Volume 7, Issue 1, March 2019

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Clients' Satisfaction Leading to Clients' Loyalty Towards Commercial Banks in HCMC, Vietnam
Vo Van Ban, Ph.D. & Lecturer
Banking University of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Tran Duc Thuc, Ph.D. & Lecturer
Banking University of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam



Customers’ satisfaction is said to lead to customers’ loyalty and then it leads to their willingness to have frequent transactions or purchase new products from banks. In this paper, the author conducted a survey to find out the relationship among five factors such as Facilities, Responsibilities, Reliability, Assurance, and Sympathy towards customer’s loyalty through the mediating factor – Customers’ satisfaction – in banking sector in HCMC. In this study, the author applied qualitative and quantitative approach to test whether the research model is suitable or not as well as the hypotheses are supported or rejected. After checking and selecting the suitable copies from respondents, the author collected 210 samples to analyze for this study. From the findings, it could be concluded that Reliability and Assurance affecting most to customers’ loyalty towards performances of Commercial Banks in HCMC, Vietnam. Therefore, administrators of commercial banks in HCMC as well as in Vietnam have to adjust their business management strategies and employees’ performance to satisfy clients and increase clients’ loyalty towards their banks.

Analysis of Psychological Aspects in Early Buddhism
Nguyen Quy Hoang, Ph.D.
International Buddhist College, Thailand

These Buddhist Psychology aspects mainly deal with the theory of mind (cittā) and mental factors (cestasika). They have worked out effective methods of psycho and emotional self-regulation, help people ending their sufferings. They assert that every person is potentially able to move from a state of suffering to a state of complete serenity, with the highest peace, and profound wisdom. So, comprehensive study the psychological aspects of Early Buddhism and having a good knowledge of the mind operation have a very important role in the process of mind control for liberation purpose. Without  a good understanding of the mind how can people control it? If not in good control, people cannot be free from sufferings. By analyzing method, the following points are developed in this article:
· The real meaning of  viññāṇa in Early Buddhism. Viññāna represents “the hopes and desires that people want from this world” and the very thing leads them drifting in the cycle of births and deaths
· The overlapping relationship between psychological aspects in Early Buddhism and other main Buddhist doctrines (Paṭiccasamuppāda, pañca khandhas and 37 Bodhipakkhiyā Dhammā)
· The transformation from five hindrances to dhyāna mental factors in meditation practice
· The unfixed quantity of mental factors in Buddhist psychology
· The most important contribution of Early Buddhism in psychology
· The role of the attention (tajjo samannāhāra) in human perception (saññā)

African Theology, the Bible and Christian Formation a Fresh Approach: Perspectives of Kwame Bediako on African Christianity and Vernacular Scripture
Jeremiah Babajide Oluwadare, Ph.D. Scholar & Lecturer
West Africa Theological Seminary, Nigeria

Christian scholarship and Missions to other frontiers, especially Africa has been done in the Western mould in the context of Western Church history and cultural milieu. Engaging Africa and the southern hemisphere with the Gospel of Jesus Christ in this mould leave a lacuna and disconnect with these new frontiers’ “primal past,” which informed their worldviews. Kwame Bediako particularly and the rest with him put forward fresh challenge to missions and theological scholarship on ways of addressing “Christian formation” in other climes and the means to connect with the “redeeming and transforming” activities of the Living God in the perspectives of receiving cultures. The challenge is this; though Bediako and his counterpart Sanneh are already glorified, African theological seminaries and universities are yet to put their dimension of thoughts into full use. Bediako, Sanneh and Walls reiterated the important role of the vernacular Mother-Tongue Scripture as the window to unlocking cultures and engaging the ontological categories within it. I conclude that for Africa and the rest, the constituent primal worldviews according to Bediako forms the superstructure for the emerging forms of Christianity and opens practical engagement of the cultural worlds of meaning with the realities of the Holy Spirit and the person of Christ.

SMART Building Passage to SMART City
Uthayan Elangovan, Research Scholar & CEO
Neel SMARTEC Consulting, Tamilnadu, India

Rise in popular for smarter building structures led to lots of innovation in Automation. Smart building structures deliver incorporated lights, improved comfort, better safety, and also far better hygiene at an affordable price. Among the essential difficulties in smarter building is saving energy as well as this is where SMART building automation systems (SBAS) enters importance. SBAS is the synergy of multiple systems to streamline process and also to supply a flexible, actual, comfortable, safe and secure building setting for visitors and owners. The innovation makes use of IoT as a key driving factor in providing a wise, safe and secure as well as energy efficient setting in a building without jeopardizing the security or convenience for the owners. With Automation of Smart building is an incorporated service system that promotes heating, ventilation, air conditioning (HVAC) and access control to share info and approaches with an eye to reduce energy usage, improve energy efficiency monitoring, give value-added performance as well as make the building less complicated to operate. Modern technological development of Industry 4.0 offer considerable insights right into process, from discovering issues well beforehand to continuously enhancing efficiency. A lot of procedures are managed with no direct input, allowing building managers to concentrate on issues that require their complete attention. The automation of certain maintenance jobs have been feasible for years, the prices associated with automation typically made it too high. Thankfully, the ever-dropping prices of IoT sensors now make smart structure upgrades a noticeable choice for any person wishing to purchase service performance.

A Review of the Role of Runoff Sediments in Heavy Metal Pollution of Water Bodies
John Paul Kaisam, Ph.D. Scholar & Lecturer
Ph.D. Scholar, Hohai University, China
Lecturer, Njala University, Sierra Leone


Hua Wang, Ph.D. & Professor, Lecturer

College of Environment, Hohai University

Nanjing City, China.


Kyran Ganda, Senior Lecturer

School of Environmental Sciences

Njala University, Sierra Leone



Yahaya Kudush Kawa, Ph.D. Scholar

School of Environmental Studies

Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering

University of Geoscience, Wuhan, China


This work summarizes an extensive review of scientific literature on non-point source pollution of water systems. The focus of the review was on the impact of heavy metals adsorbed on runoff-driven sediments on the quality of water bodies. It covered decades of published scientific work on the relationship between sediment load and heavy metal concentration in water bodies, which generally varied with the time (season) of the year. Also, the biological component of sediments in water bodies contributed significantly heavy metal (e.g., Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn) pollution of water bodies. Furthermore, sediments changed physical, chemical and biological conditions of water systems, affecting aquatic life in diverse ways. Finally, stopping sediment deposition due to dam construction in upstream reaches resulted in erosion and degradation of downstream riparian and wetland ecosystems.

The Quality of Prosodic Features in EFL Classrooms
Khalid Hamednalla Albadawi, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor

Taif University, Saudi Arabia


The quality of prosodic features inside the classroom directly affects the learning and teaching process. The aim of this study is to highlight the influence of speech prosody in classroom interaction and to motivate the attention to prosody within the foreign language classroom. An unstructured classroom observation was employed to collect data of classroom talk. Prosodic features such as pauses, volume, intonation, and speech rate were set as the main criteria for analyzing the classroom talk. The above instrument helped draw significant findings. These findings proved that speech prosody can function as a coordination tool for language learners to organize their social participation roles in collaborative learning activities such as forming alignment, managing turn-taking, signaling repair sequences, etc. The study also showed that prosody can function as a pedagogical tool for language teachers to manage classroom interactional ground. Moreover, the research showed that prosodic analysis can be an effective tool in unfolding the pedagogical importance of classroom interaction in classroom teaching and learning.

Book Review: ālḥārakh āl īslāmīāh, thārāīt fī āltārīq (The Islamic Movement, Gaps in the Road) by Abdullah Al-Nafisi, Second Publishing by Afaq Press, Kuwait, 2012, Reviewed by Farhan Aldhafeeri
Farhan M Aldhafeeri, Ph.D. Scholar
School of Philosophy, Theology & Religion
Centre of Islamic and Middle East Studies
University of Birmingham, United Kingdom


In this article, the author will review some of the outlines and main idea of Nafisi's self-criticism of the reality of Islamic movements through his book (The Islamic Movement, Gaps in the Road). The book was first published in 1986 and reprinted recently at Afaq Library in Kuwait in 2012. Indeed, the book is one of the most powerful books in the field of self-criticism of Islamic movements. It was originally a weekly article, and each episode contains a critical perspective and thus is worthy of countless reflection. It is absolutely hard for us to comprehend and internalize the essence and soul Nafisi provided in the limited lines and spaces. 

Critical Literature Review of Enablers for SMEs  Innovativeness in Bahrain
Suha Attallah, Ph.D. Scholar
Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain
Odeh Al-Jayyousi, Ph.D. & Professor
Chairperson of Innovation and Technology Management Department
Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain
Rustom Mamlook, Ph.D. & Professor
Innovation and Technology Management Department
Arabian Gulf university, Bahrain

The aim of this article is to highlight the enablers for SMEs innovativeness in Bahrain. Based on literature review, it was evident that enablers have positive effect on the SMEs innovativeness and lead to increase employments and economic competitiveness. Enablers include government, human resource, networking, knowledge, entrepreneurial culture, linkage capabilities, and technology sourcing. The study concluded that enablers lead to create global market, facilitate knowledge and experience exchange and promote economic growth.

Contributing Factors in Determining Balance Between Job Opportunities, Job Employment and Job Satisfaction in European Countries **
Craig Henderson , Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
University of Houston, USA

Nowadays, due to the harsh competition in job market, job opportunities declines year by year. Even if people were employed, the benefits for job and the satisfaction in job decrease. How to balance between Job opportunities, job employment and job satisfaction in European countries remains critical changes to be reasonably resolved. This research aims to discover contributing factors in determining balance between job opportunities, job employment and job satisfaction in European countries and the implication was also disclosed at the end of the article. 

Effectiveness of a Training Program in Improving the Level of University Adaptation Among a Sample of Students of Qassim University
Malida Branch - Deanship of Educational Services
Qassim University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

The study aimed to uncover the effectiveness of a training program in improving the level of university adaptation among a sample of students of Qassim University. The study sample consisted of (26) students of the preparatory year in Qassim University who have a low level of university adaptation based on their grades on the university adaptation scale. Their scores were considered tribal. In this light, the students were randomly divided into two groups: a control group that did not receive any treatment, and an experimental group that received a training program for seven sessions. Immediately after treatment was completed, direct measurement of the experimental group and the control group was taken. Then, two weeks after the treatment was completed, the delayed measurement (retention) of the experimental group and the control group was also taken. . The results of the study showed statistically significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in the level of university adaptation between the pre-measurement and direct measurement at (a = 0.05) in favor of the experimental group. There were also statistically significant differences in the level of university adaptation between direct measurement and delayed measurement (retention) in favor of the experimental group and direct testing.

The Critical Perspectives in Efficiently Managing and Evaluating Corporate Employee Conducts, Operation Risks and Policy Optimization with the Help of Practical Real-world Examples, Empirical Research Result and Employees' Cooperation **
Vincent Griffin, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor 
Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada

In recent years, research on assessing employee behavior, operational risk, and policy optimization has gradually increased. But how to use the practical real-world examples, the experience of research results and the cooperation of employees, as three effective means, effectively manage and evaluate the risk of employee behavior, operation and policy optimization is comparatively rare. This research article combines real-life examples and empirical survey methods to achieve optimal management and evaluation on the corporate employee behavior, operational risk and policy optimization so that the company's employees' work capacity improves, behavior standardized, and product quality promoted.  This research will serve as an inspirational guide for the future development and prosperity of modern enterprises.

Estimation of Crustal Structure Beneath Nile Delta Region from the Spectrum of P Wave** 
Ali Ahmed Gharib, Professor
National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt    
Gaber Hassan Hasseip, Professor
National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt   
Ahmed Ali Hosnney, Associate Professor
National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt   
Gad El Kareem Mohmed, Associate Professor
National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt   
Iman Farag Hassan, Associate Professor
National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt  
Yaseen Mahmoud Mostfa, Ph.D.
National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt

Few studies directly compare Epidural Steroid Injection (ESI) versus Conservative Physical Therapy (CT). This retrospective study aims to compare the efficacy of ESI and CT in motor vehicle accident patients, measured by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The 61 ESI+CT and 109 CT-alone procedures were selected and categorized by cervical or lumbosacral injection region. As hypothesized, VAS reduced significantly for both CT-alone group and ESI+CT group (p< 0.0001). On average, as measured by Cohen’s d, the VAS reduction was over two standard deviations in ESI+CT group but only over one standard deviation in CT-alone. Therefore, while CT is significantly effective in reducing pain, adding ESI may have increased the effect size. The mean change for Lumbosacral ESI+CT (4.242) is higher than that for Lumbosacral CT-alone (3.490) with a marginal p-value of 0.080 but not significantly different for Cervical ESI+CT (3.800) versus Cervical CT-alone (3.479).

Practice Guideline of Patient Treatment under Protection of Scientific Interventions
---A Tentative Assumption of Medical Research**
Ali Flores, Ph.D. & Lecturer
Future University in Egypt, Egypt    
Raymond Nelson, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
Adelphi University, USA

Recent years of research in patient intervention treatment has made great breakthrough and the study in this field also shifted from theoretical hypothesis to practical treatment process. This specific study will introduce the practical guideline of patient treatment process and result under the protection of scientific intervention to ensure the safety and security of the progress of the practice. With examples, research survey, the author also revealed the possible direction of future medical research and the research findings and implications were also discussed.

 The Role of Courts and Arbitral Tribunal In Granting Interim Measures in England
-- A Guide to Commonwealth Countries, Practitioners and Students

Shadat M.Mohmed Ssemakula, Ph. D.
Gulu University- Uganda East Africa

Arbitral Interim (provisional) measures are of great importance in protecting the rights of the parties to an arbitration agreement. Arbitration as a dispute mechanism is becoming increasingly powerful due to the ability of tribunals and courts to grant and enforce Interim (provisional) measures which make the final award meaningful. The importance of Interim (provisional) measures has increased in recent years as more parties are seeking them, and is likely to grow still more in the coming years. This book examines the problems surrounding arbitral Interim (provisional) measures in England and Wales; as such problems constitute a threat to current and future arbitration. The book aims to identify, analyze and offer solutions to those problems that impede arbitral proceedings.

This book initially examines the roots and the legislative development of the powers of arbitral tribunals to grant Interim (provisional) measures and the role of the courts in arbitral proceedings in England. The examination highlights the roots of the problems and demonstrates how the approach towards Interim (provisional) measures in England and Wales has shifted in due course from judicial dominance to arbitral competence, and how the role of the courts has become subsidiary.

Further, the analysis highlights the problem of arbitrators in the granting and enforcement of Interim (provisional) measures across borders, due to the inadequacy of the current Arbitration Act 1996, which provides very limited power to tribunals under its S.38, 39 and 48. Additionally, the research aims to demonstrate that arbitral tribunals should be given effective and actual authority to grant arbitral Interim (provisional) measures in order to comply with the arbitration agreement (party autonomy).

Since no dispute mechanism can stand alone as an island, the courts should only become involved in support of the process - subject to the arbitral Acts that provide them with exclusive jurisdiction - where this is necessary in order to avoid conflicting decisions. However, the power of the courts to aid arbitration in granting such measures is limited by Council Regulation (EC) 44/2001 of the European Union, of which England is a member. 

In international arbitration, timely application and enforcement of interim (provisional) measures have a substantial effect on the possibility of the enforcement of a final arbitration award, especially when issues relating to the protection of assets or evidence arise before or during the course of proceedings. The book will highlight the impact of Brexit in the European Union on arbitration proceedings. Hence the purpose of this book is to provide a brief analysis of the international practice regarding the enforcement of Interim (provisional) measures in international arbitration.

 Introduction of Arbitrition Concepts, Initiation of Arbitral Proceedings, and Research Purpose, Methodology, Findings and Limitation 
Shadat M.Mohmed Ssemakula, Ph. D.
Gulu University- Uganda East Africa

Interim (provisional) measures play an important role in England and Wales, and in many legal systems, in facilitating the traditional litigation process, as well as arbitration. The role that Interim (provisional) measures play in arbitration varies widely from country to country. There are three systems across the globe that provide Interim (provisional) measures; namely, the court model, the free choice model and the court subsidiarity model. The first one is where the right to award Interim (provisional) measures is reserved wholly for the arbitral tribunal; the second model is where the right to award Interim (provisional) measures is reserved wholly for the courts; and the third is where both the arbitral tribunal and the courts hold these powers.

 The Legal Developments of Interim (Provisional) Measures 
Shadat M.Mohmed Ssemakula, Ph. D. 
Gulu University- Uganda East Africa

It is important to examine how the historical legislative framework in arbitration law played such a pivotal role in empowering the tribunal with the jurisdiction to rule or grant Interim (provisional) measures. London is leading hub for international commercial arbitration due to its preeminence as the centre for shipping, insurance, commodity and finance. Arbitration became ubiquitous in London, not least because of the volume of commercial transactions and, inevitably, disputes which occurred there. Given that England is the mother of common law, offered a legal regime of lawyers to handle the Interim (provisional) measures emanating from arbitration. Only a handful of laws dealt with the role of the courts with respect to Interim (provisional) measures, as almost all arbitral proceedings were based on adversarial lines, instead of an inquisitorial approach, where arbitral tribunals could act within their competence.

 Arbitrators' Powers (The  Concept of Party Automomy)
Shadat M.Mohmed Ssemakula, Ph. D. 
Gulu University- Uganda East Africa

International commercial arbitration is primarily based upon the parties’ consent and not surprisingly the arbitration agreement is considered by leading commentators to be the foundation stone of international arbitration. This feature reinforces the contractual basis of arbitration and is reflected in the vast majority of international conventions, national laws and institutional laws; therefore, party autonomy is considered one of the most relevant principles in international arbitration

 Conditions & Procedures for the Granting of Arbitral Interim (Provitional) Measures
Shadat M.Mohmed Ssemakula, Ph. D.
Gulu University- Uganda East Africa

The arbitral tribunal should be the best forum for seeking Interim (provisional) measures, given the fact that it derives its authority from the arbitration agreement (party autonomy). However, there are stringent conditions for the arbitral tribunal to use its powers to grant Interim (provisional) measures. These strict conditions are more examined than litigation cases, hence they establish the arbitral jurisdiction as the best dispute mechanism for arbitral proceedings. Under arbitral proceedings, for a tribunal to have the power to grant Interim (provisional) measures, it has first to ascertain whether it has been given such power by the parties to make an order on provisional relief. Indeed, after the tribunal has been constituted, it then sets the prerequisites or standards and procedures for granting Interim (provisional) measures. This approach of determining the standards and procedures facilitates the predictability and consistency of arbitral proceedings; and hence makes arbitral proceedings more effective and efficient. The main objective of such standards and procedures, as mentioned earlier, is generally to preserve the status quo, facilitate enforcement of future or present awards and to facilitate arbitral proceedings.

 Types of Arbitral Interim (Provisional) Measures in Support of Arbitral Proceedings
Shadat M.Mohmed Ssemakula, Ph. D.
Gulu University- Uganda East Africa

The question of whether or not an arbitral tribunal has the authority to grant provisional measures must be determined under the “lex arbitri”. However, the types of measures that may be ordered in a specific case is a different question which is governed by either the relevant procedure rules or the “lex causae", depending on which interim (provisional) measures are involved.

As regards the prerequisites for granting Interim (provisional) measures, there is no typically strict defined law of what arbitral tribunal can order, except that it will order all or any Interim (provisional) measures that it considers necessary in connection with the subject matter of the dispute. It has wide discretion in making its decision. According to many arbitral rules, the tribunal is given this wide scope of discretion to grant Interim (provisional) measures, since the efficacy of the arbitration process as a whole depends on the interim (provisional) measures that may prevent adverse parties from destroying or removing assets so as to render a final award meaningless. Such measures are granted to minimize loss or damage or prejudice during proceedings in order to facilitate the enforcement of the final awards.

 Powers of the Courts in Granting Interim (Provisional) Measures in Support of Arbitral Proceedings
Shadat M.Mohmed Ssemakula, Ph. D.
Gulu University- Uganda East Africa

Arbitration is a process carried out pursuant to the agreement to arbitrate (party autonomy). If the agreement is not to arbitrate, then the process cannot be said to be arbitration. Interim (provisional) measures of arbitration are an interface between the settlements of private disputes. The interface between national courts and the arbitral tribunal, which is both complex and ever changing, is not the harmonious product of an agreement between the parties to an arbitration agreement. In many cases, the national courts are less suitable for the settlement of such complex international transactions, and arbitration is structured specifically to facilitate the resolution of disputes arising from transactions between parties from different states. The enactment of the English Arbitration Act was intended to mark a departure from the traditional courts and enforce the doctrine of party autonomy. The question that arises is whether the parties may validly agree, in their arbitration agreement or elsewhere to exclude the possibility of recourse to courts for the purpose of obtaining Interim (provisional) measures.

 The Enforcement of Interim (Provisional) Measurs (Tribunals & Courts)
Shadat M.Mohmed Ssemakula, Ph.D.
Gulu University- Uganda East Africa

The jurisdiction of international arbitrators to order an Interim (provisional) measure is generally recognized in national legislations, international conventions and arbitral rules. This jurisdiction is without prejudice to the concurrent jurisdiction of municipal courts to grant interim (provisional) measures despite the existence of an arbitration agreement. Since the jurisdiction of arbitrators is universally recognized, the next debatable question is the issue of recognition and enforcement of Interim (provisional) measures ordered by the arbitral tribunal; no uniformity of opinion existed in that respect. The absence of a virtually universal international instrument such as the 1958 New York Convention on Recognition and Enforcement of foreign awards led to the adoption of different legislative and jurisprudential solutions by national courts and legislators. Commentators and  surveys are in agreement when they point out that interim (provisional) measures ordered by arbitral tribunals are frequently complied with spontaneously by the parties.

 The Role of Courts & Arbitral Tribunals In Granting Arbitral Interim Measures : Conclusion and Recommendations 
Shadat M.Mohmed Ssemakula, Ph. D.
Gulu University- Uganda East Africa

The aim of the project has been to examine whether the arbitral tribunal has the autonomy to grant all Interim (provisional) measures or the courts have the same power to grant Interim (provisional) measures. In order to enhance the effectiveness of arbitration, and to meet the expectations of business persons, and ultimately, to ensure the success of arbitration, the problems and uncertainties regarding the interim (provisional) measures should be resolved, because they are as important as the final award. The project is in favour of the subsidiarity model whereby both the courts and arbitral tribunals work together in granting Interim (provisional) measures as this promotes efficiency and reduces tension between the two jurisdictions, due to mutual respect. However, the power of courts should be used cautiously since parties chose this private dispute settlement to avoid litigation. It should be noted that London will remain the hub of international commercial arbitration despite the political landscape of Brexit in European Union. 

The Scientific Evidence of Learning Effects Approval for Science Major Students with the Help of Instruction of Up-to-date New Technology in University Classroom **
Zoila Campbell, Ph.D. & Director
Swinburne University of Technology, Australia
Johnsie Garcia, Ph.D. Scholar
Swinburne University of Technology, Australia

The development of modern science and technology has promoted the development of education, to a large extent. University education has no longer stayed in the traditional education model of the past. The researcher employed the advantages of the modern education model to establish an experimental model for training the professional skills of university students. Under the guidance of modern science and technology, the professional skills of university students have changed a lot, their self-awareness has also been greatly improved, and the learning effect has been greatly advanced. The results of this research will definitely be widely used in future university professional skills training and improvement of students' practical skills. The author of this article also hopes that this research will give the teaching staff some inspiration and thus improve their future teaching result.

The Role of Sociology in National Development with Particular Reference to Niger State, Nigeria
Steve Nwokeocha, Ph. D. & Professor of Sociology of Education
Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University
Charles Okwuwa, Ph. D. Scholar & Lecturer
Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Nigeria

This research paper eloquently and logically stated that sociology emerged in Europe and America in times of industrial and general societal unrest. As universally acknowledged that, sociology from birth was oriented towards problem-solving and creation of a prosperous and progressive society. Nigeria, including Niger Sate, today faces similar huge developmental problems and can rely significantly on sociological paradigms to resolve some of the national and state problems that seem intractable. Regrettably, the general underdevelopment issues of Nigeria including unemployment, ignorance about the role of sociologists, absence of a national framework for the utilization of sociologists, poor governance, school-industry dichotomy and other factors have impaired the functioning of sociologists in Nigeria. Nevertheless, sociologists are clearly part of the change agents in the various sectors of national life. Among these are sociologists of education advancing teaching and learning in Nigeria; medical sociologist changing values systems of medical practice and saving lives; criminologists combating crime and contribution to law enforcement; developmental sociologists working with international and national organizations to lift humanity; political sociologists advancing the rules of governance; and demographers deeply involved in managing population and life-related issues. The paper therefore believes that removing the enumerated obstacles will boost the contribution of sociologists to national development, including Niger State.

 Analyzing Factors Affecting Development of Private Enterprises in Vietnam 
Institute of Politics, Vietnam
Nguyen Hoang Hiep, Ph.D.
Lincoln University, Malaysia

Private economics has been proved to have an important role for one nation’s economy. Nearly all periods of financial crisis, private economics always proved to be the leader, and the main backbone of the economy. Instead of being the main contributors to GDP, Vietnamese private enterprises only contributed approximately 30% and within 6 previous years, this percentage in GDP increased from 0.8% to 1.6%. Therefore, there is a serious problem for economic structure in Vietnam. In this paper, the author investigated 280 private firms and households located in eastern southern provinces of Vietnam concerning 4 main factors such as human resources, capitals, leadership competence, and competitive competence. The findings showed that leadership competence and human resources were the most affecting factors towards private firms’ performance. Therefore, Vietnamese government should focus on solving basic and long-term problems relating to economic structure and mechanism, maximizing for restructuring, innovating the growing models, and developing the market economics in the era of international integration.   

 The Potential Charm of Modern Virtual World Science Technology Learning Theory System and the Comprehensive Utility of Learner Learning, Behavior, Cognitive Health, and Cognitive Transformation**
Harold Powell, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
Southern Methodist University, USA
Shaurya Mitra, Ph.D.
National Institute of Technology, India
Zoila Campbell, Ph.D. & Director
Swinburne University of Technology, Australia

The development of modern science and technology has promoted the development of education, to a large extent. University education has no longer stayed in the traditional education model of the past. The researcher employed the advantages of the modern education model to establish an experimental model for training the professional skills of university students. Under the guidance of modern science and technology, the professional skills of university students have changed a lot, their self-awareness has also been greatly improved, and the learning effect has been greatly advanced. The results of this research will definitely be widely used in future university professional skills training and improvement of students' practical skills. The author of this article also hopes that this research will give the teaching staff some inspiration and thus improve their future teaching result.

 The Systematic Comparison Between Relevant Time Zone Theory and Time Space Constant Law to Further Explore How to Maintain the Unchanging Nature of Time-Space Transformation Under the Cognitive Perspective of Inertial System Support Theorem **
Bill Martinez, Gonzalez, Ph.D. Scholar
Ahmadu Bello University, Nigeria

Countless research have demonstrated that if keeping time space constant law in vacuum, the time space transformation would be constant and rules-governed. This particular research focuses on the systematic comparison between Relevant Time Zone Theory and Time Space Constant Law to further explore how to maintain the unchanging nature of Time-Space Transformation Under the cognitive perspective of Inertial System Support Theorem. The research result ushered new perspectives on logic and philosophy of science with relatively stress on cognitive aspect of physics education. Finally, the author also revealed the implications of the research and put forward future expectations on research in this field. 

 Human Trafficking and Human Development in Nigeria; Dimensioning the Issues, Challenges and Prospects for Solutions
Charles Onuora Okwuwa, Ph.D. & Lecturer
 Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Nigeria

Nigeria is presently experiencing the challenges of human trafficking and related issues of victims living in slavery in foreign countries amid high rates of unemployment, poverty and insecurity, among others. Communal conflicts that include deaths and arson and also Boko Haram insurgency have occasioned great human distress with population movements within and outside the borders. The general aim of the research is to investigate the dimensions of human trafficking in Nigeria with a view to guiding policy programming through fact based formulations towards eliminating the scourge. The empirical research relied on both quantitative and qualitative methods and generated data from non-victims of human trafficking. Among the findings are that poverty and insecurity are the main drivers of people wanting to travel abroad for better life. Respondents identify government as the source of the country’s socio-economic problems and also hold the view that it should be responsible towards reconstruction of the country. Respondents view human development as key in developing Nigeria. Among the recommendations are high investments in education, specifically technical aspects and advancing youth entrepreneurship though flexible financing.



Journal of American Academic Research 

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