Volume 7, Issue 4, December 2019

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Awareness and Knowledge of Coronary Artery Disease: Its Risk Factors and Preventive Measures Among Adults in Bisha, Saudi Arabia
Published at Journal of American Academic Research in Health Science (JAAR-Health Science)
Dr. Amar Ibrahim, MD & Assistant Professor
College of Medicine
University of Bisha, Bisha, Saudi Arabia
Saud Dhafer, Medical Student
University of Bisha, Bisha, Saudi Arabia
Saeed Audah, Medical Student
University of Bisha, Bisha, Saudi Arabia
Saad Hader, Medical Student
University of Bisha, Bisha, Saudi Arabia
Sultan Saleh, Medical Student
University of Bisha, Bisha, Saudi Arabia
Saeed Saad, Medical Student
University of Bisha, Bisha, Saudi Arabia
Turki Awadh, Medical Student
University of Bisha, Bisha, Saudi Arabia
Saeed Hassan, Medical Student
University of Bisha, Bisha, Saudi Arabia
 
Abstract

Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Risk factor identification and modification and accordingly intensive risk reduction therapy has been a crucial part in reducing the risk of CAD.

Objectives: To assess the knowledge and awareness of coronary artery disease risk factors and preventive measures among adults in Bisha, Southern Saudi Arabia.

Methods and Materials: In this cross-sectional study conducted between November 2018 and March 2019, a total of 140 participants aged between 18 and 67 years were selected using a simple random procedure to assess the knowledge and awareness of coronary artery disease through questions in a validated self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire designed to assess the knowledge and awareness. Data was collected using a semi structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS software. P-value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: A total of 140 participants completed the survey giving response rate of 90%. The majority of the respondents (87.1%) are aware of coronary artery disease. However, their knowledge about risk factors and preventive measures was poor with clear gaps of knowledge for Diabetes mellitus (6.4%) and Hypertension (10%). The awareness of coronary artery disease had statistically significant association with occupation (P = 0.04) and educational level of the respondents (P = 0.01).

Conclusion: However, the awareness of Coronary artery disease was optimal, the knowledge for the most of coronary artery disease risk factors and preventive measures were poor. Introduction of focused health education and population-based prevention programs by health authorities was recommended.

Android Innovation E-phone Tourist Control (Management) System
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Rustom Mamlook, Ph.D. &  Professor
New Mexico State University, USA
Omer Khan, Lab Technician
Dhofar University, Oman
 
Fatma Mohammed Alqamshouai, BS in Computer Engineering
Dhofar University, Oman
 
Ekhlas Khalfan Alzakwani, BS in Computer Engineering
Dhofar University, Oman
 
Ekhlas Khalfan Alzakwani, BS in Computer Engineering
Dhofar University, Oman
 
Atsloom Ali Alamri, BS in Computer Engineering
Dhofar University, Oman
 
Abstract

The goal of the paper is to explore how to realize a mobile city guide using the Android Innovation platform, including a prototype of the city guide. The project in our paper consists of entire details of those locations or how to reach the locations as well as other emergency amenities like hospital, institutes, bus stops etc. but it provides the basic information to decide the places to visit. This project mainly beneficial for the tourists having no idea about the places to visit. By providing a geographically based information management system the tourists and people shifting to new cities can get a better guidance of places they want to visit.

The Reform and Practice of English Classroom Teaching from the "Student-centered" Perspectives
 
Published at American Journal of Applied Linguistics (AJAL)
Xiaojuan Su, Lecturer
Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, China

Menglan Zhao, Corresponding author
Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, China

Lu Guo
Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, China
Abstract

Aiming at the problems existing in English teaching, this paper puts forward the "student-centered" project-based teaching method, and analyzes the relevant teaching experiments from three aspects of "student development, student learning and learning effect", in order to find a new way of English classroom teaching. It has been proved that the "student-centered" project-based teaching mode conforms to the law of language learning and has remarkable effect. The "student-centered" educational concept is of great guiding significance to foreign language teaching and the reform and practice of higher education as a whole.

'Novelist- Philosopher' and 'Philosopher- Priest' in the Fiction of Ayn Rand and Chinua Achebe
Published at American Journal of Applied Linguistics (AJAL)
Hyacinth Pink, PhD, Professor & Head
Department of English
Kumaraguru College of Technology, India
Abstract

Ayn Rand and Chinua Achebe are novelists and philosophers with a difference.  Barbara Branden, describing the death of the novelist in The Passion of Ayn Rand refers to Rand’s dream being realized when the world acclaimed her a famous ‘Novelist-Philosopher’ at her death and Bernth Lindfors tells us that Achebe is concerned with “serious moral issues” in all his novels and never “abandons his usual role as Philosopher Priest”. (Branden 1986:311) The novelist’s only choice is whether that framework is presented in his story explicitly or implicitly; whether his work is the individual projection of existing philosophical ideas or whether he originates a philosophical frame work of his own. (Rand 1974: vii). While Rand did the second, Achebe did the first. In this chapter, Ayn Rand’s theory of Individualism as a central component of the Objectivist philosophy is juxtaposed along with Achebe’s Altruist- Collectivist doctrine of the Brotherhood of Man.

Logical  Association Between Family Inheritance History and the Burst Rate of Diabetes in East-Asian Countries: The Scientific Revelation *
 
Published at Journal of American Academic Research in Health Science (JAAR-Health Science)
Scott Wynn, Ph.D. & Professor
Brandeis University, USA
Cheryl Butler, Ph.D. & Professor
Brandeis University, USA

 Abstract

Studies in diverse cultural groups have reported a visibility of affirmative family with an greater than before risk of Type 2 diabetes and this could be hereditary. That doesn't mean that if your mother or father has (or had) type 2 diabetes, you're assured to develop it; instead, it means that you have a bigger chance of developing type 2. China and India have the highest rate of people with diabetes (110 million and 69 million respec0tively), but not the highest prevalence. A healthy lifestyle can delay and even prevent diabetes. If you have a family history of type 2 diabetes, it may be difficult to figure out whether diabetes is due to lifestyle factors or genetic vulnerability. Most likely it is due to both.

An Insightful Research: The Reflective Analysis of Re-Occurrence Errors in Second Language Learning Process in Vietnam English Classrooms *
 Published at American Journal of Applied Linguistics (AJAL)
Annabel Summey, Ph.D. & Professor
Tulane University, USA
Sam Ferguson, Ph.D. & Associate Professor
Tulane University, USA

 Abstract

The aim of this paper is to critically examine your experience and connect it to the learning objectives of the second language learning process and reflect on re-occurrence of your errors in second language learning process in Vietnam according to the processes given below: A. Objective: The analysis will include descriptions of your concrete experience. B. Reflective: The analysis here will focus on how you felt or interpreted your experience. C. Interpretive: The analysis will focus on what you learned from your experience. D. Decisional: This part of your analysis will explore how you will incorporate your new knowledge into your current state of the Vietnam mind. The research result will insightfully contribute to second language teaching and learning in new decades all over the world. 

Error Analysis in Academic Writing Classes in Asian Countries and its Implications on Implementing Artificial Intelligence (AI) -Aided Language Teaching and Learning *
 
Published at American Journal of Applied Linguistics (AJAL)
Zachary Harris, Ph.D. & Associate Professor
Lehigh University, USA
Skylar Larson, Ph.D. & Associate Professor
Lehigh University, USA

 Abstract

Error analysis in academic writing is a process of identifying, describing and explaining learners' errors. A methodology was adopted where the post graduate students, who obtained less than IELTS Band 6, and who were  seeking admission into a University  were required to write a 3-5 page term paper assignment on a topic related to their specific field of study. A mixed methodology approach was employed to examine and analyze the errors in these papers. The most common English language errors committed by the participants were sentence structure, articles, punctuation and capitalization. A decision was made to use Artificial Intelligence -Aided Language Teaching , with a written or oral interface to solve the problem of error analysis through dialogue systems like Alexa. Yet some important solutions still needs to be met before it can serve as a surrogate for a real life language teacher.- spontaneity, creativity and shared knowledge.

The Important Influence and Significance of Shakespeare's Drama Study on Modern Human Life and Its Enlightenment *
 
Published at American Journal of Applied Linguistics (AJAL)
Anthony Lewis, Ph. D. & Professor
University of Georgia, USA
 
Brian Headrick, Ph. D. & Professor
University of Georgia, USA

 Abstract

Shakespeare's influence extends from theatre and literatures to modern western movies, Early Modern English as a literary medium was irregular in structure; consequently Shakespeare's works became a major influence on the theatre of the “groundlings.” Shakespeare has made a significant contribution to English language and literature and his Dramas have constantly been part of popular culture... Appraisal and analysis of his work provide insights into the culture and society of that period. He has most definitely outlived the test of time as his themes are timeless. His profound influence on Theatre is often attributed to his language. Shakespeare has contributed 15 significant words to the English language. His maxims and proverbs and most remarkably owing to his vital sense of humor and comedy. It would not be difficult to argue that we owe most of the characteristics of modern storytelling's to colossal literary giant -Shakespeare.! 

Systematic Marketing Strategy with the Guidance of Game Theory in Practical Marketing Economy: Research and Future Implications *
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Adam Norman, Ph.D. & Associate Professor
University of Connecticut, USA
 
Brenda Jackson, Ph.D. & Associate Professor
University of Connecticut, USA

 Abstract

Creating a successful business requires a systematic marketing plan along with innumerable key strategies like game theory strategy, competitive advantage, value creation and strategic decisions. The purpose of the current research is to synthesize game theory with strategic management through competitive practices. On one hand, Game Theory, the study of mathematical models of conciliation, conflict and collaboration between individuals, organizations and governments, analyzes connections involving strategic and systematic decision making. It throws light on the consequences of what happens when an individual makes a particular decision and how the decisions made by one individual affect others. On the other hand, it handles the economy at large and explains how the theory can influence decision-making process in businesses administration as it is closely connected with decision-theory, and is used to revise situations where management-psychology can play an important part. Further research direction have been pointed out and important game theory insights have been revealed along the analysis and conclusion.

Impact Analysis of Multiple Intelligence on the Performance of the General Engineering Students in Humanities
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Analiza Acuña-Villacorte, Ph.D. & Professor II
Bulacan State University,  Philippines
Abstract

The study of engineering as perceived to be highly scientific in nature discerns between proficiency and competency in the area of specialization. The attributes are formed through scaffolding of knowledge and of habits. The intention of gradual layering and sequential learning is important in developing higher learning skills. This classroom-based study on the general engineering students in a state university in the Philippines tested the impact of the use of Multiple Intelligences or multiple abilities approach in promoting the Performance of the students in the study of humanities. Humanities provides opportunities to develop critical thinking skills where the study involves independent learning and collaborative learning in the critical analysis on the assimilation of Filipinos with other cultures that are expressed in Philippine writings in English. The observation lasted for six months in an uncontrolled environment, where the observed data were subjected to a chi-square analysis that determined the probability of correlation of the impact of Multiple Intelligences or multiple abilities on the performance of the students. The predicted correlations on Multiple Intelligences and individual output and examination and the recorded no correlations on gender, group output and final grade at .05 level of significance rejected the null hypothesis. 

The Doctrine of Discovery and the "Color Line"
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Rafiqur Rahman, Doctoral Candidate
Catholic University of America, USA
Abstract

Before one can intellectually untangle the gordian “color line” knot concerning America’s Black-White racial binary and the suggestive effect race, religion, ethnicity and culture has had upon American identity and membership, we must first interrogate the significance, context and religious hermeneutic associated with the Doctrine of Discovery as it appertains itself to three seminal papal bulls—Dum Diversas (“Until Different,” composed in 1452 AD by Pope Nicholas V to King Alfonso V), Romanus Pontifex (“The Roman Pontiff,” composed in 1454 AD by Pope Nicholas V to the King of Portugal, Alfonso V) and Inter Caetera (“Among other works,” composed in 1493 AD by Pope Alexander VI to to the Catholic Majesties of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella)—all of which collectively allude to the nascent historical origins concerning the Christian slave trade. Unlike the transatlantic slave trade (AD 1501-1875) with its provenience as an predominately agricultural labor oriented enterprise, the Islāmic slave trade (AD 650-1980) matured in a divergent direction towards a service sector orientation as a result of Arab conquest and expansion. Racializing religion during the transatlantic and Islāmic slave trade period conflated the relations of power establishing faith identity and membership and, in so doing, established prejudicial “color line” notions of race, religion, culture and ethnicity oriented towards the creation and promulgation of a Black-White racial binary schema. The historical “color line” discrepancy that currently exists between Whites and Blacks in America is now responsible for the racial binary between Black Muslims and non-Black Muslims and, consequently, it has also now become an indelible sociocultural and socioreligious partition within the modern-day. It is my claim that the three 15th century European papal bulls in unison served to morally justify the problematic identity and membership rationale needed for the establishment of a “color line” within America’s social imagination, faith tradition (Christianity), weltanschauung, etc. and, a point often overlooked by many theologians and Religious Studies scholars within the Academy, also balefully impacted the later establishment and evolution of Islām within the United States.

The Symetrix of Time - Theory
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Mark Jagg, Full-time Researcher, Canada
Independent Research in History of Science Specialized in Mathematical Applications and New Theoretical Introductions to Energy Laws
 
Abstract

A modern observation proposes: the mysterious nature of Time, possess more ability than we have ever imagined. Especially now that a new & revolutionary mathematical concept introduces: Time & Evolution co-exist together, sharing binary symetrix with 4th Dimension. What this means is, Time cannot exist without Evolution, nor Evolution without Time. They are Binary Components that create the Instruments of Nature for our physical Universe to Exist. In other words, Time & Evolution are primordial witnesses to Universal Creation. Based on this hypothesis, the idea evolves a new mathematical concept that represents Time & Evolution into one Equation. Ev/T=1D expresses: Time records all events & Evolution leaves imprints in physical evidence. The algorithms of this philosophy, allow us to re-trace the electro-genetic history of Evolution through evolving rules of element relations. This new application brakes down the internal complexity of mathematical evolution, which until now, the term Evolution had been missing mathematical representation. This new concept formulates the algorithms of Dimensional Symetrix – with mathematical ability to trace a relationship history between separate Realms of Equations. The Symetrix informs us: How the Equations evolved: Which Equations evolved first & How they are related to one another.

Did Science Make a Mistake with The Laws of Observation?
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Mark Jagg, Full-time Researcher, Canada
Independent Research in History of Science
Specialized in Mathematical Applications and New Theoretical Introductions to Energy Laws
Abstract

The Author's brief introduction is based on 45 years of science research in the nature of mathematical physics. The author's proposals reflect comprehensible thinking with new ideas and insightful scientific observations - which the history of science had overlooked and/or did not make clear. The research findings concluded: mathematical representations had been missing - evolution had remained equation-less - The electromagnetic spectrum had not observed as 3-Dimensional electro-state. Universal temperature had been overlooked - the rules of energy were being ignored. The Laws of Thermo-dynamics did not clarify the 1st law of Energy - therefore its philosophy was miss-placed. The concept of Time had remained powerless without evolution, which had been missing mathematical representation. These new introductory findings are significant to the application of modern science to practice, and it have initiated new and unique observations that mainstream science had been missing.

Understanding the Living Condition of Artisanal Fisherfolks of Cabugao Bay, Catanduanes Island, Philippines
 
LILY PANTINO CUSTODIO, Ph. D. & Professor
Catanduanes State University, Philippines

RYAN PAUL CUSTODIO BRILLANTE, Faculty
Catanduanes State University, Philippines

 
Abstract

This This study presents the living condition of artisanal fisherfolks of Cabugao Bay. Descriptive method of research was used with the questionnaire as data gathering tool. Respondents were chosen through purposive sampling. Descriptive statistics were used in data analysis. The fisherfolk’s family eats rice every day. The fisherfolk uses gillnets in catching fish; with  friends and relatives as companions; with a  typical catch of 11 to 20 kg; has 5 to 6 fishing trips in a week for 7 to 8 hours; March, April and May are good months in fishing; bad months are October, November and December; with 21 to 40 kilos of fish catch during good months; volume of catch is sold to middlemen; common types of fishes caught include sword fish, common dolphin fish, tuna and flying fish; fishing is the primary source of family’s income; and construction work is the alternative livelihood. Recommendations to improve the living condition of the fisherfolks are offered.

Social Exclusion of the Nigerian Women in Agricultural Practice and the Futility of Pursuit of Development Efforts in Nigeria: The Case of Bwari Local Government
Charles Onuora Okwuwa, Ph.D. & Lecturer
Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Nigeria

Abstract

Available statistics reveal that Nigeria is experiencing food security, gender imbalance and socio-economic development challenges. The Nigerian women, from precolonial era, had been co-developers of societies, particularly the rural communities, with the men. Now, this group experiences social exclusion in almost all spheres of human endeavors, including agriculture, its age-long engagement. This phenomenon in a ‘main women  industry’ has negatively impacted Nigeria’s development efforts which target equity, justice and other indices of human development such as access to good health, food security, longevity, employment and poverty reduction, among others. The country scores low rates in all these indicators. These challenges provoke this research that investigates the facets of women exclusion in Nigeria’s agricultural activities, with Bwari Local Council Area sample, with a view to guiding policy programming through fact based formulations in responding appropriately to the phenomenon. The empirical research relies on both quantitative and qualitative methods with data generated from youthful women farmers in agriculture in the area. Among the findings are; low government involvement in women agricultural participation, lack of access to necessary tools and materials, loans and training for the women farmers and most importantly, their exclusion in agricultural planning and implementation processes. Conclusively, the women experience capacity deficit and hence, among others, contributes to Nigeria’s food insecurity. The recommendations include policy re-alignments targeting resource allocation gender balance, rural agriculture prioritization, improved agricultural spending and shift from inspection to effective monitoring of grassroots agriculture. Government should provide money, materials and mentality (knowledge, skills and right attitudes) for all farmers, irrespective of gender, to drive exclusiveness in agricultural initiatives at implementation level.

Travails of African Children in Faceless
MOBOLANLE SOTUNSA,  Ph.D. & Professor
BABCOCK UNIVERSITY, NIGERIA

OLUWAGBEMINIYI BAMISAYE, SCHOLAR & SENIOR EDITOR
BABCOCK UNIVERSITY, NIGERIA
Abstract

The desire and constant yearning of many children is the warmth of parental care. However, from time immemorial, child labour experiences have denied such children proper parental care and smooth mind development. In a typical African society where children are assurance of continuity and expansion of race, it becomes even more important that children are availed the most conducive atmosphere to actualize themselves. This paper, therefore, examines the experiences and travails of victims of child labour in Amma Darko’s Faceless (2003). Using the psychoanalytic theory, the study examined the pains, physical and emotional struggles and losses of children characters in the selected text. Findings revealed that children in a bid to survive, usually engage themselves in all sort of vices. It was also discovered that children deprived of proper parental care and support usually end up becoming threats to the society as such, the study recommended that parents should be responsible for the welfare of their children or ward irrespective of their social or economic status.

Mobilization of Gender-Inclusive Language across Academic Disciplines
Caren Rimando Bansolay, Ph. D.
Assistant Professor & Head of Corporate Communications
AMA International University, Kingdom of Bahrain
Abstract

Gender-inclusive language use among higher education institutions is somewhat operational, which is tantamount to the HEI teachers’ degree of awareness on such language use. These findings are further supported by the teachers’ claims that certain factors have vividly engendered disparity in their gender language use. Atop these factors are dearths of references promoting gender language use, patterned use of gender-exclusive language in many references, and habit of using conventional words. Thus, a reference guide following a prototype materials design to incorporate the terminologies in instruction, communication and other forms of information dissemination is deemed essential to be designed and implemented.  

The Tragic Vision in William Shakespeare's Macbeth: A Critical Study
Ali Albashir Mohammed Alhaj, Ph. D. & Associate Professor
King Khalid University, KSA

Sabah Mohammed Abbas Hamza, Ph. D. & Assistant Professor
King Khalid University, KSA

Dr.Hussein Mohammed Ahmed Kilayil, Ph. D. & Assistant Professor
King Khalid University, KSA
Abstract

The present study aims at studying critically the tragic vision in William Shakespeare's Macbeth. Shakespeare's tragic vision is to a large extent Greek in design and execution. Macbeth gives the readers the keenness of economy among all Shakespearean tragedies, Macbeth is a classical tragedy as close to a Greek tragedy as Shakespeare could possibly get. The evil is depicted in the play in poetic and dramatic terms. The tragic vision is earthy and real .The action of the play is the revealing of evil in terms of direct human experience. In Macbeth , Shakespeare  shows the readers  not only the inevitable destruction of villainy, but also its genesis, growth and nature in human context. Finally the study concludes that Shakespeare considered tragedy as the most important form of literature as it reflects the truth of life .Moreover, he  succeeds in addressing  serious issues also entertaining and gripping  an audience in the theater or the stage  

Book Review: ālḥārakh āl īslāmīāh, thārāīt fī āltārīq (The Islamic Movement, Gaps in the Road) by Abdullah Al-Nafisi, second publishing by Afaq Press, Kuwait, 2012, Reviewed by Farhan Aldhafeeri.
 
Farhan M Aldhafeeri, Ph.D. Scholar
School of Philosophy, Theology & Religion
Centre of Islamic and Middle East Studies
University of Birmingham, United Kingdom

Abstract 

In this article, the author will review some of the outlines and main idea of Nafisi's self-criticism of the reality of Islamic movements through his book (The Islamic Movement, Gaps in the Road). The book was first published in 1986 and reprinted recently at Afaq Library in Kuwait in 2012. Indeed, the book is one of the most powerful books in the field of self-criticism of Islamic movements. It was originally a weekly article, and each episode contains a critical perspective and thus is worthy of countless reflection. It is absolutely hard for us to comprehend and internalize the essence and soul Nafisi provided in the limited lines and spaces. 

 
 
It is No Longer Business as Usual: An Assessment of the Canada Corruption of Public Officials Act
 
Alex Fomcenco, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
Aalborg University, Denmark
Dave Deonarain, LL.M., LL.B.
Ontario Ministry of the Attorney General, Ca
 
Abstract

Using R. v. Karigar, a 2013 ruling of the Ontario Superior Court of Justice as a starting point, this article addresses the question of effectiveness of the Canada Corruption of Public Officials Act and Bill S-14: An Act to Amend the Foreign Public Officials Act. The article points out that through the years Canada has become much more effective in pursuing the goal of prosecuting those that through activities banned by the legislation in question distort free competition not only in Canada but anywhere else in the world as well. The authors remind corporate directors to remain vigilant and abstain from practices prohibited by this legislation, as aside from facing potential imprisonment and significant fines, following breach of the legislation in question, directors must also be aware that they are personally accountable.

Effectiveness of a Training Program in Improving the Level of University Adaptation Among a Sample of Students of Qassim University
 
BAHJAT ABDUL MAJEED MAH'D ABU SULAIMAN, Ph. D. & Assistant Professor
Malida Branch - Deanship of Educational Services
Qassim University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
 
Abstract

The study aimed to uncover the effectiveness of a training program in improving the level of university adaptation among a sample of students of Qassim University. The study sample consisted of (26) students of the preparatory year in Qassim University who have a low level of university adaptation based on their grades on the university adaptation scale. Their scores were considered tribal. In this light, the students were randomly divided into two groups: a control group that did not receive any treatment, and an experimental group that received a training program for seven sessions. Immediately after treatment was completed, direct measurement of the experimental group and the control group was taken. Then, two weeks after the treatment was completed, the delayed measurement (retention) of the experimental group and the control group was also taken. . The results of the study showed statistically significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in the level of university adaptation between the pre-measurement and direct measurement at (a = 0.05) in favor of the experimental group. There were also statistically significant differences in the level of university adaptation between direct measurement and delayed measurement (retention) in favor of the experimental group and direct testing.

Contributing Factors in Determining Balance Between Job Opportunities, Job Employment and Job Satisfaction in European Countries **
Craig Henderson , Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
University of Houston, USA
Abstract

Nowadays, due to the harsh competition in job market, job opportunities declines year by year. Even if people were employed, the benefits for job and the satisfaction in job decrease. How to balance between Job opportunities, job employment and job satisfaction in European countries remains critical changes to be reasonably resolved. This research aims to discover contributing factors in determining balance between job opportunities, job employment and job satisfaction in European countries and the implication was also disclosed at the end of the article. 

The Critical Perspectives in Efficiently Managing and Evaluating Corporate Employee Conducts, Operation Risks and Policy Optimization with the Help of Practical Real-world Examples, Empirical Research Result and Employees' Cooperation **
Vincent Griffin, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor 
Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada
Abstract

In recent years, research on assessing employee behavior, operational risk, and policy optimization has gradually increased. But how to use the practical real-world examples, the experience of research results and the cooperation of employees, as three effective means, effectively manage and evaluate the risk of employee behavior, operation and policy optimization is comparatively rare. This research article combines real-life examples and empirical survey methods to achieve optimal management and evaluation on the corporate employee behavior, operational risk and policy optimization so that the company's employees' work capacity improves, behavior standardized, and product quality promoted.  This research will serve as an inspirational guide for the future development and prosperity of modern enterprises.

Estimation of Crustal Structure Beneath Nile Delta Region from the Spectrum of P Wave** 
Ali Ahmed Gharib, Professor
National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt    
 
Gaber Hassan Hasseip, Professor
National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt   
 
Ahmed Ali Hosnney, Associate Professor
National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt   
 
Gad El Kareem Mohmed, Associate Professor
National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt   
 
Iman Farag Hassan, Associate Professor
National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt  
 
Yaseen Mahmoud Mostfa, Ph.D.
National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt
Abstract

Few studies directly compare Epidural Steroid Injection (ESI) versus Conservative Physical Therapy (CT). This retrospective study aims to compare the efficacy of ESI and CT in motor vehicle accident patients, measured by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The 61 ESI+CT and 109 CT-alone procedures were selected and categorized by cervical or lumbosacral injection region. As hypothesized, VAS reduced significantly for both CT-alone group and ESI+CT group (p< 0.0001). On average, as measured by Cohen’s d, the VAS reduction was over two standard deviations in ESI+CT group but only over one standard deviation in CT-alone. Therefore, while CT is significantly effective in reducing pain, adding ESI may have increased the effect size. The mean change for Lumbosacral ESI+CT (4.242) is higher than that for Lumbosacral CT-alone (3.490) with a marginal p-value of 0.080 but not significantly different for Cervical ESI+CT (3.800) versus Cervical CT-alone (3.479).

Practice Guideline of Patient Treatment under Protection of Scientific Interventions ---A Tentative Assumption of Medical Research**
Ali Flores, Ph.D. & Lecturer
Future University in Egypt, Egypt    
 
Raymond Nelson, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
Adelphi University, USA
Abstract

Recent years of research in patient intervention treatment has made great breakthrough and the study in this field also shifted from theoretical hypothesis to practical treatment process. This specific study will introduce the practical guideline of patient treatment process and result under the protection of scientific intervention to ensure the safety and security of the progress of the practice. With examples, research survey, the author also revealed the possible direction of future medical research and the research findings and implications were also discussed.

The Scientific Evidence of Learning Effects Approval for Science Major Students with the Help of Instruction of Up-to-date New Technology in University Classroom **
Zoila Campbell, Ph.D. & Director
Swinburne University of Technology, Australia
 
Johnsie Garcia, Ph.D. Scholar
Swinburne University of Technology, Australia
Abstract

The development of modern science and technology has promoted the development of education, to a large extent. University education has no longer stayed in the traditional education model of the past. The researcher employed the advantages of the modern education model to establish an experimental model for training the professional skills of university students. Under the guidance of modern science and technology, the professional skills of university students have changed a lot, their self-awareness has also been greatly improved, and the learning effect has been greatly advanced. The results of this research will definitely be widely used in future university professional skills training and improvement of students' practical skills. The author of this article also hopes that this research will give the teaching staff some inspiration and thus improve their future teaching result.

The role of Sociology in National Development with Particular reference to Niger State, Nigeria
Steve Nwokeocha, Ph. D. & Professor of Sociology of Education
Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University
 
 Charles Okwuwa, Ph. D.Scholar & Lecturer
Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Nigeria
Abstract

This research paper eloquently and logically stated that sociology emerged in Europe and America in times of industrial and general societal unrest. As universally acknowledged that, sociology from birth was oriented towards problem-solving and creation of a prosperous and progressive society. Nigeria, including Niger Sate, today faces similar huge developmental problems and can rely significantly on sociological paradigms to resolve some of the national and state problems that seem intractable. Regrettably, the general underdevelopment issues of Nigeria including unemployment, ignorance about the role of sociologists, absence of a national framework for the utilization of sociologists, poor governance, school-industry dichotomy and other factors have impaired the functioning of sociologists in Nigeria. Nevertheless, sociologists are clearly part of the change agents in the various sectors of national life. Among these are sociologists of education advancing teaching and learning in Nigeria; medical sociologist changing values systems of medical practice and saving lives; criminologists combating crime and contribution to law enforcement; developmental sociologists working with international and national organizations to lift humanity; political sociologists advancing the rules of governance; and demographers deeply involved in managing population and life-related issues. The paper therefore believes that removing the enumerated obstacles will boost the contribution of sociologists to national development, including Niger State.

The Price-setting Strategy Under the Theoretical Instruction of Social Exchange Theory and Free Market Principle *
 
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
 
Timothy Whittier, Ph.D. & Associate Professor
University of Washington, USA
Keith Willey, Ph.D. & Associate Professor
University of Connecticut, USA
Abstract

This paper will discuss three major concepts which are essential properties of social exchange theory where the individuals, who have something of value to offer each other, will make financial decisions based on certain outcomes; and they have to decide whether to exchange and in what amounts. This is termed as ‘price setting.’ Social exchange theory proposes that social behavior is the result of an exchange process; while social conflict theory sees social life as an opposition and focuses on the allocation of resources, power, and inequality. The rationale of this exchange is to capitalize on benefits and minimize costs since people weigh the potential benefits and risks of social relationships. A free market is one where voluntary exchange and the laws of supply and demand provide the markets; prices for goods and services are set freely by the forces of supply and demand and are permitted to reach their point of symmetry without intrusion by government policy.

Starting from the Field of Practical Teaching, to Reach the Reasonable Analysis of the Differences, Commonalities Between Eastern and Western Teaching Under Diverse Cultural Backgrounds: The Results and Future Inspiration *
 
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Halley Goodwin, Ph. D. & Assistant Professor
University of Minnesota--Twin Cities, USA
 
Susan Benjamin, Ph. D. & Assistant Professor
University of Minnesota--Twin Cities, USA
Abstract

Education has an ‘acculturating’ role -- it refines, sensitizes & perceives, creating   a national cohesion, a scientific temper and an independence of ‘mind’ and ‘Spirit,’ thus enhancing the goals of socialism, secularism and  democracy as enshrined in each nation’s constitution. This should be the major commonality between Eastern and Western Teaching under diverse cultural backgrounds. From a cultural perspective, no education is neutral. It either domesticates or liberates. The present western type of education in the ‘Third World’ is predominantly domesticating and not people friendly. It is biased towards the western oriented elite and the rich. In the promising post- industrial global scenario, education has added significance; because the production of knowledge has become the most decisive economic activity. ‘New Liberalism’ is projected as the ideology suited to the Third Wave’ has serious implications on the ethical and cultural life of people all over the world. In the existing fragile, social situation of the world, education has to be used as a cultural weapon for the genuine freedom of the people of the entire world. Alternatively, through education we must aim at a ‘paradigm shift’.

The Positive and Negative Effects of Market Competition Pressure on the Development of Tourism and the Future Development of Tourism Industry In USA *
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)

Sandra Gibson, Ph. D. & Associate Professor
Michigan State University, USA
 
Steve Wolford, Ph. D. & Professor
University of Iowa, USA
Abstract

Tourism industry is central for the payback it brings due to its role as a profit-making activity that creates demand and expansion for many more industries. Tourism and hospitality creates job opportunities in diverse sectors like accommodation, food and beverage establishments, transportation services, travel agencies, tour action companies, natural and cultural attractions sites. Some of the most noteworthy tourism trends today and in the near future are ‘Travelling Alone, Eco Travel, Local Experience, Leisure Travel: Robots, Automation, Artificial Intelligence. Recognition Technology.’ Competition is important for any business to thrive because it provides assurance that you're getting customers because of the quality of your products and services, it determines market value.But it has its own disadvantage .Greater competition among seller’s results in a lower product market price.And when competition is restricted, prices are likely to increase and quality is likely to suffer.

The Application of Quantum Physics Theory to Predict the Future Development of Earth and Human Beings: Prospects and Invisible Challenges *
 
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)

Steven Adams, Ph. D. & Assistant Professor
University of Delaware, USA
 
Kelly Holmes, Ph. D. & Associate Professor
Saint Louis University, USA
 
Abstract

The marathon mission to grasp the decisive nature of matter and force has entered a brand new epoch of ambiguity and anticipation unmatched in the past century. Fundamentally, physical science predicts terribly strange things concerning how matter works that are utterly divided with how things appear to figure within the planet. Luckily, theoretical physics thrives on enigma, and it eventually overcame those issues through two intellectual upheavals as profound as any within the history of human thought: the quantum revolution and also Einstein’s theory of relativity. Science and technology alike are watching for the cryptic world of quantum phenomena to be controlled and place to use. Each has performed supremely well, giving civilization new insight into and incomparable command of matter and energy. However they're now not capable to  make a case for what we all know of reality. Physics currently needs a brand new set of classes to explain the contents of the cosmos

The Moral and Ethical Challenges with the Application of Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the Field of Modern Medical Science *
 
Published at Journal of American Academic Research (JAAR)
Kelly Higgins, Ph. D. & Professor
Howard University, USA
 
Timothy Speck, Ph. D. & Associate Professor
Temple University, USA
Abstract

This paper aims to explore the moral and ethical challenges in the application of Artificial Intelligence (AI), which is used in prospective health care and medical education. It can be applied to almost any fields in medicine, and its contributions to biomedical research, medical education, and delivery of health care seem limitless. This might appear a threat to doctors that they could be rendered outmoded with this type of technology. Nevertheless, this authoritative technology creates a fresh set of ethical challenges that must be acknowledged and addressed since AI technology has tremendous capability to threaten patient preference, safety, privacy, and confidentiality, limitations between the physician’s and machine’s role in patient care.  Finally, anticipating potential ethical pitfalls, identifying possible solutions, and offering policy recommendations will be of benefit to physicians adopting AI technology in their practice as well as the patients who receive their care.

 

 

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