, identifying possible solutions, and offering policy recommendations will be of benefit to physicians adopting AI technology in their practice as well as the patients who receive their care.

 

 

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