Volume 6, Issue 1, March 2018

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The Implementation of a Learning Management System in a Business Education High School Classroom, a Teacher’s Perspective
Timothy Thornton, Ed.D. & Assistant Professor
Career and Technical Education, Athens State University, USA 
Mallory West, Master’s of Science in Business Education
Emporia State University, Business Education Teacher Olathe Northwest High School, USA

The study examined the implementation and use of an LMS in a high school business education classroom. The purpose of the study was to obtain a greater understanding of the implementation process, discover any pedagogical benefits, and identify the strengths and limitations associated with the use of an LMS in a business education classroom. The LMS served as a classroom hub, allowing the teacher to organize class materials and grades, post content, and assignments, and upload any pertinent class materials. The results of the study indicated that the LMS was beneficial and became a valuable asset for the teacher. LMS allowed the teacher to easily communicate with her students, collect data on student comprehension, organize and efficiently structure her courses, reduce time on mundane tasks, and analyze her teaching methods.
A Critique of the Doctrine of Good Faith in Canada
Alex Fomcenco, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor,
Aalborg University, Denmark
Dave Deonarain, LL.M., LL.B.
Ontario Ministry of the Attorney General, Canada

The law of contracts serves to facilitate both freedom and individualism to contract while simultaneously protecting contracting parties from malfeasance and misfeasance.  Above all, the courts–when dealing with contractual issues– strive to ensure contractual efficacy. In order to balance contractual freedom and efficacy with fairness, courts can imply terms that the parties did not contemplate.  In other words, by utilizing many of the available piecemeal solutions, courts have worked to effectively prevent parties from eviscerating contractual arrangements while protecting parties from unreasonable levels of exploitation.  Generally, courts will utilize mechanisms within their arsenal to prevent contracting parties from acting in bad faith. In the landmark case of Bhasin v. Hrynew, the Supreme Court of Canada (SCC) has found that it operated in a manner analogous to an equitable doctrine. This article will analyze the potential effects of the doctrine both as an organizing principle and as an affirmative duty of honesty.  
A Study on Promoting Student-Centered Language Teaching in U-Learning Environment
Lu Guo
Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, China
Xiaojuan Su, Lecturer
Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, China
With the advent of the information age, the new media technology is gradually applied to the process of college English teaching. The concept of “student-centered”, as an effective teaching mode, draws more and more attention from the educational field. Based on the questionnaire about micro-lectures conducted by the Foreign Language Lecturer Team of Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, this study probes into the application of “student-centered” teaching mode in ubiquitous learning environment.
Racial Segregation and Its Impact in Guatemala’s Economic Development
Mario Estuardo Monroy Lima, Ph.D Scholar
Chonbuk National University, South Korea

This paper looks at the racial segregation that has affected Guatemala’s economic development by analyzing previous literature related to its social and economic background and finally performing an empirical analysis to evaluate the correlation between variables that measure low human capital formation due to racism and the dependent variable which measures aggregate economic development. These variables represent statistics from each of the 22 regions of Guatemala. Guatemala’s censuses and home surveys were used to better capture its current situation and to perform the statistical analysis. The results reaffirm that low human capital formation and social exclusion as a result of racism affects a country’s economic development.

Potential Export´s Economic Impact of a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) Between Guatemala and South Korea
Francisco Javier Herrera Del Cid, Ph.D. Scholar
Chonbuk National University, South Korea
Ji Young Jeong, Ph.D. & Professor
Chonbuk National University, South Korea

This research paper will provide an assessment of the potential economic impacts of Guatemala-Korea FTA (Free Trade Agreement) on Guatemala. The FTA between these two countries will be beneficial for both parties due to the fact that the agreement will lead to great opportunities in exports and a grand expansion for both markets. One of the key points is that the Republic of South Korea will not just be signing it with the Republic of Guatemala alone, but with the CENAM (Central America) region, this will make South Korea the first Asian country in doing so it will grant Korea greater benefits, for further commercial relations to other regions of the continent. The bilateral analysis between these countries seeks to solve the unknown about how big the potential export benefit for both countries is. To verify this unknown, I’ll be applying an empirical model, which will evaluate the areas of opportunity of each of the products to be exported, this seek to elevate them to a commercial level with a stable legal framework through clear and transparent rules that allow the promotion of investment and increase trade flows between the two nations.

The Semantic Web, Curry-Howard Isomorphism, and Efficient Reasoners
Koos van der Wilt, Researcher  

This article will discuss the Curry-Howard Isomorphism, which was aimed to characterize the connection between mathematics and programming.While writing a computer program is intuitively connected to logic and logical thought, there was, in early days of computing with no formal way to represent this intuition. This article seeks to explain how intuition was put on a more solid mathematical footing, and speculate about the use of doing so. The Curry-Howard Isomorphism (CHI) will not be of immediate help to ontology builders, but it might come in handy later on at some point. The example of the CHI that will be presented is a membership proof of a string in a context-fee grammar. Next, this research will give a brief overview of constructive description logic(s) for reasoners, and explain how constructive proofs imply adherence to the Curry-Howard Isomorphism. Adherence to the CHI implied a programming proof exists for the reasoner's conclusion. Then the research will show that every reasoner's constructive description logic can be represented as context-free grammars. The unique aspect of this research is that this demonstration has not been done before.

The Role of Psychological Guidance and Counseling in Achieving Intellectual Security in the Light of the Repercussions of the Phenomenon of Terrorism and Extremism from the Point of View of the Educational Counselors in the Capital Amman
Firas Yaseen Mahmoud Alqadan, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
University of Hail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Lina Mahmoud Arabi Ashour, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
Philadelphia University, Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

The study aimed at identifying the role of Psychological guidance and counseling in achieving intellectual security in the light of the repercussions of the phenomenon of terrorism and extremism from the point of view of the Educational counselors in the capital Amman. It also aimed to detect the statistical significance differences at the level of significance (α = 0.05) between the responses of the sample members due to the following variables: (gender, academic qualification, years of service). The total population of the study consists of all (481) of male and female counselors in the capital Amman; 192 males and 289 females. The study sample consisted of (154) male and female counselors, representing about 32% of the original population of the study. In their study, the researchers followed the analytical descriptive approach, where they monitored the role of psychological and social counseling in achieving intellectual security in the light of the repercussions of the phenomenon of terrorism and extremism. The study reached a set of results that the statistical average of the responses of the sample members (male and female counselors) on the scale of the role of psycho-social counseling in achieving intellectual security in the light of the repercussions of the phenomenon of terrorism and extremism was (3.89) which is in a high level. The arithmetic mean of the items of the scale ranged from 3.65 to 4.18, between the lowest and the highest mean. Respondents' responses were within a percentage ranging from 84% to 68%. The results of the study also showed that there are no apparent differences of statistical significance at the level of (α = 0.05) between respondents' responses on the role of psycho-social counseling in achieving intellectual security in light of the repercussions of terrorism and extremism, due to the following variables: (gender, academic qualification, years of service).

The Reality of the Arab Media in Dealing with the Possible Scenarios of the Syrian Revolution--Field Study from the Point of View of Experts in the Arab Media

Bashar Jedouri, Ph.D. & Associate Professor
Institute for Middle East Studies, Canada

The study aimed to identify the reality of the Arab media in dealing with the possible scenarios of the Syrian revolution from the point of view of experts in the Arab media. This will be done within the framework of diagnosis and understanding of the context of the current situation of the Assad regime's war on its people as well as in the context of the current societal conditions which Syria is going through. The Research Goals were to recognize the reality of the Arab media in dealing with the Syrian revolution in every possible scenario, identifying the patterns of consumption of Arab media in light of the Syrian revolution and enlightening the Arab and Syrian public opinion on the nature and reality of dealing with the course of the Syrian revolution.   The study sample consisted of a group of experts in the Arab media Their number 110. A questionnaire was used to identify the way of dealing with the Arab media in covering the Syrian revolution.. The analytical descriptive approach was used and a set of results were reached: The scenario of remaining in the current situation of the Syrian revolution as it is, came in first place with a degree of preference among experts and an arithmetic mean of 3.33. This was followed by the scenario of the complete fall of the regime and a victory of the will of the Syrian people in achieving freedom and human dignity, with an arithmetic mean of the experts' preferences (2.95) and finally, the scenario of the fundamental transition to assume a new authority in Syria instead of the current regime, with a mean of 2.61. The researcher attributed this result to the importance of the current stage in Syria including military field events, political events, and humanitarian events. So, media will be triggered by these events and is concerned with the transfer of the bloody events taking place inside Syria, as this stage is of great importance in determining the fate of many lives of the Syrian people as a result of the tyranny of the Syrian regime and covering its crimes by the international community, especially Russia and Iran.

The Social Ecological Model Applied to Reduce HIV Stigma Among Burmese Migrants in Chiang Mai, Thailand
Alexander Woodman, Ph.D. Scholar & Assistant Professor
University of Southern California, Davis School of Gerontology, USA  
Aaron Hagedorn, Ph.D.
University of Southern California, Davis School of Gerontology, USA 
Nizar Jaoua, Ph.D.
University of Lille – Science & Technology, Department of Mathematics, France 
Wadchara Pumpradit, M.D.
Bumrungrad Hospital, Department of Infectious Diseases, Thailand



This study reports the results of a survey of 30 HIV positive Burmese living in Chiang Mai and finds most respondents do not feel their HIV status had any effect on feeling intimidated, losing their job, nor on promotions, but they do when it comes to education for their kids and family planning services.. The community based participatory model and the social ecological model are adapted to improve care coordination at the Saraphi Clinic where they incorporate the efforts of 300 trained volunteers who provide weekly home visits that provide basic case management services, nutrition advice, basic counseling, health education materials, counseling, and continuous health monitoring. This paper suggests a model of how HIV positive migrants can benefit from the additional assessment data collected by volunteers, the psychological empowerment patients report as a result of their relationship with the volunteers, and the positive effect of the supportive social structure on reducing the stigma often felt by these migrants.

Dynamics of Urban Area Growth Facing Demographic Pressure from 1989 to 2014 in Lubumbashi, DR Congo
BANZA WA BANZA bonaventure, Ph.D. & Associate Professor
University of Lubumbashi, DR Congo 
Kiseya Tshikala Flory, Ph.D. & Professor
University of Lubumbashi, DR Congo 
Diambomba Hyacinthe Tungadio, Ph.D. & Lecturer
University of Pretoria, South Africa

Urban expansion due to rapid development of cities is a major challenge for their sustainable development. This article is initiated in order to assess the dynamics of urban growth in Lubumbashi between 1989 and 2014. Six SPOT satellite images (multispectral) of Lubumbashi urban group were used to detect changes during the studied period (1989, 1996, 2002, 2005, 2008 and 2014).  Demographic data (from the National Institute of Statistics and the mayor of Lubumbashi) were used to understand the dynamics of population growth. The results show that the demographic growth has resulted in a strong urban area growth. In 25 years, the city of Lubumbashi has increased its footprint by 215% (219 sq Km). Referring to earlier studies, this paper shows that not only the city of Lubumbashi sprawls, but it also becomes denser. This dual situation causes two major problems: the distance between new settlements and the city-centre increases the cost of the basic services and (uncontrolled) densification leads in disturbances in the management of these services, especially the power service. Thus, the impact of rapid urban growth on the access to basic services remains a key aspect to take into account in order to develop an effective tool in urban management.

Electricity Access in Lubumbashi, DR Congo: Influence of Household Socioeconomic Factors
BANZA WA BANZA bonaventure, Ph.D. & Associate Professor
University of Lubumbashi, DR Congo 
Kiseya Tshikala Flory, Ph.D. & Professor
University of Lubumbashi, DR Congo 
Philippe Bouillard, Ph.D & full Professor
Université libre de Bruxelles, Belgium
Diambomba Hyacinthe Tungadio, Ph.D. & Assistant-Lecturer
University of Pretoria, South Africa

The objective of this study was to evaluate the level of electricity access in Lubumbashi and to identify factors that explain disparities in electricity access and its quality. To achieve this objective, a socio-economic survey was organized, targeting 5270 households divided into 26 neighborhoods and 7 municipalities. Data from household surveys have been subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to highlight the differences between municipalities with a post-hoc Tukey test.  ANOVA also allowed differentiating the average rate of electricity access, the number of hours and loading shedding days, the monthly cost of electricity, and monthly income of households. A correlation matrix was performed to highlight the degree of influence between the different variables. Results revealed significant disparities between municipalities in terms of access to electricity and its quality. The average electrification rate of the city amounting to 61.6% is characterized by high frequency load shedding. Only the level of instruction and the monthly cost of electricity influenced electricity access; however service quality was based on the monthly income of the household and the distance separating the household from the town center and the closer electric pole.  

Importance of Consumer Behaviour for Marketing Practices
Bandar Khalaf Alharthey, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
Arab East Colleges, KSA

During buying activities, the consumer generally follows a consumer decision making process. This process mainly includes identification of needs, searching of the information, examining the available alternatives, purchasing the product and then the post purchase behaviour. These activities combined together and form the consumer behaviour. Consumer behaviour is the most important aspect of the overall marketing process. To understand the buyer and to convert him into a customer through the understanding is the purpose of this paper. Having a good understanding of customer behaviour is the most important requirement for the business organizations in order to achieve high sales and growth at present as well as the future run. The given paper is also formulated for conducting the research in relation to consumer behaviour. This paper provided the importance of the study of customer behaviour under marketing process.

The Effect of Smart Devices on Learning English Vocabulary and Reading Among English Majors at Al-Hussein Bin Talal University
Mohammad Al-Khattab, Researcher in Applied Linguistics
Ministry of Education, Ma'an Secondary School for Boys, Jordan

Smart devices are not sufficiently used among English majors at Al-Hussein Bin Talal University. So, this paper aims to look at the effects and significance of smart devices on learning English vocabulary and reading among English majors at Al-Hussein Bin Talal University. This qualitative research includes two separate populations. The first population is 21 English instructors and professors while the second population is 110 English literature students ( freshmen, sophomores, juniors and seniors ), aged between 18 and 22 at Al-Hussein Bin Talal University, in the second semester of the academic year 2014 / 2015. The samples of the study were selected randomly. In this study, the researcher utilizes a set of criteria to measure the impact of these smart devices such as the SPSS statistics. He also develops two 5-point scales ( Strongly Agree, Agree, Neutral, Disagree and Strongly Disagree) to measure the attitudes of the instructors, professors and students. The findings of the   study assert the advantages and importance of smart devices in learning English vocabulary and reading skills. The findings also show that instructors, professors and students nearly share the same attitudes toward these devices and the majority of them favor vocabulary and reading learning via smart devices due to the convenience facilitated by the portability and accessibility of these devices.

Characteristics of ESOL Instructor’s Affective Domain Training, Knowledge, Perception, and Uses
Alex Monceaux, ABD & Academic Coordinator/Instructor
Lamar University, USA 
Jahnette Wilson, Ed.D. & Associate Clinical Professor
University of Houston, USA 


Over the last 30 years, a growing body of neuroscience, psychoanalysis, behavioral psychology, cross-cultural psychology, and evolutionary psychology literature demonstrates the importance of a learner’s affective domain (Krashen, 1981, 1982; Lewis & Haviland-Jones, 2004; Nesse, 1997; Norton Peirce, 1995; Oatley, 1992). Goleman’s (1997) research indicates that the affective domain or “emotional” intelligence is a better indicator of success than intellectual ability; Duncan (2009) shows the affective domain is key to both performative (psychomotor) and knowledge (cognitive) growth.  Simonson & Maushak (2001) report a dearth in educational research on the affective domains with less than 5% all instructional research since 1979 exploring attitudinal domains as a major focus of the study.  Additionally, existent studies contain flaws in construct definition, measurement practices and document development, and attitude tracking (Miller, 2005).  The purpose of this pilot study is to describe higher education ESOL instructor’s characteristics related to Bloom’s affective domain. Researchers electronically surveyed ESOL instructors to gather and analyze quantitative data on characteristics related to Bloom’s affective domain. This study revealed stark deficiencies in these instructor’s training and knowledge, and incongruences between ESOL instructor’s training and knowledge and their reflective and evaluative practices. Lastly, this study delineates a variety of additional research areas that could help researchers better understand ESOL Instructor characteristics, as well as areas for immediate training and professional development in the field.

The Effects of Culture Shocks on Employees Performance in International Businesses: An Analysis of Symptoms and Elements
Christian Tabi Amponsah, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
Yorkville University, Canada 
Ajith Kumar, Ph.D., Head of Academics & Assistant Professor
Skyline University College, UAE


The purpose of this study is to determine the impacts of culture shock on employees’ performance in international businesses. The study examines and compares participants situations to the well-known culture shock curve and authenticates the veracity of the theory after several decades of its induction. Drawing on data from 200 participants in a cosmopolitan settlement through a series of interviews, the results show businesses are likely to face challenges if attention is not paid to cultural differences, when they expand to the international arena. The findings also show sociocultural practices including, eating habits, negotiating tactics and techniques, business entertainment, social etiquette, gifts and gift etiquette, effective communication, traditions and observances, manners, body language, need to be aligned carefully to the host country practices. The paper concludes there is no absolute immunity to culture shock and businesses need to be sensitive to cultural differences during the culture shock phase.

Organizational Culture, Leadership, & Innovation
Hanin Kreishan, Ph.D.
Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz, Austria 
Mohammad K. Azzouqa, MBA, EFQM, CIPT, PMP, & CPC


One of the most regular words combined with business is “Organizational Culture or Corporate Culture”. Usually organizations defined with “strong” or “innovative” or even a “toxic” culture. Hence culture is not easy to be changed, because it involves many behavioral aspects. Thus five basic questions need to be addressed: what does that really means? What does it mean to be a member of an organization? Who draw the organizational culture? What marks that out? And to what extent it affects the effectiveness and efficiency “SUCCESS” of an organization? Much has been written on this subject. What makes this paper different is that it looks closely at the interaction of the technological developments in improving the organizational (or corporate) culture and make changes more acceptable within the organization. This paper will highlight on the newest trends of organizational culture drawn from the electronic mind and whether that lead to progress Therefore, this paper attempts to do the following: address the organizational culture, the reciprocal effect of the leadership and the technological innovation, what is the role of the stakeholders, have the changes been effective, and what are the future developments.

Investigating Factors Affecting Clients’ Satisfaction to Enhance Service Quality of the Commercial Banks in Ho Chi Minh City
Vo Van Ban, Ph.D. & Lecturer
Banking University of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam


Economics of Vietnam has been developed fast and significantly in recent years, especially in financial service market. There were severe competitions between local banks and foreign ones. Many Vietnamese commercial banks have had many difficulties with output as there was no loan so that they have had no profit since 80% of revenue because Vietnamese commercial banks have profits from lending loans while it is difficult for banks to reduce operation costs as well as to attract new clients. The author conducted this study to explore factors affecting clients’ satisfaction to suggest suitable strategies for commercial banks in HCMC to attract more clients and create clients’ loyalty. This study was applied the quantitative approach to investigate 300 clients from three commercial banks in HCMC based on five main factors such as Facilities, Reliability, Responsiveness, Assurance, and Ethics. The findings showed that Reliability, Assurance, and Ethics had the most effect to clients’ satisfaction towards Commercial Banks in HCMC. From this study, administrators and managers of Commercial Banks have to pay attention to improve their stable outlook, reliability, and reputation to have clients’ loyalty as well as attract new ones to have transactions with commercial banks.

Prevalence of Major Congenital Anomalies in a Tertiary Care Hospital (Sultan Qaboos University Hospital) in Oman
Muna Al Rawahi, MD & OMSB
Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman
Tamima ALl Dughaishi, BSc, MD & FRCSC & Senior Consultant
Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman 
Deepty Geetha, MBBS
Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman 
Silja Renjit, MBBS, RCOG
Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman 
Hanan Al Mahrooqi, Bachelor of Nursing
Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman 
Alaa Al Balushi, MD
Nihal AlRiyami, MD & FRCSC & Senior Consultant
Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman 
V.Gowri, FRCOG, FRCP &  Senior Consultant
Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman 


Background: Congenital anomalies or birth defects are defined as structural abnormalities diagnosed antenatally, at the time of birth or in the first few years of life. These often result in increased perinatal mortality, if not long-term disability in the diagnosed infant and are a burden to families, society and the healthcare system. In January 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported that birth defects are estimated to affect one in every 33 infants globally and account for approximately 3.2 million birth defect related disabilities every year.

Objective: The main objective was to determine the prevalence and types of major congenital anomalies at SQUH, and also the risk factors and association with chromosomal abnormalities. In addition the potential causative or preventative factors were also assessed.

Methods: This single-center retrospective cross sectional study was conducted in the fetal clinic, at the obstetrics and gynecology department in SQUH. A total of 23408 obstetrical ultrasound examinations were performed for 12765 patient visits from the period of January 2010 to December 2015. All patients with suspected antenatal diagnosis of congenital anomalies were included.

Result: Total number of patients seen at the outpatient clinic including the fetal medicine clinic during the study period was 12765. A total of 216 (1.68%) fetuses were diagnosed with major congenital anomalies, out of which 162 (75%) were isolated cases and 54 (25%) were non-isolated. The antenatal prevalence of congenital anomalies was 16.8 per 1000 pregnancies. The mean maternal age was 30 ± SD years. The mean gestational age at diagnosis was 24± SD wks. Fifty-nine cases (27%) had history of previous fetal anomalies. Genitourinary system anomalies were the most common followed by thoracic anomalies. The consanguinity rate was 41% (89 of 216 cases) out of which 72% (64 of 89) where first cousins.

Conclusion: Congenital anomalies are one of the most important causes of fetal deaths. The present study showed a high incidence of congenital malformations in the advanced maternal age group and among multi-gravida women. The commonest associated risk factor was consanguineous marriage the frequency of which may be reduced by creating awareness regarding the avoidance of consanguineous marriages. The most commonly diagnosed anomalies involved the genitourinary system.



Journal of American Academic Research 

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