Volume 9, Issue 2, June 2021

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Late-Onset of Leuko-Encephalopathy: Van Der Knaap Syndrome *
Published at American Journal of Medical Sciences (AJMS)
Pritam Majumdar, PhD & Chief of Neuromodulation Therapies
Institute of Brain and Spine Hospital, India
Mohamed Nishad P, M.D & Department of Radiology
Institute of Brain and Spine Hospital, India
Bilge Sari , M.D & Department of Emergency Medicine
Sancaktepe Şehit Prof.Dr. İlhan Varank Training and Research Hospital, Turkey


Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy (MCLE), or Van Der knaap Syndrome, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder.  It is mostly characterized by macrocephaly which is either present while birth or develops during infancy. It occurs more commonly in some ethnicities where consanguinity is common.This disease is well demonstrated earlier and it was first described in 1995 with a history of delayed motor milestones in children and MRI findings are also including leukodystrophy and subcortical cysts are the hallmarks of this condition. Here we are presenting a case with this syndrome detected at the age of 65 years, late onset of MLC gene expression which is very rare and in the literature also so far no one has described it on late onset conditions and also we are describing its importance of medical managements in sudden onset outbreak. 

The Five-Pointed Star or the Pentagram of Pythagoras *
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Karim Noura, Researcher
Melbourne Polytechnic University, Australia

In this paper, I will put more lights on the development of the meaning of that “Five-Pointed Start” and also the usage of that star around the word. 
I will also, present few mathematical activities that I have developed and used in my Maths classes during my life as a secondary school Maths teacher.

Creative Leadership and Its Relation to the Improvement of Performance of Healthcare Practitioners in Dhahran al Janoub Hospital
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Enas Aldossari, Researcher
King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia
Ameerah Qattan, Researcher
King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia


The present study aimed to investigate the current state of practicing creative leadership and its relation to improving the performance of health practitioners in Dhahran al Janoub Hospital. The current research population includes all employees of Dhahran al Janoub Hospital. The sample included (100) employees representing the research population. To achieve the research objectives, the study utilized the descriptive-analytical approach and used questionnaires for data collection. The study yielded several results, including the following: (1) the reality of practicing creative leadership in Dhahran al Janoub Hospital came to a (high) degree from the point of view of the sample; (2) that the levels of the performance of health practitioners in Dhahran al Janoub Hospital were rated (high) from the point of view of the sample; and (3) there is a (positive) statistically significant correlation between the creative leadership dimensions and the performance levels of health practitioners in Dhahran al Janoub Hospital, with a correlation coefficient (.808 **). In the light of these results, the study presented some recommendations, including the following: (1) the need for hospital management to implement plans and policies related to developing and improving the job performance of hospital employees; (2) the need for hospital management to follow up on the latest developments in modern management tools and methods; and (3) the need to maintain a high level of creative leadership by providing support and giving incentives to administrative leaders in hospitals who have ideas to develop their hospitals.

Cognitive and Historical Perspectives Intertwined: A Request of Practical Solution to Optimize the Outcome of Second Language Acquisition
Published at American Journal of Applied Linguistics (AJAL)
David Gardner, Ph. D. & Assistant Professor
Utah State University, USA
ERIKA, Ph.D. & Lecturer
University of North Texas, USA

Second language acquisition (SLA) under the guidance of cognitive linguistics has been explored by counterless scholars in recent years. However, it is barely common to use the combined interaction and effect of both cognitive perspective and historical perspective on the second language teaching process. In view of four aspects of Second Language Acquisition (SLA), including listening, speaking, reading, and writing, the researcher set up experimental models to exam the practical effects of cognitive and historical model on foreign language acquisition from an intertwined perspective. In view of the difficulties encountered by second language learners, the author initialized an original research which focus on assisting SLL to improve comprehensive abilities during the process of listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The research result conforms to the research hypothesis and it will contribute to second language teaching and learning practice in non-English speaking countries *

Systematic Review of the Literature, Process and Development of Accountability Control: A Scientific Case Study
Published at American Journal of Higher Education (AJHE)

Kenneth Jensen, Ph.D. & Researcher
University of New Hampshire, USA
Timothy Powell, Ph.D. & Associate Professor
Oklahoma State University, USA

This article reviewed the research field of accountability control under the systematic review of literature, process and development. The research emcompasses the holistic domain of Management Control Systems (MCS), systematic literature, and accountability control. The article includes the definition of management control systems (MCS), the frameworks, graphic sketch, and conceptualizations of MCS with the illustration from the author's unique perspective. As we all recognize that accountability control could stay in the center of behavior, determination and final action, MCS could also function as the key element to facilitate accountability control and systematic development of original conceptualization. The author rebuilt and reconstructed the existing model of MCS and thus promoted the research of this scientific case study in a practical sense. The research result is of great value for future researchers focusing on the similar research topic. *

Effects of Insect-control Compounds on the Systematically Increasing in Crop Production Against Desert Locust 
Published at American Academic Journal of Agriculture (AAJA)
Muhammad Aziz, Ph.D. Scholar
Sindh Agriculture University, Pakistan

Desert Locust, according to Schistocerca gregaria (Magora, Lecoqb & Hunter, 2008) is a famous agricultural pest that causes severe damage to crops and leads to economic losses in different agricultural stages. In recent years, agricultural practitioners realized the importance of locust prevention and control to avoid or at least decrease the harmful environmental effects and the damage to organic cop production. As a result, the desert locust control becomes an emergent necessity to improve the overall grain production in the fields. According to Magora, Lecoqb & Hunter (2008), the success deploy of preventive control could possibly be realized in a systematic way by comparing population size, location, fields quality, locust distribution and acid level before and after the strategy was carried out by employing effective control tools and techniques. The research result found that in order to effectively control the severe influence of desert locust, one to two years’ research and preparation should become a routine work by agricultural practitioners. The research result also revealed that the combination of new-chemistry insecticides could be used as an effective measure and also could be an important factor for the integrated pest management of insect.  *

Globalization, New Managerialism, and Global Disturbance: The Changing Academic Climate in the Multiple Dimensions of World’s Higher Education
Published at American Journal of Higher Education (AJHE) 
Natal Wolhuter, Research Scholar
Flensburg University of Applied Sciences, Germany

In view of the trends in global higher education, Altbach, Reisberg, Liz (2019) pointed out that providing higher education to all aspects for a country’s general population means confronting social inequalities completely rooted in history, culture, social and economic structure which may influence each individual to compete in society. By investigating the changing nature of the academic profession in contemporary society, the researcher narrowed down the research scope of this particular article to globalization, new managerialism, and global disturbance: the changing academic climate in the dynamic dimension of world’s higher education. First of all, the researcher globalization, new managerialism, and global disturbance by citing extensive references and self-interpretation. Second, the author reviewed the basic literature in the recent educational field and illustrated how to improve the cognitive recognition of the basic concepts mentioned. By comparing the two distinctive schools of academic assertions, the author skillfully left the research questions for readers to doubt, dispute, reflect, summarize and conclude. It is envisioned by the author that in the future comparative work on trends in higher education, researchers should take particular attention on both the practical aspects and the methodological aspect based on extensive research and deduction.  *

Application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Among Healthcare Workers: A Transformative and Fundamental Technology in the Medical Field
Published at American Journal of Computer Sciences (AJCS)
Takashi Suzuki, Ph.D. & Researcher
Kansai University, Japan

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the similarity of human intelligence that is processed by some systems. In Schönberger (2019), AI was perceived as the most transformative and fundamental technology in the 21st century. Even in the medical field, AI gradually gained momentum and started to lead the trend of gradually changing the infrastructure of medical practices. With the practical nature of Artificial Intelligence (AI) as well as Machine learning, deep learning, and image processing work in the field of medical imaging, AI will totally change our perspective in healthcare work and it will definitely benefit the real life of healthcare. As we can also witness from the current society in the modern era that in every aspect of medical fields, medical practitioners are employing advanced AI technology to take care of patients, make medical decisions for patients and family members.  With the fast development of AI technology in the medical field, healthcare work will embrace a prosperous and fruitful future.  *

Effects of Biochemically Triggered Heat Stress (BTHS) on Crop Plants: A Futuristic Perspective
Published at American Academic Journal of Agriculture (AAJA)
Amal Ali, Ph.D. Scholar
University of Karachi, Pakistan

Extensive Heat Stress (EHS) is defined as an important environmental stress which confines plant growth, development, metabolism, fruition, and productivity on the worldwide scale (Hasanuzzaman & Nahar, 2013). Plant growth development and productivity actually concerns countless biochemical interaction and reactions that are sensitive to temperature. Gradually rising environmental temperature is the key component for environmental control, which is in advance of most perilous abiotic stress. Nanotechnology, viewing the agricultural sectors, have captured intensive research efforts because of their distinctive properties and numerous applications. A field trial was performed to evaluate the effect of HHS levels on growth, yield and quality of crop under heat stress. The plant measurements were made for heat induced changes on osmolytes accumulation, lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress and antioxidative response, seed nutrient and yield attributes at flowering stage. Among all sowing dates, the crop which was sown on March 7, 2018 (First sowing date), statistically performed better than other sowing dates although foliar application of 20 ppm zinc oxide nanoparticles ameliorate mungbean performance under both, no heat and heat induced environments.  *

Constructive Analysis of Ideology and Discourse: A Critical Review of News Coverage and Ratings
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Richard Garcia, Ph. D. & Lecturer
Montana State University, USA


According to TEUN (2007), contrary to most traditional descriptive methods, ideologies are hereby defined within a multidisciplinary framework which unites social, cognitive and discursive sub-components. The current study shaded a critical look at the news reports of the Saudi Arabia. Previous research has focused on media ratings which pays to ideology and public opinion. However, it also has been described how changing in media discourse affects the process. This study analyzed the 20 news reports originated from Saudi Arabia using the method of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). The results show that the differences in the reports using variation patterns which in turn possess the potential of changing and monitoring readers` ideologies and thinking patterns via influencing their opinions and world view on the nature of power relations and interactional activities. The current research tries to contribute to the area of research on media discourse and ideology construction by arguing that discourse variation has not been sufficiently defined and interpreted. An effort will also be made to offer tentative resorts of such dynamic variation.  *

Comprehensive Effects of Biochar Application: A Sustainable and Holistic Method to Achieve the Increase of Crop Production 
Published at American Academic Journal of Agriculture (AAJA)
Joseph Moore, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
University of Exeter, UK

The current research focused on the comprehensive effects of Biochar application and how to achieve sustainable increase in the production of agricultural crop production. From previous research, we can see that maltreatment of inorganic fertilizers has become non -sustainable or increasingly not affordable in many areas of agricultural practice around the world due to loss of soil erosion, soil fertility, and increased fertilizer cost. Furthermore, fertilizers which are chemical in nature also polluting soil, water and air and pose many toxic products in living communities. Since the increasing fertilizer cost and urban sprawl, which quickly decrease the agricultural farm and quality of soilj, an alternative method was required to achieve sustainability in agricultural crop production. Biochar is this kind of alternative and well-recognized method by scientists because of its major role in carbon sequestration, decreasing the emissions of greenhouse gases, waste management, renewable sources of energy and a rich source of nutrients as an amendment in soil. Studies in this research demonstrated that Biochar was a reliable and porous solid charcoal-similar material, with rich carbon obtained from the pyrolysis of various organic material e.g., farm and forest and chicken litter. The current critical review summarizes about biochar production through comparison, application and influence on soil physicochemical properties, as well as interaction with the soil microorganisms, the key role in the soil after amendment with mobilizing bacteria, effects in the reduction in greenhouse gases and metal contamination and its positive and negative impacts on plant growth and yield attribute when biochar was operated in the soil.  *

Effectiveness of Mass Communication in Changing Human Behavior: The Impact and Result of Strategical Analysis of SNSs Application on Social Events
Published at American Journal of Human Resource Management (AJHRM)
Charles Davis, Ph.D. Scholar
Robert Gordon University, UK

This paper aims at finding out the effectiveness of mass communication in changing human behavior and how SNSs Application could possibly strategically change the social events. The researcher started the article by summarizing the current category of SNSs and reviewing the current controversies of SNSs application. Then based on the literature review and data analysis, the researchers posted challenging questions about misconduct of social networking tools in the field of mass communication. One of the unsolved problems remains on how to define mass media and mass communication in the 21st century with rich tech and artificial intelligence. And how to encourage the community to get involved in communications planning, disseminating communication information and achieving the goal of mass communications.  *

Considerations for Home and Community-Based  COVID-19 Pandemic: The Undiscovered Consequences Among Iranian Startups
Published at American Journal of Health Science (AJHS)
Robert Johnson, Ph.D.
University of Richmond, USA


Due to the allocation of health resources and services, it is commonly believed that community-based protection and prevention is very effective to cut off Covid-19 transmission at the beginning stage. Recent years, the COVID-19 abrupt outbreak has become a major concern with substantial effects on markets, and the world economy. The impact of COVID-19 is assessed to be even more than all the previous global pandemic. In this short-term, due to the impacts of this pandemic, startups are more prone to fail or succeed faster than ever before; however, the challenges they face are not yet clearly scrutinized, as the pandemic was faster than scholars. This study therefore investigates the main challenges of Iranian startups by interviewing the co-founders of fifteen well-known startups. The two-step coding was used to analyze findings and these findings were explained in a focus group session to which startup co-founders, policymakers, and scholars were invited. It was concluded, six principal types of challenges are major concern by this pandemic, including, human resources management, support measures financial and marketing, mechanisms, crisis management, and few others. The research will have great impact and influence on alleviating the current emergent situation.  *

Education, Knowledge and Economy in the Triangle of Recent Urban Development: The Case for New Entrepreneurs under Constraints of Neoliberalism and Higher Education Matrix 
Published at American Journal of Higher Education (AJHE)
Rosemary Williams, Ph.D. and Instructor
Mount Saint Vincent University, Canada
Michael Brown, Ph.D.
Mount Saint Vincent University, Canada


Education opportunity is considered to be one of the most valuable factors in the economic development and employee retain rate. This particular research will demonstrate how the co-effect of education, knowledge and economy will influence recent urban development. The domination of neoliberalism and the connected discourses of new public management during the 1990s to 2000s has introduced a fundamental uplift in the way of higher education in universities and other institutions. Each has defined and justified their institutional existence. The old professional culture of intellectual enquiry and examination has been replaced with institutional new performativity, as evidenced by the emergence of an emphasis on measured outputs: on planned development, student performance, quality assurance measures and academic credit and audits. This paper identified the links between neoliberalism and globalization as well as neoliberalism and the knowledge economy. According to it, in a global neoliberal environment, the role of higher education in economic development is governed by governments as having greater importance to the extent that higher education has become the new star ship in the policy fleet for governments around the world. Universities are the basic driver for economic knowledge and as a consequence higher education institutions have been encouraged to develop links with industry. The recognition of the economic importance of higher education for economic viability is necessary to promote greater entrepreneurial skills and develop the new performative measures to enhance output to achieve targets. This paper attempts to document these trends at the level of both political philosophy and economic theory. The author believes that the research result will give the light in the research of education, economy and urban development.  *

Positive and Negative Benefits of Flaxseed as an Organic Food Source During the Period of Sustainable and Strategic Development
Published at American Academic Journal of Agriculture (AAJA)
Süleyman Özberk, Ph. D. and Lecturer
Cukurova University, Turkey

Flaxseed was cultivated in Babylon in around many centuries ago and many people consider it as one of the most powerful plant foods on the planet (Magee, 2020). When Traced back to history, we can also realize that flaxseed can be used to treat diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, stroke and all kinds of cancer. The application of flaxseed was highlighted by scientists and medical workers for many centuries. However, the valuable effects of flaxseed was always underestimated to a large degree, and even people who are working in the specific field can not cognitively associate the benefits of flaxseed with the treatment of certain disease. Thus, the waste of flaxseed was unnoticed when it comes over-consumption and non-effective consumption. This article will enumerate both the positive side and the negative side of flaxseed which will benefits sustainable development as an organic food source. After a systematic comparison and analysis, the conclusion was drawn naturally with statistic analysis and logic induction as scientific collaboration. *

Comparing Obesity in Urban and Rural Area Based on Demographic Factors and How Obesity Negatively Influence People’s Life Quality and Educational Level
Published at American Journal in Health Science (AJHS)
Chukwunonso Ogbeide, Ph.D. Scholar & Lecturer
University of Benin. Nigeria

According to recent research done by Zibima, S. B., Wasini, K. B., & Oniso, J. I. (2020), obesity is dramatically increasing year by year and it was consider one of the most severe life-threatening fatal diseases globally by the end of 2020. The fact is that obesity itself may not be dangerous, but the complications related to obesity can be deadly or fatal in a great extent. Though many researchers have had extensive research in this field, only a few compared the scientific data from unban area with which from the suburban area. The goal of this research is first, to employ scientific data, research, and analysis with the goal of raising public awareness for people who are within the high-risk group and try to rescue them by informing them of the basic knowledge of obesity’s origin, prevention, danger, threatening, and treatment. Second, the realistic purpose for this research is comparing obesity in urban and rural area based on demographic factors and how obesity negatively influence people’s life quality and educational level. A questionnaire was obtained from 200 attendees and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for the scientific analysis of the data. The research results confirmed the doubts and anxiety of the severely negative influence of obesity on educational achievements, human life quality, life expectancy at present and in the future. *

Contemporary Research on Synthesis Methods of Metal-organic Frameworks (MOFs)
Published at American Journal of Chemical Science (AJCS)
Shawna Pochipinski, Ph. D. & Lecturer
University of Abuja, Nigeria
Abdulkadir Bamisaye, Ph. D. & Assistant Professor
Abia State University, Nigeria


Recent years, the research on Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are countless yet no previous research focused on MOF on the basis that they are a class of hybrid network of supramolecular solid materials composed of organized organic linkers and metal cations. This research paper displayed enormously high surface areas with tunable pore size and fitful functionality, and it can be applied to the hosts for a range of guest molecules. After the thorough discovery research, MOFs have experienced widespread exploration for their applications in gas storage, drug delivery and sensing. An ultimate goal of the current research is to better understand the two-sided effects of MOF membranes and the research result showed significant positive proofs. The preliminary conclusion is that MOFs can be regarded as a reusable merging of solid acids and organic polymers in the area of construction and industrial foundation. This article synthesized the functionality of MOFs with unique perspective and the research implications are of great importance in further discovering and advancing the practical development of chemical science. *

Understanding Our Mind Through Guidance: How Philosophy Enables Us to Perceive the World and Master Human Mind
Published at American Journal of Philosophy Quarterly (AJPQ)
Keith Jardine, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
University of Central Missouri, USA
Carlos Knoll, Ph.D. Scholar
University of Central Missouri, USA

The current research is understanding our mind: how philosophy enables us to perceive the world and master human mind. As we all know, designing a study about the thinking pattern to investigate how minds work while thinking is the mind in conversation with itself. The central model stated that the mind is the core mode of self-interrogation in psychotherapy and psychology built on philosophical precepts. Both Socratic dialogue and stoicism are evident in the principles of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT). CBT and especially REBT instruct people to examine and dispute their beliefs and thus to tolerate unpleasant feelings—shades of Epictetus. The connection is bidirectional: The most perplexed evidence showed that people's psychological positions on philosophical questions in the center of the free-will existence are significantly influenced by their individual temperament and personality rather than cognitive ability. Future research will explore related philosophical questions which remain for human beings to further discover. *

Research Review: Practical Research on Applications of MOFs for Gas Storage
Published at American Journal of Chemical Science (AJCS)
Jack Willough, Ph. D. & Director of Research
University of New Orleans, USA
Nancy Evans, Ph. D. & Lecturer
University of New Orleans, USA

Recent years, research on MOF application showed positive tendency in MOF effects on gas storage. However, current researchers conducted a serious investigation and found the previous research had obvious flaws in over-generalization. Several options are available for storing gases effectively, but these mostly require high-pressure tanks and multistage compressors. Such methods are highly expensive for practical uses and there is a need for them to be substituted by simple and less expensive solutions. In an attempt to overcome these issues and to find safer storage methods, several materials, like zeolites or activated porous carbons, have been studied for gas storage. However, MOFs have outperformed most of these traditional materials in terms of gas storage, separation and industrial application. Easy synthetic procedures, high surface area, wide opportunities for functionalization and tunable pore structures make MOFs preferable compared with other porous materials. This article reviews studies of storage applications for important gases like H2, CO2, CH4, CO, NO, hydrocarbons etc. within MOFs, with a brief description of the factors responsible for effective storage. The current researcher hopes that this research result could be reevaluated and reinstated in order to avoid practical losses. *

Collaborative Group Tasks, Problem Solving, and Social Interaction under the Environment of Computer-aided Intelligent Learning Environment
Published at American Journal of Computer Sciences (AJCS)
Robin Bachman, Ph.D. Scholar
Stevens Institute of Technology, USA

Learning through computer-aided inquiry was considered as an important breakthrough in teaching and learning history as it substantially improved the frequency of social interaction, cognitive thinking and learning achievements. According to Dillenbourg, P., Järvelä, S., & Fischer, F. (2009), the collaboration among peers can be “pre-designed” with specific purpose of improving learner ability and learning effectiveness in a specific field of acquisition. In addition, it can facilitate affective, social, emotional and motivational ability with the aid of purposeful scenarios and online interaction. The researcher did the experiment in a remote US university with 100 learners in the control group and 100 learners in the experimental group. The test result surprised all test takers and organizers with non-effects related predictive results. The current research focused on the observation and analysis of collaborative group task, problem solving, and social interaction under the environment of computer-aided and intelligent Learning environment. The research result will be beneficial to scholars all over the world who has a particular interest in discovering how computer-aided learning environment on collaborative group task, problem solving, and learning improvement. *