Volume 6, Issue 2, June 2018

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Does ICT Drive Productivity and Economic Growth in Indonesia?
 
Didied Affandy, Ph.D. Scholar
Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China 
 
Febry Wijayanti, Ph.D. Scholar
Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia 
 
Vidya Purnamasari, MSi
Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia 
Abstract
Remarking on Solow paradox or productivity paradox, previous study argued that the productivity is the fundamental economic measure of a technology’s contribution.  This study aims to analyze an impact of information and communications technology (ICT) on productivity and economic growth in Indonesia. Using a panel analysis, this study examines the ICT contributions from difference inputs (ICT and non ICT resources) to the productivity and economic growth (measured by either regional HDI or GDP). Finding implies that improving ICT would benefitto all sectors in a large extent and contributes to Indonesia’s productivity and economic growth. This outcome is particular importance in the context of infrastructure bottlenecks in Indonesia.
Needs of High-Qualified Human Resources of FDI Enterprises in Industrial Zones in Ho Chi Minh City – Vietnam: An Analysis
 
Vo Van Ban, Ph.D. & Lecturer
Banking University of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Abstract

Science and Technology are being developed fast though machinery and equipment are more modern, they cannot completely replace human skills. Human’s skills are still the main factors in controlling all activities. Therefore, any business or economic organization that wants to survive and develop in a long term has to take the human element to the forefront. The need to have a large workforce of highly skilled and knowledgeable will result in FDI enterprises increasing their training staffs, cooperating with vocational schools to sustain a workforce of high quality and maintain a competitive edge in investment. In this study, the author investigated factors affecting to quality of employees at three big industrial zones in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) from evaluation of 120 managers and supervisors working in 12 FDI enterprises located in HCMC. The findings of the survey presented that Soft-skills and Qualification of employees affecting most to investors’ decision when investing to industrial zones in HCMC as well as in Vietnam. Therefore, FDI enterprises and local ones should revise their human resources strategy annually and set up professional training workshops regularly to keep pace with changes with global tendency as well as improve the quality of their own HR to create a high quality workforce to have sustainable competitive advantage in production and product quality, especially in the industrie 4.0 era.

Prevalence of Obesity and Overweight among University Students in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia

 

Nizar Jaoua, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
University of Lille; Science & Technology,  France
Alexander Woodman, Ph.D. Scholar & Assistant Professor
University of Southern California, USA  

 

Abstract

Behavior-related weight issues, mainly the obesity, have been increasing rapidly over the past two decades in Saudi Arabia, reaching high records. The aim of this primary data analysis was to determine the current prevalence and predict the future trend of such abnormalities among the population of university students in the largest region in the kingdom: the Eastern Province.

The analyses were based on 1,200 surveys collected in 2018 from the main universities in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia: King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, and University of Dammam. The authors developed the surveys in both Arabic and English. The participants, aged 18-24, were randomly selected among fulltime university students from the Eastern Province of the Kingdom. The BMI was calculated and the prevalence was determined using the international classification as prescribed by WHO (WHO, 2004). The Chi-square test was used to examine the significance of the effect of some variables on the BMI. The results show concerning current and future trends of obesity and overweight among university students. The socio-ecological model is recommended to address this health issue in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia.

The Future of Mental Health Nursing Education in Saudi Arabia by the Year 2025: A Delphi Study
Abdulrahman Mohammed Al-Bakiri, RN & Msc
Nursing, King Salman Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Muneeb Mohammed Alzghool, RN, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
Community and Mental Health Nursing Department, College of Nursing, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia
Abstract

The purpose of this study was to explore the future directions of mental health nursing education in Saudi Arabia by obtaining expert consensus, and to recommend a future agenda for policy makers and researchers in the field of mental health nursing. A Delphi method was used. This approach has laid groundwork for educators, in further understanding perspectives of expertise about the future directions of mental health nursing education in Saudi Arabia. The data was collected over three rounds. For the first round, the researchers used an open-ended question questionnaire. Following the content analysis of the open-ended question (510) responses were elicited. A 25-items questionnaire was created based on five major categories. The questionnaire was utilized on the second and third round of the study. The initial study sample included 87 males and 63 females, Saudi and Non Saudi, staff nurses, nurse managers, lecturers, assistant professors, associate professors, and professors. During the second and third rounds only N=140 and N=120 of the experts agreed to continue in participating respectively.

The results of the study showed that ten items has achieved 80% and fifteen items reached an agreement level by the experts panel ranging between 60% to 79%, which suggests that the future directions of mental health nursing education in Saudi Arabia is not only limited to those items that achieved consensus by 80% or more, and that policymakers and nurse researchers should consider both thoroughly.

Beyond the Anthropological Understanding of Technology-based Pedagogy
Benson Kamary, Ph.D. & Faculty
Wilbur Wright College, City Colleges of Chicago, USA
Abstract

The emphasis for technology-based pedagogy or the use of educational technology in classrooms has increased in recent years. Indeed, instructional technology integration as a contextual part of curriculum design is continually appealing to the broader teaching and learning spectrum especially from anthropological perspective. This appeal is largely stimulated by the advances in digital devices, the convenience of online resources, the handiness of learning management systems (LMS) and the tech-savvy nature of a 21st Century student population. This paper explores the scope of educational technology, the concept of integrating technology into teaching and learning, emerging issues in educational technology and how teachers are to holistically understand, respond and engage in technology-based pedagogy beyond an anthropological point of view.  

Domestic Obstacles to Foreign Policy Success in Transitional Democracies
Joseph Ndungu,Ph.D. & Senior Lecturer
Kenya School of Government, Kenya 
Abstract

It is a conventional notion that foreign policy decision making is a never-ending back and forth between a need for permanence and a need for change. Domestic actors particularly the elite and their role in foreign policy decision making cannot be disregarded. Worldwide, foreign policy is fashioned by the domestic needs of a country and the protuberance of the states’ internal politics. International relations and foreign policy scholars have by and large agreed that domestic factors impact on states capacity to react to external environments and may at times act as a positive and negative constraint to foreign policy decision making.  These constraints and challenges make the foreign policy process complicated and sometimes erratic. Unfortunately, from studies of foreign policy, we know that developing states particularly transitioning democracies are more fraught with negative domestic constraints in comparison to developed states. Elite fragmentation, social cohesion and fragmentation issues and regime vulnerability amongst other constraints cripple and hinder state mobilization capacities and the effective use of state resources against external threats when need to marshal all capabilities is required. This article highlights one such occurrence in Kenya and the need to address specific challenges to foreign policy implementation, particularly for transitioning nation states.

Tabu Hyper Heuristic Algorithm for the Static Minimum Order Frequency Assignment Problem
Khaled Alrajhi, Ph. D. & Assistant Professor
King Khalid Military Academy, Saudi Arabia
Abstract

This study proposes a tabu hyper heuristic algorithm to solve the static minimum order frequency assignment problem. This problem involves assigning frequencies to a set of requests while minimizing the number of used frequencies and the interference. This algorithm can be thought of as an algorithm that combines multiple heuristics to solve hard combinatorial optimization problems. Such heuristics are called low level heuristics and are managed by the algorithm. Several novel and existing techniques are used to improve the efficiency of this algorithm. This includes a novel technique that aims to apply a violation phase to minimize the number of used frequencies using a lower bound on the number of frequencies required from each domain for a feasible solution to exist. Moreover, different mechanisms for selecting the low level heuristics are investigated while each of them is associated with an independent tabu list to avoid cycling. Our algorithm showed competitive performance compared with other algorithms in the literature using real and randomly generated benchmark datasets of the static problem.

It is No Longer Business as Usual: An Assessment of the Canada Corruption of Public Officials Act
Alex Fomcenco, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
Aalborg University, Denmark
Dave Deonarain, LL.M., LL.B.
Ontario Ministry of the Attorney General, Canada
Abstract

Using R. v. Karigar, a 2013 ruling of the Ontario Superior Court of Justice as a starting point, this article addresses the question of effectiveness of the Canada Corruption of Public Officials Act and Bill S-14: An Act to Amend the Foreign Public Officials Act. The article points out that through the years Canada has become much more effective in pursuing the goal of prosecuting those that through activities banned by the legislation in question distort free competition not only in Canada but anywhere else in the world as well. The authors remind corporate directors to remain vigilant and abstain from practices prohibited by this legislation, as aside from facing potential imprisonment and significant fines, following breach of the legislation in question, directors must also be aware that they are personally accountable.

Effective Behavior of Health Work in KanDal District, Cambodia 
Sarna Khun, PhD Scholar 
Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China
Abstract

A decade after health sector reform, public health services in rural Cambodia remain underutilized for multiple reasons related to financial, structural and personnel factors. Ineffectiveness of rural public health services has led to a significant increase in private providers, often the same people who staff public facilities. Public health clinics are often portrayed as low quality, with long waiting times and unexpected costs; in contrast, private clinics are seen to provide more convenient health care. Several strategies, including contract management and health equity funds, have been introduced to improve public sector performance and encourage utilization; these efforts are ongoing. However, the feasibility of these strategies remains in question, particularly in terms of cost-effectiveness and sustainability. 

Aggregate Intercity Travel Demand for Short-distance and Long-distance Journeys in Nigeria
Ejem A. Ejem, Ph.D. & Senior Lecturer
Federal University of Technology, Nigeria
 
Declan N. Dike, Ph.D. & Senior Lecturer
Federal University of Technology, Nigeria
 
Callitus C. Ibe, Ph.D. & Professor
Federal University of Technology, Nigeria
Onyinyechi Erumaka, MSc. Scholar
Federal University of Technology, Nigeria
Oluchi E. Chukwu, MSc. & Lecturer
Federal University of Technology, Nigeria
Abstract

Studying intercity transport is becoming increasingly more important as passenger travel demand continues to increase. Effective analysis of intercity travel demand for long and short distance journeys could have impacts on the economic growth of major and minor urban centers as well as the infrastructure supporting travel between these urban centers. This paper uses a robust econometric method which has been little applied in the sphere of land transport in Nigeria. This research explores an inter-city public travel demand model for 19 directional O-D city-pair network originating from Owerri Urban. Using revealed preference data from the period of 2014 to 2016 which was filtered into 207 observations operated by the 16 transport companies in Owerri, Imo State. There are significant differences between the factors associated with short-distance and the factors associated with long-distance urban travel behavior. The result for the test implies that there are significant differences between the factors associated with short-distance and the factors associated with long-distance inter-city travel behavior. This finding indicates that, contrary to the assumptions implicit in the literature, short-distance and long-distance inter-city travel behaviors are distinctly different choices.

Effect of IFRS Adoption on the Quality of Financial Statements of Listed Manufacturing Firms in Nigeria 
 
Gideon Tayo Akinleye, Associate Professor & Lecturer
Ekiti State University, Nigeria 
 
Babajide Olumuyiwa Owoniya, MSc. Scholar
Ekiti State University, Nigeria
Abstract

This study examined the effect of IFRS adoption on the quality of financial statements of selected quoted manufacturing firms in Nigeria. Secondary data used were gathered from financial statements of  manufacturing firms under consideration and were analysed using panel data regression technique. Result revealed improvement of the quality of financial statement of manufacturing firms in terms of fundamental and enhancing qualitative characteristics as a result of IFRS adoption. Result also revealed that IFRS adoption affected understandability characteristic of the financial statements of manufacturing firms in Nigeria by 17 percent. The adjusted R-squared of 0.91 showed that 91 percent of variation or improvement in the quality of financial statements of manufacturing firms in Nigeria was explained by fundamental and enhancing characteristics of IFRS adoption. F-statistic value of 173.93 ˃ F 0.05 (6, 93) = 2.17 and probability of  F- statistics 0.000 ˂ 0.05 showed that the fitted model was valid, reliable, appropriate and acceptable for determining the effect of IFRS adoption on quality of financial statements of manufacturing firms in Nigeria. The quality of financial reporting of manufacturing firms in Nigeria on individual basis declined after the first year of the adoption of IFRS which may be as a result of the insignificance of understandability and timeliness characteristics. Thus, the study concluded that there was a need to improve on the simplicity of IFRS adoption in enhancing better understanding of financial statements of manufacturing firms.The study emphasized the need for competent Accountants and Auditors to safeguard the suitable adoption of IFRS in Nigeria.Hence, the study recommended that regulatory authorities should adopt adequate measures to ensure strict compliance to IFRS by those saddled with the responsibility of preparing quality financial statement reports.

Impact of Working Capital Management on Profitability of Manufacturing Firms in Nigeria
 
Gideon Tayo Akinleye, Associate Professor & Lecturer
Ekiti State University, Nigeria 
 
Omolade Theresa Bamisaye, MSc. Scholar
Ekiti State University, Nigeria 
Abstract

This study investigated the impact of working capital management on profitability of manufacturing firms in Nigeria. Specifically the study analyzed the impact of net working capital and current ratio on profit after tax of selected manufacturing firms. The study covered a period of 10 years spanning from 2007 to 2016, with focus on ten (10) manufacturing firms purposively selected across industries such as consumer goods (beverages) industry, bottling industry and construction industry. Firms sampled in the study include Guinness Nigeria Plc, PZ Cussons Nigeria Plc, Nigerian Breweries Plc, Dangote Cement Plc, Unilever Nigeria Plc, Nestle Nigeria Plc, Cadbury Nigeria Plc, AG Leventis, Chellaram Nigeria Plc, and 7UP bottling company Plc. Panel secondary data were used in the study, as collected from the annual reports of the sampled firms. Method of analysis employed in the study include descriptive analysis, correlation analysis, as well as panel data analyses using pooled OLS estimator, fixed effect estimator, and random effect estimator, alongside post-estimation tests such as restricted f-test, and Hausman test, Wald test of heteroscedasticity, Wooldridge autocorrelation test and Pesaran cross section dependence test. Result showed that net working capital exert insignificant positive impact on profit after tax of manufacturing firms sampled in the study, with coefficient estimate of  .0036364(p=0.785 > 0.05), that current ratio exerts significant positive impact on profit after tax of manufacturing firm sampled in the study, with reported coefficient estimate of 2843.381(p=0.041 < 0.05). The study thus concluded that the capacity of working capital management to improve profitability of manufacturing firms in the country is not substantial when consideration is given solely to the aggregate difference between current asset and current liability. However maintaining high ratio of current asset to current liability, has the capacity to significantly boost profit prospect of manufacturing firms in the country. Hence manufacturing firms in the Nigeria should engage in consistence and flexible working capital management activities that can help sustain their profitability. Also Regulatory authority in the manufacturing sector should design thresholds for working capital variables based on the framework of research realities, so as to coordinate and organize activities of firms in the sector towards better operational and financial performance

Culturalization Strategies for the Development of Mayan Tourism in Guatemala
 
Francisco Javier Herrera Del Cid, Ph.D. Scholar
Chonbuk National University, South Korea 
 
Ji Young Jeong, Ph.D. & Professor
Chonbuk National University, South Korea
Abstract

This paper will provide an assessment of the potential culturalization and commercialization of the Maya’s traditions and culture around the world. Through this study it is intended to verify and show that Guatemala could be increase aggregate welfare for tourist sector in the long run. Guatemala is a country characterized by its great cultural wealth, where the traditions of the different peoples are part of the Guatemalan identity. Unfortunately, nowadays, there is not yet a cultural exposition of that identity that will represent the characteristics of the Mayan community. As we know, tourism sector is an important source of income for a state. The natural resources represent a clear advantage for the economy of a country. The purpose of this research is to present an alternative of income through the development of strategies for cultural tourism in the country, this proposal not only will point out a sustainable tourism but also the participation of the rural community with the purpose of its integration and progress.

Culturalization Strategies to Reshape the Coffee Industry in Guatemala
Mario Estuardo Monroy Lima, Ph.D. Scholar
Chonbuk National University, South Korea
 
Ji Young Jeong, Ph.D. & Professor
Chonbuk National University, South Korea
Abstract

The distribution of income in Guatemala has remained highly unequal until now, with 59.3% of the population living below the national poverty line and only 33.28% of the economically active population being employed in the formal sector. Unfortunately, the rural area of the country, where most of the people are dedicated to farm work and coffee production, has shown to be one of the most injured. The coffee sector is one of the largest generator of jobs in Guatemala and it has played a major role in the country’s economy. Coffee is one of Guatemala’s main products of national export and it is currently contributing around 8% of Guatemalan total foreign incomes. This paper takes a step-in redefining what Culturalization is, what it involves and how its application can reshape the economic performance of a series of communities with strong and unique cultural elements. It offers an overview of how the concept of Culturalization was implicitly applied in a European and an Asian case, and then it provides an application example of it in the communities surrounding Guatemala’s coffee industry.

Job Satisfaction and Retention of Non- Saudi Nurses in Rural Hospitals in Hail
 
Fares Alshammari, Ph.D. & Associate Professor
University of Hail, Saudi Arabia
Abstract

Retention of nurses is persistent problems associated with job satisfaction. Nursing shortage and high turnover is of the main concern in many countries especially in rural area. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors influencing non-Saudi nurse satisfaction and retention in rural hospitals in Hail city. The total sample size of the study was 125 nurses working in rural Hospitals. The study found the five factors such as hospital management, work conditions, career development, recognition and appreciation and financial rewards would affect the job satisfaction of Non-Saudi nurses.

 

 

Journal of American Academic Research 

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