Volume 7, Issue 4, December 2019

SALE: $199

Awareness and Knowledge of Coronary Artery Disease: Its Risk Factors and Preventive Measures among Adults in Bisha, Saudi Arabia
Published at Journal of American Academic Research in Health Science (JAAR-Health Science)
​Dr. Amar Ibrahim, MD & Assistant Professor
College of Medicine University of Bisha, Saudi Arabia
Turki Awadh, Medical Student, University of Bisha, Saudi Arabia
Saeed Hassan, Medical Student, University of Bisha, Saudi Arabia

Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Risk factor identification and modification and accordingly intensive risk reduction therapy has been a crucial part in reducing the risk of CAD.

Objectives: To assess the knowledge and awareness of coronary artery disease risk factors and preventive measures among adults in Bisha, Southern Saudi Arabia.

Methods and Materials: In this cross-sectional study conducted between November 2018 and March 2019, a total of 140 participants aged between 18 and 67 years were selected using a simple random procedure to assess the knowledge and awareness of coronary artery disease through questions in a validated self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire designed to assess the knowledge and awareness. Data was collected using a semi structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS software. P-value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: A total of 140 participants completed the survey giving response rate of 90%. The majority of the respondents (87.1%) are aware of coronary artery disease. However, their knowledge about risk factors and preventive measures was poor with clear gaps of knowledge for Diabetes mellitus (6.4%) and Hypertension (10%). The awareness of coronary artery disease had statistically significant association with occupation (P = 0.04) and educational level of the respondents (P = 0.01).

Conclusion: However, the awareness of Coronary artery disease was optimal, the knowledge for the most of coronary artery disease risk factors and preventive measures were poor. Introduction of focused health education and population-based prevention programs by health authorities was recommended.

Human Trafficking and Human Development in Nigeria; Dimensioning the Issues, Challenges and Prospects for Solutions 
Charles Onuora Okwuwa, Ph.D. & Lecturer
 Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Nigeria

Nigeria is presently experiencing the challenges of human trafficking and related issues of victims living in slavery in foreign countries amid high rates of unemployment, poverty and insecurity, among others. Communal conflicts that include deaths and arson and also Boko Haram insurgency have occasioned great human distress with population movements within and outside the borders. The general aim of the research is to investigate the dimensions of human trafficking in Nigeria with a view to guiding policy programming through fact based formulations towards eliminating the scourge. The empirical research relied on both quantitative and qualitative methods and generated data from non-victims of human trafficking. Among the findings are that poverty and insecurity are the main drivers of people wanting to travel abroad for better life. Respondents identify government as the source of the country’s socio-economic problems and also hold the view that it should be responsible towards reconstruction of the country. Respondents view human development as key in developing Nigeria. Among the recommendations are high investments in education, specifically technical aspects and advancing youth entrepreneurship though flexible financing.

Reconstructing Semantic Coherence in Fiction Translation in Light of the Difference in Text Cohesion between English and Chinese ---A Case Study of the Chinese Translation of The Long Goodbye
Jiefu Zhang, Scholar
Foreign Languages Department
Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, China
Corresponding Author: Shan Ge, Lecturer
Foreign Languages Department
Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, China

Text cohesion is an essential factor that affects semantic coherence in fiction translation. Neglect of the differences in cohesion and coherence between English and Chinese may result in inaccurate transference of message and loss of literary value in fiction translation. Former studies paid more attention to linguistic equivalence or cultural differences, but cohesion and coherence have not been attached enough importance to. By a close comparative study of The Long Goodbye, an important detective English novel written by Raymond Chandler, and its Chinese translation, the current study analyzes the differences in text cohesion between English and Chinese and puts forward corresponding ways to restructure cohesive ties so as to achieve semantic coherence. The study found that in English-Chinese translation, the original English grammatical cohesion should normally be converted into lexical cohesion in Chinese text due to the difference in grammar and expression habits; whereas the explicit cohesive ties like connectives in English are usually left out in Chinese because of the difference between hypotaxis and parataxis. Therefore, to reconstruct semantic coherence, cohesive devices should be converted properly according to actual situations.

Audit on Management of Third and Fourth Degree Perineal Tears
Muna Mohammed Al Rawahi, MD & OMSB
Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman

Deepthy Geetha, MBBS
Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman

Shahila Sheikh, MBBS & RCOG
Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman

Objective: To look at the incidence and management of third and fourth degree perineal tears in a tertiary referral hospital in Oman, identify deficiencies and make recommendations.

Methods: 81 women who sustained obstetrical anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) over a seven years period and had vaginal delivery of singleton pregnancy with vertex presentation, were included in the audit. Retrospective data was gathered from delivery registers and medical records and analysis was carried out using EpiData version 3.1. Incidence of tears, documentation, and place of repair, grade of operator, post repair management and follow up were the parameters assessed.

Results: Incidence of obstetric anal sphincter injury was 0.28%. Nulliparity (68%) and prolonged second stage (16%) were strongly associated with third and fourth degree perineal tears. 71% of the tears followed normal vaginal delivery and 28.3% - instrumental delivery. 91% of babies had birth weight less than 4kg. Majority of tears were classified as 3a or 3b and four patients had 4th degree tears. Majority of deliveries were conducted by midwives (55%). The tears were confirmed and repaired by a registrar or above in 79% of cases. Only 54% of repairs were performed in theatre. Most of the patients received appropriate antibiotics and laxatives postoperatively. Only 18% had the recommended diet advice and only 59% were referred for physiotherapy and pelvic floor exercises. Of the 34 patients who were followed up, two had bladder problems, one had fecal incontinence, one had flatus incontinence and one had low rectovaginal fistula.

Conclusion: The low rate of OASIS in our audit could be attributed to lack of identification by the junior staff. Regular training of all Obstetrics staff is mandatory for identification and appropriate management of perineal tears.

Synthesis, Structural Analysis and DNA Interaction of Bis[4'-(4-methylphenyl)-2,2':6',2"-terpyridine]Co(III)(NO3)3.3H2O Complex
Ramin Zibaseresht, Ph. D. & Associate Professor
Imam Khomeini Maritime University & Aja University of Medical Sciences, Iran


There has been extensive studies of binding of chiral Ru(II) complexes to DNA backbone structures. J. K. Barton has studies the cationic coordination of a variety of chiral poly-pyridine Ru(II) complexes to demonstrate chiral discrimination in binding to different forms of DNA.

Many experimental techniques have been applied to study the interaction of tris(phenanthroline)ruthenium(II) ([Ru(phen)3]2+) with DNA, but despite this, its binding mode and its effect on the DNA structure are uncertain and have been the subject of much controversy.

In this study, bis[4'-(4-methylphenyl)-2,2':6',2"-terpyridine]Co(III) tris(nitrate) complex was synthesized and characterized using conventional methods such as 1H NMR, ES-MS, UV-vis spectrophotometry. The crystal structure of the complex was also determined. The complex was crystallised in the triclinic space group, Pī with two well separated complex molecules in the unit cell along with four hydrogen bounded water molecules and six nitrate groups. The Co ion was six coordinated, but the geometry was significantly distorted from that of an ideal octahedral.

In this study, the terpyridine type ligand fragment appealed because the ligand structure ensures a meridional arrangement of the donor atoms, which reduces the number of possible isomers. Co(III) ion was attracted because of its higher positive charge compared to Ru(II) which will have more affinity towards the negatively charged DNA structure. Absorbance and fluorescence methods were used to study the interaction of the Co(III) complex solution in water with DNA.

An Analysis of Bisphenol A (BPA) Levels in Canned Pet Food
Jean Qian, Student
Cypress Bay High School, USA

Bisphenol A (BPA), previously commonly found in plastic products, has been increasingly demanded to be banned from the American market. Nowadays, BPA in products for human use has vanished. But what about pets? Canned pet food is very popular among households. Canned foods are especially of high alarm, as BPA can be directly consumed. In this study, five brands of canned pet food are tested using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Diethyl ether was used as a solvent and mixed in with small pieces of cans before being filtrated and put through the machine to detect BPA. The results showed that Wellness and Max had a peak at the HPLC graph around the determined retention time of BPA; 3.27 minutes. HPLC didn’t detect BPA in the other 3 brands, Purina, Friskies, and Natural Balance.

Epidemiology of Anogenital Warts in Three Dermatological Centers in Muscat Region, Oman
Dr. Salma Talib Ali Al Kharusi, MD
OMSB, Oman
Dr. Noora Al-Rubaie, Senior Specialist
Al Nahdha Hospital, Oman
Dr. Abdullah Al-Taai, Senior Consultant
Al Nahdha Hospital, Oman 

Background: Anogenital warts (AGWs) are a common, highly infectious disease caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), whose high recurrence rates contribute to direct medical costs, productivity loss and increased psychosocial impact. Because of the lack of study of the epidemiology of AGWs in Oman, this study was conducted to assess the incidence and prevalence of AGWs in Oman.

Methods: A 2-year (2013-2014) retrospective observational study was conducted in three dermatological centers in Muscat region in Oman (AL Nahdha Hospital, Bowsher Polyclinic and Seeb Polyclinic). Men and women with newly diagnosed, follow-up or recurrent AGW of all age groups were included. We estimated the incidence and prevalence of AGW.

Results: The overall 2 years incidence of AGW was estimated at 8.68 cases per 1000 population. The overall 2 years incidence was higher among males (11.20 per 1000 population) than females (6.49 per 1000 population). The overall recurrence rate was 10.2%. The recurrence rate was significantly higher among males (14.1%) than females (4.1%). Incidence peaked at an earlier age in females (21-30 years) than in males (31-40 years( .The overall prevalence of AGWs was estimated to be (1.2%).

Conclusion: This study provides a first overview of the epidemiology of AGW in Oman. A quadrivalent HPV vaccine that prevents HPV 6, 11, 16, 18 related diseases will have the potential to significantly decrease the socio-economic burden associated with AGW in Oman.

Multiple Fractures in the Absence of Patient Compliance, Cooperation and Interest Against Medical Advices, the Challenge of Short- and long-term Complications: Case Report
Mohammed Ali Alhasson, MD
Department of Orthopedic Surgery
Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Saudi Arabia
Abdulmohsen Ibrahim Alabdulaly, MD
Department of Orthopedic Surgery
Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Saudi Arabia

Discharge against medical advices (DAMA) has a harmful effect to the community as well as to individual health and it has arised great concern in recent years' research. We report a Saudi female in spite, of her critical health situation after major car traffic accident, she decided to leave the hospital without intervention. In this regards we address the issue, both from its public health, as well as, social equity aspects. Professional liability and harmful effect of this practice to individual health are of great concern. Comprehensive approach of community awareness on potential benefits of orthopedic treatment of fracture will reduce incidence of DAMA. However, all governmental medical services in Saudi Arabia are free.

Slipped Appendicoliths During Laparoscopic Appendectomy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature – Experience from Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Majed Mohammed N Alanazi, MD
Senior Registrar of General Surgery, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Saudi Arabia
Badah Aldosri, MBBS
Senior Registrar of General Surgery, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Saudi Arabia
Meshary Aldayel, MBBS
Senior Registrar of General Surgery, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Saudi Arabia

This research reported a 37-year-old male status post laparoscopic appendectomy (Slipped appendicoliths during laparoscopic appendectomy). The particular patient was then presented to the emergency depart (ER). X-ray and ultrasound were used initially to reach the re-presentation diagnosis (retained/dropped appendicolith with collection). Then the patient was managed with abdominal washout and fecalith removal. The role of multi-disciplinary treatment was highly appreciated and outcome was very satisfactory.

Understanding the Living Condition of Artisanal Fisherfolks of Cabugao Bay, Catanduanes Island, Philippines
Catanduanes State University, Philippines

Catanduanes State University, Philippines


This This study presents the living condition of artisanal fisherfolks of Cabugao Bay. Descriptive method of research was used with the questionnaire as data gathering tool. Respondents were chosen through purposive sampling. Descriptive statistics were used in data analysis. The fisherfolk’s family eats rice every day. The fisherfolk uses gillnets in catching fish; with  friends and relatives as companions; with a  typical catch of 11 to 20 kg; has 5 to 6 fishing trips in a week for 7 to 8 hours; March, April and May are good months in fishing; bad months are October, November and December; with 21 to 40 kilos of fish catch during good months; volume of catch is sold to middlemen; common types of fishes caught include sword fish, common dolphin fish, tuna and flying fish; fishing is the primary source of family’s income; and construction work is the alternative livelihood. Recommendations to improve the living condition of the fisherfolks are offered.

Social Exclusion of the Nigerian Women in Agricultural Practice and the Futility of Pursuit of Development Efforts in Nigeria: The Case of Bwari Local Government
Charles Onuora Okwuwa, Ph.D. & Lecturer
Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Nigeria


Available statistics reveal that Nigeria is experiencing food security, gender imbalance and socio-economic development challenges. The Nigerian women, from precolonial era, had been co-developers of societies, particularly the rural communities, with the men. Now, this group experiences social exclusion in almost all spheres of human endeavors, including agriculture, its age-long engagement. This phenomenon in a ‘main women  industry’ has negatively impacted Nigeria’s development efforts which target equity, justice and other indices of human development such as access to good health, food security, longevity, employment and poverty reduction, among others. The country scores low rates in all these indicators. These challenges provoke this research that investigates the facets of women exclusion in Nigeria’s agricultural activities, with Bwari Local Council Area sample, with a view to guiding policy programming through fact based formulations in responding appropriately to the phenomenon. The empirical research relies on both quantitative and qualitative methods with data generated from youthful women farmers in agriculture in the area. Among the findings are; low government involvement in women agricultural participation, lack of access to necessary tools and materials, loans and training for the women farmers and most importantly, their exclusion in agricultural planning and implementation processes. Conclusively, the women experience capacity deficit and hence, among others, contributes to Nigeria’s food insecurity. The recommendations include policy re-alignments targeting resource allocation gender balance, rural agriculture prioritization, improved agricultural spending and shift from inspection to effective monitoring of grassroots agriculture. Government should provide money, materials and mentality (knowledge, skills and right attitudes) for all farmers, irrespective of gender, to drive exclusiveness in agricultural initiatives at implementation level.

Travails of African Children in Faceless


The desire and constant yearning of many children is the warmth of parental care. However, from time immemorial, child labour experiences have denied such children proper parental care and smooth mind development. In a typical African society where children are assurance of continuity and expansion of race, it becomes even more important that children are availed the most conducive atmosphere to actualize themselves. This paper, therefore, examines the experiences and travails of victims of child labour in Amma Darko’s Faceless (2003). Using the psychoanalytic theory, the study examined the pains, physical and emotional struggles and losses of children characters in the selected text. Findings revealed that children in a bid to survive, usually engage themselves in all sort of vices. It was also discovered that children deprived of proper parental care and support usually end up becoming threats to the society as such, the study recommended that parents should be responsible for the welfare of their children or ward irrespective of their social or economic status.

Mobilization of Gender-Inclusive Language across Academic Disciplines
Caren Rimando Bansolay, Ph. D.
Assistant Professor & Head of Corporate Communications
AMA International University, Kingdom of Bahrain

Gender-inclusive language use among higher education institutions is somewhat operational, which is tantamount to the HEI teachers’ degree of awareness on such language use. These findings are further supported by the teachers’ claims that certain factors have vividly engendered disparity in their gender language use. Atop these factors are dearths of references promoting gender language use, patterned use of gender-exclusive language in many references, and habit of using conventional words. Thus, a reference guide following a prototype materials design to incorporate the terminologies in instruction, communication and other forms of information dissemination is deemed essential to be designed and implemented.  

The Tragic Vision in William Shakespeare's Macbeth: A Critical Study
Ali Albashir Mohammed Alhaj, Ph. D. & Associate Professor
King Khalid University, KSA

Sabah Mohammed Abbas Hamza, Ph. D. & Assistant Professor
King Khalid University, KSA

Dr.Hussein Mohammed Ahmed Kilayil, Ph. D. & Assistant Professor
King Khalid University, KSA

The present study aims at studying critically the tragic vision in William Shakespeare's Macbeth. Shakespeare's tragic vision is to a large extent Greek in design and execution. Macbeth gives the readers the keenness of economy among all Shakespearean tragedies, Macbeth is a classical tragedy as close to a Greek tragedy as Shakespeare could possibly get. The evil is depicted in the play in poetic and dramatic terms. The tragic vision is earthy and real .The action of the play is the revealing of evil in terms of direct human experience. In Macbeth , Shakespeare  shows the readers  not only the inevitable destruction of villainy, but also its genesis, growth and nature in human context. Finally the study concludes that Shakespeare considered tragedy as the most important form of literature as it reflects the truth of life .Moreover, he  succeeds in addressing  serious issues also entertaining and gripping  an audience in the theater or the stage  

Book Review: ālḥārakh āl īslāmīāh, thārāīt fī āltārīq (The Islamic Movement, Gaps in the Road) by Abdullah Al-Nafisi, second publishing by Afaq Press, Kuwait, 2012, Reviewed by Farhan Aldhafeeri.
Farhan M Aldhafeeri, Ph.D. Scholar
School of Philosophy, Theology & Religion
Centre of Islamic and Middle East Studies
University of Birmingham, United Kingdom


In this article, the author will review some of the outlines and main idea of Nafisi's self-criticism of the reality of Islamic movements through his book (The Islamic Movement, Gaps in the Road). The book was first published in 1986 and reprinted recently at Afaq Library in Kuwait in 2012. Indeed, the book is one of the most powerful books in the field of self-criticism of Islamic movements. It was originally a weekly article, and each episode contains a critical perspective and thus is worthy of countless reflection. It is absolutely hard for us to comprehend and internalize the essence and soul Nafisi provided in the limited lines and spaces. 

It is No Longer Business as Usual: An Assessment of the Canada Corruption of Public Officials Act
Alex Fomcenco, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
Aalborg University, Denmark
Dave Deonarain, LL.M., LL.B.
Ontario Ministry of the Attorney General, Ca

Using R. v. Karigar, a 2013 ruling of the Ontario Superior Court of Justice as a starting point, this article addresses the question of effectiveness of the Canada Corruption of Public Officials Act and Bill S-14: An Act to Amend the Foreign Public Officials Act. The article points out that through the years Canada has become much more effective in pursuing the goal of prosecuting those that through activities banned by the legislation in question distort free competition not only in Canada but anywhere else in the world as well. The authors remind corporate directors to remain vigilant and abstain from practices prohibited by this legislation, as aside from facing potential imprisonment and significant fines, following breach of the legislation in question, directors must also be aware that they are personally accountable.

Effectiveness of a Training Program in Improving the Level of University Adaptation Among a Sample of Students of Qassim University
Malida Branch - Deanship of Educational Services
Qassim University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

The study aimed to uncover the effectiveness of a training program in improving the level of university adaptation among a sample of students of Qassim University. The study sample consisted of (26) students of the preparatory year in Qassim University who have a low level of university adaptation based on their grades on the university adaptation scale. Their scores were considered tribal. In this light, the students were randomly divided into two groups: a control group that did not receive any treatment, and an experimental group that received a training program for seven sessions. Immediately after treatment was completed, direct measurement of the experimental group and the control group was taken. Then, two weeks after the treatment was completed, the delayed measurement (retention) of the experimental group and the control group was also taken. . The results of the study showed statistically significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in the level of university adaptation between the pre-measurement and direct measurement at (a = 0.05) in favor of the experimental group. There were also statistically significant differences in the level of university adaptation between direct measurement and delayed measurement (retention) in favor of the experimental group and direct testing.

Contributing Factors in Determining Balance Between Job Opportunities, Job Employment and Job Satisfaction in European Countries **
Craig Henderson , Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
University of Houston, USA

Nowadays, due to the harsh competition in job market, job opportunities declines year by year. Even if people were employed, the benefits for job and the satisfaction in job decrease. How to balance between Job opportunities, job employment and job satisfaction in European countries remains critical changes to be reasonably resolved. This research aims to discover contributing factors in determining balance between job opportunities, job employment and job satisfaction in European countries and the implication was also disclosed at the end of the article. 

The Critical Perspectives in Efficiently Managing and Evaluating Corporate Employee Conducts, Operation Risks and Policy Optimization with the Help of Practical Real-world Examples, Empirical Research Result and Employees' Cooperation **
Vincent Griffin, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor 
Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada

In recent years, research on assessing employee behavior, operational risk, and policy optimization has gradually increased. But how to use the practical real-world examples, the experience of research results and the cooperation of employees, as three effective means, effectively manage and evaluate the risk of employee behavior, operation and policy optimization is comparatively rare. This research article combines real-life examples and empirical survey methods to achieve optimal management and evaluation on the corporate employee behavior, operational risk and policy optimization so that the company's employees' work capacity improves, behavior standardized, and product quality promoted.  This research will serve as an inspirational guide for the future development and prosperity of modern enterprises.

Estimation of Crustal Structure Beneath Nile Delta Region from the Spectrum of P Wave** 
Ali Ahmed Gharib, Professor
National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt    
Gaber Hassan Hasseip, Professor
National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt   
Ahmed Ali Hosnney, Associate Professor
National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt   
Gad El Kareem Mohmed, Associate Professor
National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt   
Iman Farag Hassan, Associate Professor
National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt  
Yaseen Mahmoud Mostfa, Ph.D.
National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt

Few studies directly compare Epidural Steroid Injection (ESI) versus Conservative Physical Therapy (CT). This retrospective study aims to compare the efficacy of ESI and CT in motor vehicle accident patients, measured by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The 61 ESI+CT and 109 CT-alone procedures were selected and categorized by cervical or lumbosacral injection region. As hypothesized, VAS reduced significantly for both CT-alone group and ESI+CT group (p< 0.0001). On average, as measured by Cohen’s d, the VAS reduction was over two standard deviations in ESI+CT group but only over one standard deviation in CT-alone. Therefore, while CT is significantly effective in reducing pain, adding ESI may have increased the effect size. The mean change for Lumbosacral ESI+CT (4.242) is higher than that for Lumbosacral CT-alone (3.490) with a marginal p-value of 0.080 but not significantly different for Cervical ESI+CT (3.800) versus Cervical CT-alone (3.479).

Practice Guideline of Patient Treatment under Protection of Scientific Interventions ---A Tentative Assumption of Medical Research**
Ali Flores, Ph.D. & Lecturer
Future University in Egypt, Egypt    
Raymond Nelson, Ph.D. & Assistant Professor
Adelphi University, USA

Recent years of research in patient intervention treatment has made great breakthrough and the study in this field also shifted from theoretical hypothesis to practical treatment process. This specific study will introduce the practical guideline of patient treatment process and result under the protection of scientific intervention to ensure the safety and security of the progress of the practice. With examples, research survey, the author also revealed the possible direction of future medical research and the research findings and implications were also discussed.

The Scientific Evidence of Learning Effects Approval for Science Major Students with the Help of Instruction of Up-to-date New Technology in University Classroom **
Zoila Campbell, Ph.D. & Director
Swinburne University of Technology, Australia
Johnsie Garcia, Ph.D. Scholar
Swinburne University of Technology, Australia

The development of modern science and technology has promoted the development of education, to a large extent. University education has no longer stayed in the traditional education model of the past. The researcher employed the advantages of the modern education model to establish an experimental model for training the professional skills of university students. Under the guidance of modern science and technology, the professional skills of university students have changed a lot, their self-awareness has also been greatly improved, and the learning effect has been greatly advanced. The results of this research will definitely be widely used in future university professional skills training and improvement of students' practical skills. The author of this article also hopes that this research will give the teaching staff some inspiration and thus improve their future teaching result.

The role of Sociology in National Development with Particular reference to Niger State, Nigeria
Steve Nwokeocha, Ph. D. & Professor of Sociology of Education
Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University
 Charles Okwuwa, Ph. D.Scholar & Lecturer
Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Nigeria

This research paper eloquently and logically stated that sociology emerged in Europe and America in times of industrial and general societal unrest. As universally acknowledged that, sociology from birth was oriented towards problem-solving and creation of a prosperous and progressive society. Nigeria, including Niger Sate, today faces similar huge developmental problems and can rely significantly on sociological paradigms to resolve some of the national and state problems that seem intractable. Regrettably, the general underdevelopment issues of Nigeria including unemployment, ignorance about the role of sociologists, absence of a national framework for the utilization of sociologists, poor governance, school-industry dichotomy and other factors have impaired the functioning of sociologists in Nigeria. Nevertheless, sociologists are clearly part of the change agents in the various sectors of national life. Among these are sociologists of education advancing teaching and learning in Nigeria; medical sociologist changing values systems of medical practice and saving lives; criminologists combating crime and contribution to law enforcement; developmental sociologists working with international and national organizations to lift humanity; political sociologists advancing the rules of governance; and demographers deeply involved in managing population and life-related issues. The paper therefore believes that removing the enumerated obstacles will boost the contribution of sociologists to national development, including Niger State.



Journal of American Academic Research 

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