Volume 8, Issue 2, June 2020

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Rereading Pauline Gender Theology: A Challenge to Patriarchy in Africa
Published at American Journal of Religious Studies (AJRS)
Osbert Uyovwieyovwe Isiorhovoja, Ph.D. & Senior Lecturer
Delta State University Abraka, Nigeria
 
Abstract

The patriarchal traditions in Africa seem to have gained some boost with a first reader of Pauline theology from his epistles; hence some scholars have credited him with the title of misogynist. However, a careful rereading has shown that the great apostle was careful in navigating the template due to social pressure in bringing about the desired changes of egalitarian society. The paper adopts expository and hermeneutical interpretation of the phenomenon within the African context. The silence of women as credited to Paul has been read in isolation in all his epistolary thought thus, such readings require the understanding of the apostle’s cultural milieu for he had many women as co-laborers in the vineyard as well as enunciated the principle of love-patriarchalism for the home and societal well-being. Consequently, Africans should evolve a working understanding as that of Paul; to forsake the tradition of women exclusion in the society. The paper discovers that patriarchal traditions in Africa are rather too rigid to embrace innovative ideas that can transform the society due to her religio-cultural belief system. It concludes by calling for a thorough examination of the belief systems with the aim of achieving gender friendly society void of sexual discrimination and social prejudices as Paul argued in Gal. 3:28-29 and, also introduce gender studies in our institutions of learning to better appreciate the dynamics of gender equality.  

Can Learners Teach Other: Case Study of Peer Instruction in the University Course: Introduction to Linguistics
Published at American Journal of Applied Linguistics (AJAL)
Wang Duqin, Ph.D. & Professor
Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, China
Wang Shanhan, Research Scholar
Capital Normal University, China
Abstract

Peer Instruction has attracted international concern since its emergence. While the vast majority of studies seem to prove its effectiveness in facilitating comprehension, cultivating thinking and promoting development of problem solving, there were studies which showed that Peer Instruction was powerless. To examine the effect of Peer Instruction, and to explore affecting factors, the present study chose a teaching reform project which involved application of Peer Instruction to a university course, "Introduction to Linguistics" in Beijing, China as the case. Compared T-test of students’ performance in concept tests and independent Sample Test of the Experimental Group and Control Group’s performance in course examination failed to show significant improvement of students’ understanding, and on the contrary, some reverse effects were also discovered. Interviews with the students showed that many factors, like students’ language ability, their ways of thinking, modes of presentation and language event itself can all hinder the effects of Peer Instruction. The present study seems to suggest Peer Instruction is not so powerful as previous studies demonstrated. Learners may not be able to teach others in comprehension of abstract concepts.

Students' Spelling Mistakes in English Language: Diagnosis and Handling
Published at American Journal of Applied Linguistics (AJAL)
Dr. Abdelazim Mabrook Abdalbein Mabrook, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
Onaizah Colleges, K.S.A

Abstract

Spelling, an essential part in our daily communication, formulation of words relies most on ones’ capacity of thinking and organizing words, either in writing or pronunciation. Even though, spelling plays an important role on EFL Students' daily writing, EFL students at Onaizah schools still have hindrances and encountered difficulties towards spelling. In this respect, students are unable to spell words correctly and even commit mistakes in spelling. Therefore, this study aimed to diagnose and setup a good handle to treat the students' spelling mistakes.  The study used experimental group and control group as tools in collecting information.  The samples which were intentionally selected consisted of 50 ESL/EFL students.  The study found that the differences in the variables of post-test scored highest marks in favor of the experimental group. Therefore, there are statistically significant differences depending on the variables of the complete the missing letters, write the silent letters, write the plural nouns, and add and copy the suffixes, thus the differences are in favor of experimental group.  There are also a statistically significant differences in the students answers to the variables related to dictation and spelling, thus the differences are in favor of experimental group.  The study recommended the following: 1) Teachers have to adopt spelling and dictation lesson in  intermediate schools, it will be helpful to these ages to avoid misspelling of some words.  2)  The students should be exposed to variety of spelling skills such as; the phonics, inflection spelling rules, reciting the homophones, recognizing the silent letters, the British and American Pronunciation, compound words, consonant digraphs and diphthongs to avoid spelling mistakes. It is also recommended to enhance the spelling awareness, teaching spelling and dictation strategies which benefit the student's spelling.

Investigation of Antibiotics Susceptibility Profile and R-plasmid Among Bacteria Isolated from Blood Cultures of Hospitalized Patients in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria
Published at Journal of American Academic Research in Health Science (JAAR—HS)
Owolabi Shola Lawrence, Lecturer
Gateway (ICT) Polytechnic, Nigeria

 
Azeez Ikimot, Lecturer
Tai Solarin University of Education, Nigeria
Abstract

Despite the effective and efficient efforts, mounted on the challenges of treatment failure ascribed  to antimicrobial resistance, in hospital settings around the globe, the morbidity and mortality rate, associated with antimicrobial resistance, remains a global public health challenge. Hence, this study was carried out to investigate the antibiotics susceptibility profile and R-plasmid, among bacteria, isolated from blood cultures of hospitalized patients, in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. The collected isolates were identified morphologically and biochemically. The inoculum was incubated at 370c for 4-6 hours; the turbidity was adjusted to 0.5 McFarland standards. Different types of antibiotic discs were used. The zone of inhibition was recorded as sensitive or resistant. Plasmid  extraction was done using alkaline lysis method. The molecular weight of the plasmid was determined by gel electrophoresis. Out of 50 isolates, obtained from three different hospitals in Abeokuta, 20 (40%) were E coli, followed by Klebsiella pneumonia 10(20%), Streptococcus pneumonia 10(20%), Staphylococcus aureus 5(10%), Salmonellae typhi 3 (6%) and Enterobacter spp 2(4%) respectively. Highest susceptibility pattern was observed in ciprofloxacin 82% and ofloxacin 82%, cefuroxime 76%, and ceftazidime 64%, respectively. All isolates were resistant to tetracycline 100%, multiple drug resistance was observed with plasmids molecular sizes ranging from 4kb to 8kb. Antimicrobial resistance remains a global public health challenge. There is a need for periodic research to dismay the spread of this threat. Furthermore, education strategy and awareness on the source of antibiotic resistance should be a high priority. Hence, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin remain the most potent antibiotics, in the treatment of enteric bacteria.

Alternatives to Imprisonment in Saudi Arabia 
 
Published at Journal of American Academic Research  (JAAR)
Rasha saad Almalki, Lecturer
Taif University, Saudi Arabia 

 Abstract

This study evaluates the application of alternatives to imprisonment in Saudi Arabia and examines whether the legal system is willing to address the issue of prison alternatives. To achieve this purpose, this work investigates the position of sharia, which is the main source of Saudi legislation, regarding the application of alternatives to imprisonment. Further, the study explores and highlights the reality of the application of alternatives to imprisonment in Saudi courts. In addition, this study analyzes a draft law of alternative sanctions (2010).

The study draws the conclusion that the application of alternatives to imprisonment in Saudi Arabia faces a host of challenges. These include the lack of a legal framework which controls the use of alternatives to imprisonment, the lack of education of the public on the same, and uncertainty with regard to the executive bodies. The study makes recommendations for reform including the enactment of law establishing alternatives to imprisonment and considers the gaps in the 2010 draft and how to avoid them.  It recommends intensifying public awareness and constructing the infrastructure required for alternatives to imprisonment, in the hopes that such recommendations will contribute effectively toward the development of the criminal justice system in Saudi Arabia.

           

Increasing Physical Activity Index Among Dengvaxia Recipients Through Theory-based Goal-setting Curriculum Supplement Integration: A Physical Literacy Intervention
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Samboy D. Franco, Research Scholar
Department of Education, Philippines

 Abstract

Today’s youth do not engage in the recommended amount of physical activity. More so, the fear around the controversial Dengvaxia vaccine limited the physical activities of students. This quasi-experimental research investigated the effectiveness of integrating a theory-based goal-setting curriculum supplement in increasing their physical activity index. Currently, no sufficient foundation study was explored on theory-based goal-setting curriculum supplement integration in the Philippines. Independent sample t-test was used to identify the significant difference of the correlated variables. Findings uncovered an improvement in the physical activity level index results of the respondents which can be interpreted as a result of the effective treatment.

Nationalism in Aaron Copland's Music
 
Published at Journal of American Academic Research  (JAAR)
Heng Wang
Nanjing Normal University, China

He Huang, DMA
Nanjing Normal University, China

 Abstract

In the early 20th century, there were four important genres in western music: Nationalism, Impressionism, Expressionism, and Neoclassicism, which have a great influence on the development of western music. There were also many important composers who have made significant contributions in their own fields. Nationalism was not a new genre in the 20th century. As early as in the middle of the 19th century, nationalism had been developed in many countries. However, there were some differences and new characteristics of nationalism in the 20th century. In this paper, I would like to take Aaron Copland for example, to trace back and get to know how American musicians established their national music.

Social Inclusion: A Poverty Reduction Approach
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
George Umeji, Ph.D. Scholar & Lecturer
Paul University, Nigeria
Eberechukwu Edith Eleanya, Ph.D. Scholar & Lecturer
Paul University, Nigeria
Ndubueze Ezindu Obisike, Ph.D. & Lecturer
Paul University, Nigeria
Camillus N. Okuma, Ph.D & Senior Lecturer
Madonna University, Nigeria
Paul Ikechukwu Unegbu, Lecturer
Federal College of Education(Technical) Umunze, Nigeria
Irene Nkechi Onwuka, Lecturer
Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria

 Abstract

This study, social inclusion: a poverty reduction approach, using descriptive research method, examines the relationship between social exclusion, social inclusion and poverty. It is amongst the findings of this study that social exclusion is not just a major cause of poverty but a key factor in poverty severity. However, social inclusion, as a means to ending poverty in Nigeria, can be achieved through creation of employment opportunities, access to education and skills acquisition as well as minimizing social exclusion.

Non-surgical Root Canal Treatment of Maxillary 1st Molar with Five Canals
Published at Journal of American Academic Research in Health Science (JAAR—HS)
Dr. Lama Mohammad Charouf, Research Scholar
Batterjee Medical College, Saudi Arabia
Dr. Gufaran Ali Syed, Ph.D., Research Scholar & Associate Professor
Batterjee Medical College, Saudi Arabia 

Abstract
Clinicians should always keep in mind that anatomical variations and different number of canals can exist in any tooth, especially in maxillary first molars. Knowledge and tools like magnification and CBCT imaging can lead to correct diagnosis and successful treatment. This article presents a case of successful non-surgical root canal treatment of maxillary first molar with three mesiobuccal canals by an intern at a teaching hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Adsorption of Cr ion from Composite Industrial Wastewater: Proteus Mirabillis as Efficient Bioadsorbent
Published at American Journal of Chemical Sciences (AJCS)
Qaiser Imran, PhD Scholar 
Zhejiang University, China
Tahira Yasmeen, Associate Professor
Government college University Faisalabad,Pakistan
Faisal Islam, Postdoc 
Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China 
Arslan Anjum, Scholar
Arid Agriculture university, Pakistan
Abdul Ghaffar, Postdoc 
Zhejiang University, China
Abstract

This study deals with the isolation, adsorption of chromium ion and characterization of bacteria from industrial effluents. The 300 colonies were screened from initial level on heavy metal amended NA/LB medium. 26 pure colonies were selected in the secondary screening from wastewater. These colonies are preserved on LB media containing K2Cr2O7 salt for further studies. All isolated strains are resistance to the Cr ion but there tolerance level is varied. The bacteria isolated from specific Cr contaminated site like tannery effluent exhibit more resistant i.e. the CrR11, CrR16, CrR21, showed MIC of 70 ppm while the strains CrR19, CrR4 show least MIC. The strain CrR7, CrR21 was most resistance and fast growers then other bacterial strains. The Biosorption potential of the isolated strains was showed that these bacteria possess effective metal sorption efficiency within a short time of treatment process. The highest reduction at 70 ppm by Bacteria proteus mirabillis which known through Characterization was shown by the CrR11 by 91%, CrR16 by 86%, CrR21 by 92%, CrR 7 by 82% in 24 hours at pH of 7 and temp was 30oC. Physicochemical parameters like pH, TDS, TSS, EC and Temperature of effluents measured by standard methods. The pH of waste water samples were in the range of 6.0-7.4 which was within the limits of the NEQS (6-10 pH). Total Dissolved solids (TDS) and Total suspended solids (TSS) in the effluent varied form 490-550 mg/l and 61-73 mg/l and respectively. The values of TDS and TSS were below the NEQS recommendations. The highest value of EC was found in S7 while least is found in S5 sample. The temperature of S3, S4, S7 effluent samples was found above the NEQS (40oC) guidelines for industrial effluents.

An Appraisal of Sabotage in the Nigerian Oil Industry 
Published at American Journal of Law and Practices  (AJLP) 
Gaga Wilson Ekakitie, Ph.D. & Research scholar
Delta State University, Nigeria
Abstract

This paper examines the origin and effect of sabotage in the Nigerian oil industry. It adopts expository method in approaching the theme. Essentially the paper discovers that sabotage is stoutly argued to have been responsible for most of the oil spills in Nigeria. There are lots of covering up by oil companies and government in order to shelve responsibilities, even though, it is very obvious that pipeline vandalization is not a job for illiterate villagers as it requires specialized skills and tools. The paper discovers that the reasons for sabotage ranges from the neglect of the oil producing communities by government and the oil companies to the greed and selfishness of the people. The paper notes with concern the monumental effects of sabotage on government, the oil companies and the host communities, the loss of human lives and the grave consequences on the environment. This paper recommends; that in order to stop and/or mitigate the hardship associated with sabotage in the Nigerian oil industry, the Land Use Acts and other obnoxious legislations be abrogated and for environmental protection to be effective, rights and duties of government, its agencies and citizens must be precisely defined. Lastly, the fine payable by oil giant should be classified and made known in the public domain as boost community claim and mitigation. 

The Defence of Insanity under the Nigerian Criminal Law
Published at American Journal of Law and Practices  (AJLP) 
Gaga Wilson Ekakitie, Ph.D. & Research scholar
Delta State University, Nigeria
Abstract

This paper aimed at critically analysing the defence of insanity under the Nigerian criminal law and a brief comparison with other jurisdictions. The time- honoured and necessarily notion of criminal responsibility comes to question.

Role of Marketing MIX on Customer Satisfaction
Published at American Journal of Marketing Management   (AJMM) 

Tareg Mohamed Elmahei Elbashier, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
Higher Education College, Saudi Arabia
Abstract

This study aims to highlight and analyze the role of the marketing mix product, price, places, promotion on customer satisfaction. In specific, the current paper explores the role of marketing mix and its overall impact on customer’s satisfaction. All Marketing MIX Product, price, place and promotion variables need to be managed by understating psychological traits of customers' buying nature. Marketing managers must have a complete understanding of their target market before blending the marketing mix elements. Marketing mix elements consist of four elements (product, price, place, promotion). Marketers control these elements to satisfy the customers (Kotler and Armstrong). Inductive data collection approach has proved to be a great help to extract gist of past research results. A large proportion of data has been gathered from secondary resources including journals, books and old research papers. The results show that all four aspects of marketing mix are equally important and any imbalance among them can damage overall results. All the 4Ps has significantly influence on customer satisfaction. Price mix is the most influential on customer satisfaction. Customers’ buying intentions are greatly affected by his/her expectations in context of a product quality, price, and product accessibility. The relationship between customer satisfaction and loyalty depends on the elimination of perception gap, service gap, operational gap and behavioral gap that needs to be managed by giving focused attention to these matters. This paper reviews prior literature and proposes to think carefully to use marketing mix strategy to meet customer expectations by eliminating any communication or perception gaps that further extend customer loyalty.

Validity of Performance Appraisals and Whistleblowing: Respectful Workplace Policies and Political Correctness Can Threaten Academic Freedom and Free Speech
Published at Journal of American Academic Research   (JAAR) 
 
Robert C. Sinclair, Ph.D. , President & CEO 
Sinclair & Associates Consulting, Canada

 

Abstract

As is the case in any organization, valid performance appraisals are necessary when making tenure and promotion decisions in academia. Indeed, the more objective and, thus, less potentially biased these data, the more valid will be the performance appraisals. Unfortunately, when someone presents valid opposing a promotion, they are acting as a whistleblower but might not be provided with whistleblower protection. I argue that the current climate of Political Correctness, bullying/harassment, and respectful workplace policies in Academia can be at odds with Academic Freedom and Free Speech (not hate speech nor inciting violence). The Academy, in my opinion, is threatened when the discussion of ideas or collection of data, that might be perceived by some members of the Academy (or the public) as Politically Incorrect, are censored. Furthermore, I argue that it is extremely problematic when the presentation of valid data opposing a particular position can be construed as Politically Incorrect and lead to complaints of bullying/harassment, in a manner akin to responses to whistleblowing in organizations. Indeed, accusations of bullying/harassment might be a symptom of Politically Correct ideologies and a result of threats to Academic Freedom. I discuss these issues and provide an example as a cautionary tale as well as, what I consider to be, the implications for the Academy. 

On Confucius' Ideas of Guan Zhong’s Benevolence——A Study of Taiwan scholars’ Criticism of Confucius Ideas of Guan Zhong
Published at American Journal of Philosophy Quarterly (AJPQ)
Jicheng SUN, M.A., Associate Professor
Shandong University of Technology, China
Nanran YU, MTI Candidate
Shandong University of Technology, China.
Abstract

Taiwan Scholars started their research on Guanzi roughly since 1940s and 1950s, and their research has gained their own features, which has seldom been studied and referred by Mainland scholars due to historical reasons. Many Taiwan scholars focus on discussing Confucius ideas of Guan Zhong and exploring Confucius’ comments on Guan Zhong’ benevolence. This paper presents different arguments among different Taiwan scholars on this issue, with the hope to provide some references for other scholars in their Guanzi studies.

Academic Leadership in Higher Education: A Correlational Study
Published at Journal of American Academic Research  (JAAR) 
ROMMEL MAGLAYA, Ph.D.
Raffles International Institute, Mongolia
Abstract

The study examined the relationship of deans’ leadership characteristics and practices to faculty performance of selected private colleges in the National Capital Region of the Philippines. This study utilized the descriptive method of research that involves adequate and accurate interpretation of the findings. The respondents of this study were 89 deans and 227 faculty members of 68 selected private colleges in the National Capital Region of the Philippines. College faculty members were asked to evaluate their deans' leadership characteristics and practices. Likewise, deans were asked to evaluate the performance of their faculty. The study utilized two (2) expert-validated questionnaires to elicit the responses. Based on the results, the deans’ leadership characteristics and practices greatly impact faculty performance. Thus, deans and educational managers should specifically look into their faculty members’ academic functions and professional traits and devise a program or programs that will further enhance the indicators presented.

Paradigms, Issues and Integration: Critical Analysis and Application on Theory of Compassion Fatigue
Published at Journal of American Academic Research  (JAAR) 
Vicky D. Isonza, Ph.D., 
University of San Carlos, Philippines

Abstract 
The study analyzed the ontological and epistemological delineations of five authors who investigated on the theory of compassion fatigue. Using a heuristic method of investigation, this researcher examined the author(s) attempts to connect the theory of compassion fatigue with the methods they used in their respective studies. The purpose of the delineation is to examine how the methodological tools were used to describe the application of compassion fatigue theory. Guided by the philosophical assumptions of constructivism, the five studies showed how paradigms shaped the meaning of the nature of reality (ontology) from the production of data to interpretation of results. This shaping process exist in paradigms of objectivism, interpretivism, critical theory, and pragmatism. The review of the studies revealed how objectivism held the long-standing issue of paradigmatic dominance despite the existence of internal struggles and disagreements. Each paradigm has an important knowledge to contribute to our understanding of the nature of reality. A proposition is suggested to integrate the paradigms. A qualitative approach to integration is sampled. Through an overarching axiological principle, integration is possible. Well-formulated research criteria from each paradigm will raise the standard of the evaluation where rigor can be possibly implemented in all research paradigms. 

Mathematical Modelling as a Tool for Sustainable Development in Nigeria
 
Published at American Journal in Applied Mathematics (AJAM)

ONWUKA PHILOMINA IFEANYI Ph.D., Associate Professor 
College of Education Agbor, Nigeria 
Menkiti Chika Cordelia .Ph.D. Scholar 
Nwafor Orizu college of education, Nigeria 

Abstract 

Mathematics in its abstract nature is seen as the queen of all sciences. Nigeria being one of a developing nation requires Mathematics that can effectively put science and technology in the forefront of national development. Many of our developmental teaching problems facing Nigeria currently could be solved if it is possible to get a mathematical model that could describe them. By way of definition; a mathematical model is a description of a system using mathematical concepts and language. In this work, a review of mathematical modelling and the role it can play on the path of sustainable development in our current century was done. We highlighted different types of mathematical modelling and classified them. Some of the applications and challenges of mathematical modelling were examined. The results show that mathematical modelling is one of the tools needed to transform the Nigeria economy from a developing to a developed economy. From the review, it is recommended that the Nigerian government should invest more on mathematics education at all levels including primary, secondary and tertiary in order to train more mathematical modellers and provide the enabling environment for teaching and learning of mathematics. Also students should be motivated or encouraged to study mathematics in general and mathematical modelling in particular through grants, loans and scholarships.

***It is No Longer Business as Usual: An Assessment of the Canada Corruption of Public Officials Act
 
Alex Fomcenco, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
Aalborg University, Denmark
Dave Deonarain, LL.M., LL.B.
Ontario Ministry of the Attorney General, Ca
 
Abstract

Using R. v. Karigar, a 2013 ruling of the Ontario Superior Court of Justice as a starting point, this article addresses the question of effectiveness of the Canada Corruption of Public Officials Act and Bill S-14: An Act to Amend the Foreign Public Officials Act. The article points out that through the years Canada has become much more effective in pursuing the goal of prosecuting those that through activities banned by the legislation in question distort free competition not only in Canada but anywhere else in the world as well. The authors remind corporate directors to remain vigilant and abstain from practices prohibited by this legislation, as aside from facing potential imprisonment and significant fines, following breach of the legislation in question, directors must also be aware that they are personally accountable.

Effectiveness of a Training Program in Improving the Level of University Adaptation Among a Sample of Students of Qassim University
 
BAHJAT ABDUL MAJEED MAH'D ABU SULAIMAN, Ph. D. & Assistant Professor
Malida Branch - Deanship of Educational Services
Qassim University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
 
Abstract

The study aimed to uncover the effectiveness of a training program in improving the level of university adaptation among a sample of students of Qassim University. The study sample consisted of (26) students of the preparatory year in Qassim University who have a low level of university adaptation based on their grades on the university adaptation scale. Their scores were considered tribal. In this light, the students were randomly divided into two groups: a control group that did not receive any treatment, and an experimental group that received a training program for seven sessions. Immediately after treatment was completed, direct measurement of the experimental group and the control group was taken. Then, two weeks after the treatment was completed, the delayed measurement (retention) of the experimental group and the control group was also taken. . The results of the study showed statistically significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in the level of university adaptation between the pre-measurement and direct measurement at (a = 0.05) in favor of the experimental group. There were also statistically significant differences in the level of university adaptation between direct measurement and delayed measurement (retention) in favor of the experimental group and direct testing.

Contributing Factors in Determining Balance Between Job Opportunities, Job Employment and Job Satisfaction in European Countries **
Craig Henderson , Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
University of Houston, USA
Abstract

Nowadays, due to the harsh competition in job market, job opportunities declines year by year. Even if people were employed, the benefits for job and the satisfaction in job decrease. How to balance between Job opportunities, job employment and job satisfaction in European countries remains critical changes to be reasonably resolved. This research aims to discover contributing factors in determining balance between job opportunities, job employment and job satisfaction in European countries and the implication was also disclosed at the end of the article. 

The Critical Perspectives in Efficiently Managing and Evaluating Corporate Employee Conducts, Operation Risks and Policy Optimization with the Help of Practical Real-world Examples, Empirical Research Result and Employees' Cooperation **
Vincent Griffin, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor 
Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada
Abstract

In recent years, research on assessing employee behavior, operational risk, and policy optimization has gradually increased. But how to use the practical real-world examples, the experience of research results and the cooperation of employees, as three effective means, effectively manage and evaluate the risk of employee behavior, operation and policy optimization is comparatively rare. This research article combines real-life examples and empirical survey methods to achieve optimal management and evaluation on the corporate employee behavior, operational risk and policy optimization so that the company's employees' work capacity improves, behavior standardized, and product quality promoted.  This research will serve as an inspirational guide for the future development and prosperity of modern enterprises.

Estimation of Crustal Structure Beneath Nile Delta Region from the Spectrum of P Wave** 
Ali Ahmed Gharib, Professor
National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt    
 
Gaber Hassan Hasseip, Professor
National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt   
 
Ahmed Ali Hosnney, Associate Professor
National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt   
 
Gad El Kareem Mohmed, Associate Professor
National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt   
 
Iman Farag Hassan, Associate Professor
National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt  
 
Yaseen Mahmoud Mostfa, Ph.D.
National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt
Abstract

Few studies directly compare Epidural Steroid Injection (ESI) versus Conservative Physical Therapy (CT). This retrospective study aims to compare the efficacy of ESI and CT in motor vehicle accident patients, measured by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The 61 ESI+CT and 109 CT-alone procedures were selected and categorized by cervical or lumbosacral injection region. As hypothesized, VAS reduced significantly for both CT-alone group and ESI+CT group (p< 0.0001). On average, as measured by Cohen’s d, the VAS reduction was over two standard deviations in ESI+CT group but only over one standard deviation in CT-alone. Therefore, while CT is significantly effective in reducing pain, adding ESI may have increased the effect size. The mean change for Lumbosacral ESI+CT (4.242) is higher than that for Lumbosacral CT-alone (3.490) with a marginal p-value of 0.080 but not significantly different for Cervical ESI+CT (3.800) versus Cervical CT-alone (3.479).

Practice Guideline of Patient Treatment under Protection of Scientific Interventions ---A Tentative Assumption of Medical Research**
Ali Flores, Ph.D. & Lecturer
Future University in Egypt, Egypt    
 
Raymond Nelson, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
Adelphi University, USA
Abstract

Recent years of research in patient intervention treatment has made great breakthrough and the study in this field also shifted from theoretical hypothesis to practical treatment process. This specific study will introduce the practical guideline of patient treatment process and result under the protection of scientific intervention to ensure the safety and security of the progress of the practice. With examples, research survey, the author also revealed the possible direction of future medical research and the research findings and implications were also discussed.

The Scientific Evidence of Learning Effects Approval for Science Major Students with the Help of Instruction of Up-to-date New Technology in University Classroom **
Zoila Campbell, Ph.D. & Director
Swinburne University of Technology, Australia
 
Johnsie Garcia, Ph.D. Scholar
Swinburne University of Technology, Australia
Abstract

The development of modern science and technology has promoted the development of education, to a large extent. University education has no longer stayed in the traditional education model of the past. The researcher employed the advantages of the modern education model to establish an experimental model for training the professional skills of university students. Under the guidance of modern science and technology, the professional skills of university students have changed a lot, their self-awareness has also been greatly improved, and the learning effect has been greatly advanced. The results of this research will definitely be widely used in future university professional skills training and improvement of students' practical skills. The author of this article also hopes that this research will give the teaching staff some inspiration and thus improve their future teaching result.

The role of Sociology in National Development with Particular reference to Niger State, Nigeria
Steve Nwokeocha, Ph. D. & Professor of Sociology of Education
Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University
 
 Charles Okwuwa, Ph. D.Scholar & Lecturer
Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Nigeria
Abstract

This research paper eloquently and logically stated that sociology emerged in Europe and America in times of industrial and general societal unrest. As universally acknowledged that, sociology from birth was oriented towards problem-solving and creation of a prosperous and progressive society. Nigeria, including Niger Sate, today faces similar huge developmental problems and can rely significantly on sociological paradigms to resolve some of the national and state problems that seem intractable. Regrettably, the general underdevelopment issues of Nigeria including unemployment, ignorance about the role of sociologists, absence of a national framework for the utilization of sociologists, poor governance, school-industry dichotomy and other factors have impaired the functioning of sociologists in Nigeria. Nevertheless, sociologists are clearly part of the change agents in the various sectors of national life. Among these are sociologists of education advancing teaching and learning in Nigeria; medical sociologist changing values systems of medical practice and saving lives; criminologists combating crime and contribution to law enforcement; developmental sociologists working with international and national organizations to lift humanity; political sociologists advancing the rules of governance; and demographers deeply involved in managing population and life-related issues. The paper therefore believes that removing the enumerated obstacles will boost the contribution of sociologists to national development, including Niger State.

The Price-setting Strategy Under the Theoretical Instruction of Social Exchange Theory and Free Market Principle *
 
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
 
Timothy Whittier, Ph.D. & Associate Professor
University of Washington, USA
Keith Willey, Ph.D. & Associate Professor
University of Connecticut, USA
Abstract

This paper will discuss three major concepts which are essential properties of social exchange theory where the individuals, who have something of value to offer each other, will make financial decisions based on certain outcomes; and they have to decide whether to exchange and in what amounts. This is termed as ‘price setting.’ Social exchange theory proposes that social behavior is the result of an exchange process; while social conflict theory sees social life as an opposition and focuses on the allocation of resources, power, and inequality. The rationale of this exchange is to capitalize on benefits and minimize costs since people weigh the potential benefits and risks of social relationships. A free market is one where voluntary exchange and the laws of supply and demand provide the markets; prices for goods and services are set freely by the forces of supply and demand and are permitted to reach their point of symmetry without intrusion by government policy.

Starting from the Field of Practical Teaching, to Reach the Reasonable Analysis of the Differences, Commonalities Between Eastern and Western Teaching Under Diverse Cultural Backgrounds: The Results and Future Inspiration *
 
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Halley Goodwin, Ph. D. & Assistant Professor
University of Minnesota--Twin Cities, USA
 
Susan Benjamin, Ph. D. & Assistant Professor
University of Minnesota--Twin Cities, USA
Abstract

Education has an ‘acculturating’ role -- it refines, sensitizes & perceives, creating   a national cohesion, a scientific temper and an independence of ‘mind’ and ‘Spirit,’ thus enhancing the goals of socialism, secularism and  democracy as enshrined in each nation’s constitution. This should be the major commonality between Eastern and Western Teaching under diverse cultural backgrounds. From a cultural perspective, no education is neutral. It either domesticates or liberates. The present western type of education in the ‘Third World’ is predominantly domesticating and not people friendly. It is biased towards the western oriented elite and the rich. In the promising post- industrial global scenario, education has added significance; because the production of knowledge has become the most decisive economic activity. ‘New Liberalism’ is projected as the ideology suited to the Third Wave’ has serious implications on the ethical and cultural life of people all over the world. In the existing fragile, social situation of the world, education has to be used as a cultural weapon for the genuine freedom of the people of the entire world. Alternatively, through education we must aim at a ‘paradigm shift’.

The Positive and Negative Effects of Market Competition Pressure on the Development of Tourism and the Future Development of Tourism Industry In USA *
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)

Sandra Gibson, Ph. D. & Associate Professor
Michigan State University, USA
 
Steve Wolford, Ph. D. & Professor
University of Iowa, USA
Abstract

Tourism industry is central for the payback it brings due to its role as a profit-making activity that creates demand and expansion for many more industries. Tourism and hospitality creates job opportunities in diverse sectors like accommodation, food and beverage establishments, transportation services, travel agencies, tour action companies, natural and cultural attractions sites. Some of the most noteworthy tourism trends today and in the near future are ‘Travelling Alone, Eco Travel, Local Experience, Leisure Travel: Robots, Automation, Artificial Intelligence. Recognition Technology.’ Competition is important for any business to thrive because it provides assurance that you're getting customers because of the quality of your products and services, it determines market value.But it has its own disadvantage .Greater competition among seller’s results in a lower product market price.And when competition is restricted, prices are likely to increase and quality is likely to suffer.

The Application of Quantum Physics Theory to Predict the Future Development of Earth and Human Beings: Prospects and Invisible Challenges *
 
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)

Steven Adams, Ph. D. & Assistant Professor
University of Delaware, USA
 
Kelly Holmes, Ph. D. & Associate Professor
Saint Louis University, USA
 
Abstract

The marathon mission to grasp the decisive nature of matter and force has entered a brand new epoch of ambiguity and anticipation unmatched in the past century. Fundamentally, physical science predicts terribly strange things concerning how matter works that are utterly divided with how things appear to figure within the planet. Luckily, theoretical physics thrives on enigma, and it eventually overcame those issues through two intellectual upheavals as profound as any within the history of human thought: the quantum revolution and also Einstein’s theory of relativity. Science and technology alike are watching for the cryptic world of quantum phenomena to be controlled and place to use. Each has performed supremely well, giving civilization new insight into and incomparable command of matter and energy. However they're now not capable to  make a case for what we all know of reality. Physics currently needs a brand new set of classes to explain the contents of the cosmos

The Moral and Ethical Challenges with the Application of Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the Field of Modern Medical Science *
 
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Kelly Higgins, Ph. D. & Professor
Howard University, USA
 
Timothy Speck, Ph. D. & Associate Professor
Temple University, USA
Abstract

This paper aims to explore the moral and ethical challenges in the application of Artificial Intelligence (AI), which is used in prospective health care and medical education. It can be applied to almost any fields in medicine, and its contributions to biomedical research, medical education, and delivery of health care seem limitless. This might appear a threat to doctors that they could be rendered outmoded with this type of technology. Nevertheless, this authoritative technology creates a fresh set of ethical challenges that must be acknowledged and addressed since AI technology has tremendous capability to threaten patient preference, safety, privacy, and confidentiality, limitations between the physician’s and machine’s role in patient care.  Finally, anticipating potential ethical pitfalls, identifying possible solutions, and offering policy recommendations will be of benefit to physicians adopting AI technology in their practice as well as the patients who receive their care.

 

 

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